A list of keywords associated with codes in the ASCL.NASA (133), Kepler (28), Spitzer (13), TESS (8), Fermi (6), HITS (5), HST (5), ROSAT (4), CGRO (3), RXTE (3), Swift (3), ASCA (2), Chandra (2), COBE (2), Geotail (2), Heliophysics (2), Herschel (2), LRO (2), Magellan (2), MRO (2), NICER (2), Polar (2), Rosetta (2), Wind (2), WISE (2), WMAP (2), Apollo (1), Cassini (1), Dawn (1), GOES (1), Hinode (1), Hitomi (1), InSight (1), INTEGRAL (1), ISO (1), Juno (1), JWST (1), Lucy (1), Lunar Quest (1), MAVEN (1), MESSENGER (1), MGS (1), NEAR (1), New Horizons (1), NISAR (1), NuSTAR (1), OSIRIS-REx (1), Parker Solar Probe (1), Psyche (1), RHESSI (1), SOFIA (1), SOHO (1), STEREO (1), Suzaku (1), THEMIS (1), TRMM (1)
CMBFAST is the most extensively used code for computing cosmic microwave background anisotropy, polarization and matter power spectra. This package contains cosmological linear perturbation theory code to compute the evolution of various cosmological matter and radiation components, both today and at high redshift. The code has been tested over a wide range of cosmological parameters.
This code is no longer supported; please investigate using CAMB (ascl:1102.026) instead.
It has been over a decade since the first paper was published containing results determined using the general X-ray spectral-fitting program XSPEC. Since then XSPEC has become the most widely used program for this purpose, being the de facto standard for the ROSAT and the de jure standard for the ASCA and XTE satellites. Probably the most important features of XSPEC are the large number of theoretical models available and the facilities for adding new models.
WINGSPAN is a program written to analyze spectral data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. Data files in the FITS (BFITS) format are suitable for input into the program. WINGSPAN can be used to view and manipulate event time histories or count spectra, and also has the capability to perform spectral deconvolution via a standard forward folding model fitting technique (Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm). Although WINGSPAN provides many functions for data manipulation, the program was designed to allow users to easily plug in their own external IDL routines. These external routines have access to all data read from the FITS files, as well as selection intervals created in the main part of WINGSPAN (background intervals and model, etc).
XSTAR is a command-driven, interactive, computer program for calculating the physical conditions and emission spectra of photoionized gases. It may be applied in a wide variety of astrophysical contexts. Stripped to essentials, its job may be described simply: A spherical gas shell surrounding a central source of ionizing radiation absorbs some of this radiation and reradiates it in other portions of the spectrum; XSTAR computes the effects on the gas of absorbing this energy, and the spectrum of reradiated light. The user supplies the shape and strength of the incident continuum, the elemental abundances in the gas, its density or pressure, and its thickness; the code can be directed to return any of a large number of derived quantities, including (but not limited to) the ionization balance and temperature, opacity tables, and emitted line and continuum fluxes.
CHIANTI consists of a critically evaluated set of atomic data necessary to calculate the emission line spectrum of astrophysical plasmas. The data consists of atomic energy levels, atomic radiative data such as wavelengths, weighted oscillator strengths and A values, and electron collisional excitation rates. A set of programs that use these data to calculate the spectrum in a desired wavelength range as a function of temperature and density are also provided. These programs have been written in Interactive Data Language (IDL) and descriptions of these various programs are provided on the website.
We describe a fast tree algorithm for gravitational N-body simulation on SIMD parallel computers. The tree construction uses fast, parallel sorts. The sorted lists are recursively divided along their x, y and z coordinates. This data structure is a completely balanced tree (i.e., each particle is paired with exactly one other particle) and maintains good spatial locality. An implementation of this tree-building algorithm on a 16k processor Maspar MP-1 performs well and constitutes only a small fraction (approximately 15%) of the entire cycle of finding the accelerations. Each node in the tree is treated as a monopole. The tree search and the summation of accelerations also perform well. During the tree search, node data that is needed from another processor is simply fetched. Roughly 55% of the tree search time is spent in communications between processors. We apply the code to two problems of astrophysical interest. The first is a simulation of the close passage of two gravitationally, interacting, disk galaxies using 65,636 particles. We also simulate the formation of structure in an expanding, model universe using 1,048,576 particles. Our code attains speeds comparable to one head of a Cray Y-MP, so single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) type computers can be used for these simulations. The cost/performance ratio for SIMD machines like the Maspar MP-1 make them an extremely attractive alternative to either vector processors or large multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD) type parallel computers. With further optimizations (e.g., more careful load balancing), speeds in excess of today's vector processing computers should be possible.
FTOOLS, a highly modular collection of utilities for processing and analyzing data in the FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) format, has been developed in support of the HEASARC (High Energy Astrophysics Research Archive Center) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The FTOOLS package contains many utility programs which perform modular tasks on any FITS image or table, as well as higher-level analysis programs designed specifically for data from current and past high energy astrophysics missions. The utility programs for FITS tables are especially rich and powerful, and provide functions for presentation of file contents, extraction of specific rows or columns, appending or merging tables, binning values in a column or selecting subsets of rows based on a boolean expression. Individual FTOOLS programs can easily be chained together in scripts to achieve more complex operations such as the generation and displaying of spectra or light curves. FTOOLS development began in 1991 and has produced the main set of data analysis software for the current ASCA and RXTE space missions and for other archival sets of X-ray and gamma-ray data. The FTOOLS software package is supported on most UNIX platforms and on Windows machines. The user interface is controlled by standard parameter files that are very similar to those used by IRAF. The package is self documenting through a stand alone help task called fhelp. Software is written in ANSI C and FORTRAN to provide portability across most computer systems. The data format dependencies between hardware platforms are isolated through the FITSIO library package.
CFITSIO is a library of C and Fortran subroutines for reading and writing data files in FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) data format. CFITSIO provides simple high-level routines for reading and writing FITS files that insulate the programmer from the internal complexities of the FITS format. CFITSIO also provides many advanced features for manipulating and filtering the information in FITS files.
fpack is a utility program for optimally compressing images in the FITS data format. The associated funpack program will restore the compressed file back to its original state. These programs may be run from the host operating system command line and are analogous to the gzip and gunzip utility programs, except that they are specifically optimized for FITS format images and offer a wider choice of compression options.
fpack uses the tiled image compression convention for storing the compressed images. This convention can in principle support any number of of different compression algorithms; currently GZIP, Rice, Hcompress, and the IRAF pixel list compression algorithms have been implemented.
The main advantages of fpack compared to the commonly used technique of externally compressing the whole FITS file with gzip are:
- It is generally faster and offers better compression than gzip.
- The FITS header keywords remain uncompressed for fast access.
- Each HDU of a multi-extension FITS file is compressed separately, so it is not necessary to uncompress the entire file to read a single image in a multi-extension file.
- Dividing the image into tiles before compression enables faster access to small subsections of the image.
- The compressed image is itself a valid FITS file and can be manipulated by other general FITS utility software.
- Lossy compression can be used for much higher compression in cases where it is not necessary to exactly preserve the original image.
- The CHECKSUM keywords are automatically updated to help verify the integrity of the files.
- Software that supports the tiled image compression technique can directly read and write the FITS images in their compressed form.
GALPROP is a numerical code for calculating the propagation of relativistic charged particles and the diffuse emissions produced during their propagation. The GALPROP code incorporates as much realistic astrophysical input as possible together with latest theoretical developments. The code calculates the propagation of cosmic-ray nuclei, antiprotons, electrons and positrons, and computes diffuse γ-rays and synchrotron emission in the same framework. Each run of the code is governed by a configuration file allowing the user to specify and control many details of the calculation. Thus, each run of the code corresponds to a potentially different "model." The code continues to be developed and is available to the scientific community.
Montage is an open source code toolkit for assembling Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) images into custom mosaics. It runs on all common Linux/Unix platforms, on desktops, clusters and computational grids, and supports all World Coordinate System (WCS) projections and common coordinate systems. Montage preserves spatial and calibration fidelity of input images, processes 40 million pixels in up to 32 minutes on 128 nodes on a Linux cluster, and provides independent engines for analyzing the geometry of images on the sky, re-projecting images, rectifying background emission to a common level, and co-adding images. It offers convenient tools for managing and manipulating large image files.
Modern applications of strong gravitational lensing require the ability to use precise and varied observational data to constrain complex lens models. Two sets of computational methods for lensing calculations are discussed. The first is a new algorithm for solving the lens equation for general mass distributions. This algorithm makes it possible to apply arbitrarily complicated models to observed lenses. The second is an evaluation of techniques for using observational data including positions, fluxes, and time delays of point-like images, as well as maps of extended images, to constrain models of strong lenses. The techniques presented here are implemented in a flexible and user-friendly software package called gravlens, which is made available to the community.
Ultraviolet photons from O and B stars strongly influence the structure and emission spectra of the interstellar medium. The UV photons energetic enough to ionize hydrogen (hν > 13.6 eV) will create the H II region around the star, but lower energy UV photons escape. These far-UV photons (6 eV < hν < 13.6 eV) are still energetic enough to photodissociate molecules and to ionize low ionization-potential atoms such as carbon, silicon, and sulfur. They thus create a photodissociation region (PDR) just outside the H II region. In aggregate, these PDRs dominate the heating and cooling of the neutral interstellar medium.
The PDR Toolbox is a science-enabling Python package for the community, designed to help astronomers determine the physical parameters of photodissociation regions from observations. Typical observations of both Galactic and extragalactic PDRs come from ground- and space-based millimeter, submillimeter, and far-infrared telescopes such as ALMA, SOFIA, JWST, Spitzer, and Herschel. Given a set of observations of spectral line or continuum intensities, PDR Toolbox can compute best-fit FUV incident intensity and cloud density based on our models of PDR emission.
PARAMESH is a package of Fortran 90 subroutines designed to provide an application developer with an easy route to extend an existing serial code which uses a logically cartesian structured mesh into a parallel code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). Alternatively, in its simplest use, and with minimal effort, it can operate as a domain decomposition tool for users who want to parallelize their serial codes, but who do not wish to use adaptivity.
The package builds a hierarchy of sub-grids to cover the computational domain, with spatial resolution varying to satisfy the demands of the application. These sub-grid blocks form the nodes of a tree data-structure (quad-tree in 2D or oct-tree in 3D). Each grid block has a logically cartesian mesh. The package supports 1, 2 and 3D models. PARAMESH is released under the NASA-wide Open-Source software license.
ARCHANGEL is a Unix-based package for the surface photometry of galaxies. While oriented for large angular size systems (i.e. many pixels), its tools can be applied to any imaging data of any size. The package core contains routines to perform the following critical galaxy photometry functions: sky determination; frame cleaning; ellipse fitting; profile fitting; and total and isophotal magnitudes.
The goal of the package is to provide an automated, assembly-line type of reduction system for galaxy photometry of space-based or ground-based imaging data. The procedures outlined in the documentation are flux independent, thus, these routines can be used for non-optical data as well as typical imaging datasets.
ARCHANGEL has been tested on several current OS's (RedHat Linux, Ubuntu Linux, Solaris, Mac OS X). A tarball for installation is available at the download page. The main routines are Python and FORTRAN based, therefore, a current installation of Python and a FORTRAN compiler are required. The ARCHANGEL package also contains Python hooks to the PGPLOT package, an XML processor and network tools which automatically link to data archives (i.e. NED, HST, 2MASS, etc) to download images in a non-interactive manner.
HEALPix is an acronym for Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelization of a sphere. As suggested in the name, this pixelization produces a subdivision of a spherical surface in which each pixel covers the same surface area as every other pixel. Another property of the HEALPix grid is that the pixel centers occur on a discrete number of rings of constant latitude, the number of constant-latitude rings is dependent on the resolution of the HEALPix grid.
TITAN is a general-purpose radiation hydrodynamics code developed at the Laboratory for Computational Astrophysics (NCSA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign). TITAN solves the coupled sets of radiation transfer and fluid dynamics equations on an adaptive mesh in one spatial dimension.
WCSTools is a package of programs and a library of utility subroutines for setting and using the world coordinate systems (WCS) in the headers of the most common astronomical image formats, FITS and IRAF .imh, to relate image pixels to sky coordinates. In addition to dealing with image WCS information, WCSTools has extensive catalog search, image header manipulation, and coordinate and time conversion tasks. This software is all written in very portable C, so it should compile and run on any computer with a C compiler.
MOPEX (MOsaicker and Point source EXtractor) is a package for reducing and analyzing imaging data, as well as MIPS SED data. MOPEX includes the point source extraction package, APEX.
MOPEX is designed to allow the user to:
CUBISM, written in IDL, constructs spectral cubes, maps, and arbitrary aperture 1D spectral extractions from sets of mapping mode spectra taken with Spitzer's IRS spectrograph. CUBISM is optimized for non-sparse maps of extended objects, e.g. the nearby galaxy sample of SINGS, but can be used with data from any spectral mapping AOR (primarily validated for maps which are designed as suggested by the mapping HOWTO).
Funtools is a "minimal buy-in" FITS library and utility package developed at the the High Energy Astrophysics Division of SAO. The Funtools library provides simplified access to a wide array of file types: standard astronomical FITS images and binary tables, raw arrays and binary event lists, and even tables of ASCII column data. A sophisticated region filtering library (compatible with ds9) filters images and tables using boolean operations between geometric shapes, support world coordinates, etc. Funtools also supports advanced capabilities such as optimized data searching using index files.
Because Funtools consists of a library and a set of user programs, it is most appropriately built from source. Funtools has been ported to Solaris, Linux, LinuxPPC, SGI, Alpha OSF1, Mac OSX (darwin) and Windows 98/NT/2000/XP. Once the source code tar file is retrieved, Funtools can be built and installed easily using standard commands.
The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) now holds 1.3 million scanned pages, containing numerous plots and figures for which the original data sets are lost or inaccessible. The availability of scans of the figures can significantly ease the regeneration of the data sets. For this purpose, the ADS has developed Dexter, a Java applet that supports the user in this process. Dexter's basic functionality is to let the user manually digitize a plot by marking points and defining the coordinate transformation from the logical to the physical coordinate system. Advanced features include automatic identification of axes, tracing lines and finding points matching a template.
SwiftVis is a tool originally developed as part of a rewrite of Swift to be used for analysis and plotting of simulations performed with Swift and Swifter. The extensibility built into the design has allowed us to make SwiftVis a general purpose analysis and plotting package customized to be usable by the planetary science community at large. SwiftVis is written in Java and has been tested on Windows, Linux, and Mac platforms. Its graphical interface allows users to do complex analysis and plotting without having to write custom code.
ZODIPIC synthesizes images of exozodiacal clouds. As a default, ZODIPIC creates an image of the solar zodiacal cloud as seen from 10 pc, but it contains many parameters that are tweakable from the command line, making it a handy general-purpose model for optically-thin debris disks that yields both accurate images and photometric information simultaneously. Written in IDL, ZODIPIC includes dust with real optical constants, user-specified dust maps and can compute images as seen through a linear polarizer.
CRUNCH3D is a massively parallel, viscoresistive, three-dimensional compressible MHD code. The code employs a Fourier collocation spatial discretization, and uses a second-order Runge-Kutta temporal discretization. CRUNCH3D can be applied to MHD turbulence and magnetic fluxtube reconnection research.
MOOG performs a variety of LTE line analysis and spectrum synthesis tasks. The typical use of MOOG is to assist in the determination of the chemical composition of a star. The basic equations of LTE stellar line analysis are followed. The coding is in various subroutines that are called from a few driver routines; these routines are written in standard FORTRAN. The standard MOOG version has been developed on unix, linux and macintosh computers.
One of the chief assets of MOOG is its ability to do on-line graphics. The plotting commands are given within the FORTRAN code. MOOG uses the graphics package SM, chosen for its ease of implementation in FORTRAN codes. Plotting calls are concentrated in just a few routines, and it should be possible for users of other graphics packages to substitute other appropriate FORTRAN commands.
ACIS Extract (AE), written in the IDL language, provides innovative and automated solutions to the varied challenges found in the analysis of X-ray data taken by the ACIS instrument on NASA's Chandra observatory. AE addresses complications found in many Chandra projects: large numbers of point sources (hundreds to several thousand), faint point sources, misaligned multiple observations of an astronomical field, point source crowding, and scientifically relevant diffuse emission. AE can perform virtually all the data processing and analysis tasks that lie between Level 2 ACIS data and publishable LaTeX tables of point-like and diffuse source properties and spectral models.
Observational and theoretical evidence suggests that coronal heating is impulsive and occurs on very small cross-field spatial scales. A single coronal loop could contain a hundred or more individual strands that are heated quasi-independently by nanoflares. It is therefore an enormous undertaking to model an entire active region or the global corona. Three-dimensional MHD codes have inadequate spatial resolution, and 1D hydro codes are too slow to simulate the many thousands of elemental strands that must be treated in a reasonable representation. Fortunately, thermal conduction and flows tend to smooth out plasma gradients along the magnetic field, so "0D models" are an acceptable alternative. We have developed a highly efficient model called Enthalpy-Based Thermal Evolution of Loops (EBTEL) that accurately describes the evolution of the average temperature, pressure, and density along a coronal strand. It improves significantly upon earlier models of this type--in accuracy, flexibility, and capability. It treats both slowly varying and highly impulsive coronal heating; it provides the differential emission measure distribution, DEM(T), at the transition region footpoints; and there are options for heat flux saturation and nonthermal electron beam heating. EBTEL gives excellent agreement with far more sophisticated 1D hydro simulations despite using four orders of magnitude less computing time. It promises to be a powerful new tool for solar and stellar studies.
The ESA/ESO/NASA FITS Liberator makes it possible to process and edit astronomical science data in the FITS format to produce stunning images of the universe. Formerly a plugin for Adobe Photoshop, the current version of FITS Liberator is a stand-alone application and no longer requires Photoshop. This image processing software makes it possible to create color images using raw observations from a range of telescopes; the FITS Liberator continues to support the FITS and PDS formats, preferred by astronomers and planetary scientists respectively, which enables data to be processed from a wide range of telescopes and planetary probes, including ESO’s Very Large Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, ESA’s XMM–Newton Telescope and Cassini–Huygens or Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
MOLSCAT version 14 is a FORTRAN code for quantum mechanical (coupled channel) solution of the nonreactive molecular scattering problem and was developed to obtain collision rates for molecules in the interstellar gas which are needed to understand microwave and infrared astronomical observations. The code is implemented for various types of collision partners. In addition to the essentially exact close coupling method several approximate methods, including the Coupled States and Infinite Order Sudden approximations, are provided. This version of the code has been superseded by MOLSCAT 2020 (ascl:2010.001).
Hyperion is a three-dimensional dust continuum Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code that is designed to be as generic as possible, allowing radiative transfer to be computed through a variety of three-dimensional grids. The main part of the code is problem-independent, and only requires an arbitrary three-dimensional density structure, dust properties, the position and properties of the illuminating sources, and parameters controlling the running and output of the code. Hyperion is parallelized, and is shown to scale well to thousands of processes. Two common benchmark models for protoplanetary disks were computed, and the results are found to be in excellent agreement with those from other codes. Finally, to demonstrate the capabilities of the code, dust temperatures, SEDs, and synthetic multi-wavelength images were computed for a dynamical simulation of a low-mass star formation region.
xSonify maps scientific data to acoustic sequences. Listening to data can help discover patterns in huge amounts of data. Written in Java, xSonify allows visually impaired people to examine numerical data for patterns. The data can be imported from local files or from remote databases via the Internet. Single results of measurements from spacecraft instruments can be selected by their corresponding variables in a specific time frame. The results are transformed into MIDI sequences which can be played with a selection of different instruments from a soundbank. Another software module enables xSonify to convert the sonified data into other sound formats to make it easier to archive and exchange the Sonification results with other scientists.
PyFITS provides an interface to FITS formatted files in the Python scripting language and PyRAF, the Python-based interface to IRAF. It is useful both for interactive data analysis and for writing analysis scripts in Python using FITS files as either input or output. PyFITS is a development project of the Science Software Branch at the Space Telescope Science Institute.
PyFITS has been deprecated. Please see Astropy.
Aperture Photometry Tool (APT) is software for astronomers and students interested in manually exploring the photometric qualities of astronomical images. It has a graphical user interface (GUI) which allows the image data associated with aperture photometry calculations for point and extended sources to be visualized and, therefore, more effectively analyzed. Mouse-clicking on a source in the displayed image draws a circular or elliptical aperture and sky annulus around the source and computes the source intensity and its uncertainty, along with several commonly used measures of the local sky background and its variability. The results are displayed and can be optionally saved to an aperture-photometry-table file and plotted on graphs in various ways using functions available in the software. APT is geared toward processing sources in a small number of images and is not suitable for bulk processing a large number of images, unlike other aperture photometry packages (e.g., SExtractor). However, APT does have a convenient source-list tool that enables calculations for a large number of detections in a given image. The source-list tool can be run either in automatic mode to generate an aperture photometry table quickly or in manual mode to permit inspection and adjustment of the calculation for each individual detection. APT displays a variety of useful graphs, including image histogram, and aperture slices, source scatter plot, sky scatter plot, sky histogram, radial profile, curve of growth, and aperture-photometry-table scatter plots and histograms. APT has functions for customizing calculations, including outlier rejection, pixel “picking” and “zapping,” and a selection of source and sky models. The radial-profile-interpolation source model, accessed via the radial-profile-plot panel, allows recovery of source intensity from pixels with missing data and can be especially beneficial in crowded fields.
PyKE is a python-based PyRAF package that can also be run as a stand-alone program within a unix-based shell without compiling against PyRAF. It is a group of tasks developed for the reduction and analysis of Kepler Simple Aperture Photometry (SAP) data of individual targets with individual characteristics. The main purposes of these tasks are to i) re-extract light curves from manually-chosen pixel apertures and ii) cotrend and/or detrend the data in order to reduce or remove systematic noise structure using methods tunable to user and target-specific requirements. PyKE is an open source project and contributions of new tasks or enhanced functionality of existing tasks by the community are welcome.
Photometric rotational modulations due to starspots remain the most common and accessible way to study stellar activity. Modelling rotational modulations allows one to invert the observations into several basic parameters, such as the rotation period, spot coverage, stellar inclination and differential rotation rate. The most widely used analytic model for this inversion comes from Budding (1977) and Dorren (1987), who considered circular, grey starspots for a linearly limb darkened star. That model is extended to be more suitable in the analysis of high precision photometry such as that by Kepler. Macula, a Fortran 90 code, provides several improvements, such as non-linear limb darkening of the star and spot, a single-domain analytic function, partial derivatives for all input parameters, temporal partial derivatives, diluted light compensation, instrumental offset normalisations, differential rotation, starspot evolution and predictions of transit depth variations due to unocculted spots. The inclusion of non-linear limb darkening means macula has a maximum photometric error an order-of-magnitude less than that of Dorren (1987) for Sun-like stars observed in the Kepler-bandpass. The code executes three orders-of-magnitude faster than comparable numerical codes making it well-suited for inference problems.
Rockstar (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement) identifies dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure. Our method is massively parallel (up to 10^5 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>10^10 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). Rockstar offers significant improvement in substructure recovery as compared to several other halo finders.
PAHFIT is an IDL tool for decomposing Spitzer IRS spectra of PAH emission sources, with a special emphasis on the careful recovery of ambiguous silicate absorption, and weak, blended dust emission features. PAHFIT is primarily designed for use with full 5-35 micron Spitzer low-resolution IRS spectra. PAHFIT is a flexible tool for fitting spectra, and you can add or disable features, compute combined flux bands, change fitting limits, etc., without changing the code.
PAHFIT uses a simple, physically-motivated model, consisting of starlight, thermal dust continuum in a small number of fixed temperature bins, resolved dust features and feature blends, prominent emission lines (which themselves can be blended with dust features), as well as simple fully-mixed or screen dust extinction, dominated by the silicate absorption bands at 9.7 and 18 microns. Most model components are held fixed or are tightly constrained. PAHFIT uses Drude profiles to recover the full strength of dust emission features and blends, including the significant power in the wings of the broad emission profiles. This means the resulting feature strengths are larger (by factors of 2-4) than are recovered by methods which estimate the underlying continuum using line segments or spline curves fit through fiducial wavelength anchors.
SMART is an IDL-based software tool, developed by the IRS Instrument Team at Cornell University, that allows users to reduce and analyze Spitzer data from all four modules of the Infrared Spectrograph, including the peak-up arrays. The software is designed to make full use of the ancillary files generated in the Spitzer Science Center pipeline so that it can either remove or flag artifacts and corrupted data and maximize the signal-to-noise ratio in the extraction routines. It can be run in both interactive and batch modes. SMART includes visualization tools for assessing data quality, basic arithmetic operations for either two-dimensional images or one-dimensional spectra, extraction of both point and extended sources, and a suite of spectral analysis tools.
ICORE is a command-line driven co-addition, mosaicking, and resolution enhancement (HiRes) tool for creating science quality products from image data in FITS format and with World Coordinate System information following the FITS-WCS standard. It includes preparatory steps such as image background matching, photometric gain-matching, and pixel-outlier rejection. Co-addition and/or HiRes'ing can be performed in either the inertial WCS or in the rest frame of a moving object. Three interpolation methods are supported: overlap-area weighting, drizzle, and weighting by the detector Point Response Function (PRF). The latter enables the creation of matched-filtered products for optimal point-source detection, but most importantly allows for resolution enhancement using a spatially-dependent deconvolution method. This is a variant of the classic Richardson-Lucy algorithm with the added benefit to simultaneously register and co-add multiple images to optimize signal-to-noise and sampling of the instrumental PSF. It can assume real (or otherwise "flat") image priors, mitigate "ringing" artifacts, and assess the quality of image solutions using statistically-motivated convergence criteria. Uncertainties are also estimated and internally validated for all products. The software supports multithreading that can be configured for different architectures. Numerous example scripts are included (with test data) to co-add and/or HiRes image data from Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS, WISE, and Herschel-SPIRE.
The PEC (Period Error Calculator) algorithm estimates the period error for eclipsing binaries observed by the Kepler Mission. The algorithm is based on propagation of error theory and assumes that observation of every light curve peak/minimum in a long time-series observation can be unambiguously identified. A simple C implementation of the PEC algorithm is available.
GaussFit solves least squares and robust estimation problems; written originally for reduction of NASA Hubble Space Telescope data, it includes a complete programming language designed especially to formulate estimation problems, a built-in compiler and interpreter to support the programming language, and a built-in algebraic manipulator for calculating the required partial derivatives analytically. The code can handle nonlinear models, exact constraints, correlated observations, and models where the equations of condition contain more than one observed quantity. Written in C, GaussFit includes an experimental robust estimation capability so data sets contaminated by outliers can be handled simply and efficiently.
This software computes likelihoods for the Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG) data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). It includes a patch to the existing CAMB software (ascl:1102.026; the February 2009 release) to calculate the theoretical LRG halo power spectrum for various models. The code is written in Fortran 90 and has been tested with the Intel Fortran 90 and GFortran compilers.
Written in c, the Customizable User Pipeline for IRS Data (CUPID) allows users to run the Spitzer IRS Pipelines to re-create Basic Calibrated Data and extract calibrated spectra from the archived raw files. CUPID provides full access to all the parameters of the BCD, COADD, BKSUB, BKSUBX, and COADDX pipelines, as well as the opportunity for users to provide their own calibration files (e.g., flats or darks). CUPID is available for Mac, Linux, and Solaris operating systems.
SunPy is a community-developed free and open-source software package for solar physics and is an alternative to the SolarSoft (ascl:1208.013) data analysis environment. SunPy provides data structures for representing the most common solar data types (images, lightcurves, and spectra) and integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) and the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK) for data acquisition.
Viewpoints is an interactive tool for exploratory visual analysis of large high-dimensional (multivariate) data. It uses linked scatterplots to find relations in a few seconds that can take much longer with other plotting tools. Its features include linked scatter plots with brushing, dynamic histograms, normalization, and outlier detection/removal.
Spextool (Spectral EXtraction tool) is an IDL-based data reduction package for SpeX, a medium resolution near-infrared spectrograph on the NASA IRTF. It performs all of the steps necessary to produce spectra ready for analysis and publication including non-linearity corrections, flat fielding, wavelength calibration, telluric correction, flux calibration, and order merging.
The IDL package Defringeflat identifies and removes fringe patterns from images such as spectrograph flat fields. It uses a wavelet transform to calculate the frequency spectrum in a region around each point of a one-dimensional array. The wavelet transform amplitude is reconstructed from (smoothed) parameters obtaining the fringe's wavelet transform, after which an inverse wavelet transform is performed to obtain the computed fringe pattern which is then removed from the flat.
HEASOFT combines XANADU, high-level, multi-mission software for X-ray astronomical spectral, timing, and imaging data analysis tasks, and FTOOLS (ascl:9912.002), general and mission-specific software to manipulate FITS files, into one package. It also contains contains the NuSTAR subpackage of tasks, NuSTAR Data Analysis Software (NuSTARDAS). The source code for the software can be downloaded; precompiled executables for the most widely used computer platforms are also available for download. As an additional service, HEAsoft tasks can be directly from a web browser via WebHera.
LANL* calculates the magnetic drift invariant L*, used for modeling radiation belt dynamics and other space weather applications, six orders of magnitude (~ one million times) faster than convectional approaches that require global numerical field lines tracing and integration. It is based on a modern machine learning technique (feed-forward artificial neural network) by supervising a large data pool obtained from the IRBEM library, which is the traditional source for numerically calculating the L* values. The pool consists of about 100,000 samples randomly distributed within the magnetosphere (r: [1.03, 11.5] Re) and within a whole solar cycle from 1/1/1994 to 1/1/2005. There are seven LANL* models, each corresponding to its underlying magnetic field configuration that is used to create the data sample pool. This model has applications to real-time radiation belt forecasting, analysis of data sets involving tens of satellite-years of observations, and other problems in space weather.
The Tsyganenko models are semi-empirical best-fit representations for the magnetic field, based on a large number of satellite observations (IMP, HEOS, ISEE, POLAR, Geotail, GOES, etc). The models include the contributions from major external magnetospheric sources: ring current, magnetotail current system, magnetopause currents, and large-scale system of field-aligned currents.
Rmfit uses a forward-folding technique to obtain the best-fit parameters for a chosen model given user-selected source and background time intervals from data files containing observed count rates and a corresponding detector response matrix. rmfit displays lightcurves and spectra using a graphical interface that enables user-defined integrated or time-resolved spectral fits and binning in either time or energy. Originally developed for the analysis of BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) spectroscopy, rmfit is a tool for the spectroscopy of transient sources; it accommodates the Fermi GBM and LAT data and Swift BAT.
Fermi Science Tools is a suite of tools for the analysis of both the Large-Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) data, including point source analysis for generating maps, spectra, and light curves, pulsar timing analysis, and source identification.
The Fermi-LAT Background Estimator (BKGE) is a publicly available open-source tool that can estimate the expected background of the Fermi-LAT for any observational conguration and duration. It produces results in the form of text files, ROOT files, gtlike source-model files (for LAT maximum likelihood analyses), and PHA I/II FITS files (for RMFit/XSpec spectral fitting analyses). Its core is written in C++ and its user interface in Python.
Raga (Relaxation in Any Geometry) is a Monte Carlo simulation method for gravitational dynamics of non-spherical stellar systems. It is based on the SMILE software (ascl:1308.001) for orbit analysis. It can simulate stellar systems with a much smaller number of particles N than the number of stars in the actual system, represent an arbitrary non-spherical potential with a basis-set or spline spherical-harmonic expansion with the coefficients of expansion computed from particle trajectories, and compute particle trajectories independently and in parallel using a high-accuracy adaptive-timestep integrator. Raga can also model two-body relaxation by local (position-dependent) velocity diffusion coefficients (as in Spitzer's Monte Carlo formulation) and adjust the magnitude of relaxation to the actual number of stars in the target system, and model the effect of a central massive black hole.
Fitsverify rigorously checks whether a FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) data file conforms to the requirements defined in Version 3.0 of the FITS Standard document; it is a standalone version of the ftverify and fverify tasks that are distributed as part of the ftools (ascl:9912.002) software package. The source code must be compiled and linked with the CFITSIO (ascl:1010.001) library. An interactive web is also available that can verify the format of any FITS data file on a local computer or on the Web.
Hrothgar is a parallel minimizer and Markov Chain Monte Carlo generator. It has been used to solve optimization problems in astrophysics (galaxy cluster mass profiles) as well as in experimental particle physics (hadronic tau decays).
DASTCOM5 is a portable direct-access database containing all NASA/JPL asteroid and comet orbit solutions, and the software to access it. Available data include orbital elements, orbit diagrams, physical parameters, and discovery circumstances. A JPL implementation of the software is available at http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi.
PANOPTES (Panoptic Astronomical Networked Observatories for a Public Transiting Exoplanets Survey) is a citizen science project for low cost, robotic detection of transiting exoplanets. POCS (PANOPTES Observatory Control System) is the main software driver for the PANOPTES telescope system, responsible for high-level control of the unit. POCS defines an Observatory class that automatically controls a commercially available equatorial mount, including image analysis and corresponding mount adjustment to obtain a percent-level photometric precision.
ketu, written in Python, searches K2 light curves for evidence of exoplanets; the code simultaneously fits for systematic effects caused by small (few-pixel) drifts in the telescope pointing and other spacecraft issues and the transit signals of interest. Though more computationally expensive than standard search algorithms, it can be efficiently implemented and used to discover transit signals.
K2flix makes it easy to inspect the CCD pixel data obtained by NASA's Kepler space telescope. The two-wheeled extended Kepler mission, K2, is affected by new sources of systematics, including pointing jitter and foreground asteroids, that are easier to spot by eye than by algorithm. The code takes Kepler's Target Pixel Files (TPF) as input and turns them into contrast-stretched animated gifs or MPEG-4 movies. K2flix can be used both as a command-line tool or using its Python API.
Inpainting is a technique for dealing with gaps in time series data, as frequently occurs in asteroseismology data, that may generate spurious peaks in the power spectrum, thus limiting the analysis of the data. The inpainting method, based on a sparsity prior, judiciously fills in gaps in the data, preserving the asteroseismic signal as far as possible. This method can be applied both on ground and space-based data. The inpainting technique improves the oscillation modes detection and estimation, the impact of the observational window function is reduced, and the interpretation of the power spectrum is simplified. K-Inpainting can be used to study very long time series of many stars because its computation is very fast.
The Spherical Harmonic Discrete Ordinate Method (SHDOM) radiative transfer model computes polarized monochromatic or spectral band radiative transfer in a one, two, or three-dimensional medium for either collimated solar and/or thermal emission sources of radiation. The model is written in a variant of Fortran 77 and in Fortran90 and requires a Fortran 90 compiler. Also included are programs for generating the optical property files input to SHDOM from physical properties of water cloud particles and aerosols.
The T-Matrix package includes codes to compute electromagnetic scattering by homogeneous, rotationally symmetric nonspherical particles in fixed and random orientations, randomly oriented two-sphere clusters with touching or separated components, and multi-sphere clusters in fixed and random orientations. All codes are written in Fortran-77. LAPACK-based, extended-precision, Gauss-elimination- and NAG-based, and superposition codes are available, as are double-precision superposition, parallelized double-precision, double-precision Lorenz-Mie codes, and codes for the computation of the coefficients for the generalized Chebyshev shape.
The SkyView Virtual telescope provides access to survey datasets ranging from radio through the gamma-ray regimes. Over 100 survey datasets are currently available. The SkyView library referenced here is used as the basis for the SkyView web site (at http://skvyiew.gsfc.nasa.gov) but is designed for individual use by researchers as well.
SkyView's approach to access surveys is distinct from most other toolkits. Rather than providing links to the original data, SkyView attempts to immediately re-render the source data in the user-requested reference frame, projection, scaling, orientation, etc. The library includes a set of geometry transformation and mosaicking tools that may be integrated into other applications independent of SkyView.
Bandmerge takes in ASCII tables of positions and fluxes of detected astronomical sources in 2-7 different wavebands, and write out a single table of the merged data. The tool was designed to work with source lists generated by the Spitzer Science Center's MOPEX (ascl:1111.006) software, although it can be "fooled" into running on other data as well.
A discrete Point Spread Function (PSF) is a sampled version of a continuous two-dimensional PSF. The shape information about the photon scattering pattern of a discrete PSF is typically encoded using a numerical table (matrix) or a FITS image file. MATPHOT shifts discrete PSFs within an observational model using a 21-pixel- wide damped sinc function and position partial derivatives are computed using a five-point numerical differentiation formula. MATPHOT achieves accurate and precise stellar photometry and astrometry of undersampled CCD observations by using supersampled discrete PSFs that are sampled two, three, or more times more finely than the observational data.
QDPHOT is a fast CCD stellar photometry task which quickly produces CCD stellar photometry from two CCD images of a star field. It was designed to be a data mining tool for finding high-quality stellar observations in the data archives of the National Virtual Observatory. QDPHOT typically takes just a few seconds to analyze two Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 observations of Local Group star clusters. It is also suitable for real-time data-quality analysis of CCD observations; on-the-fly instrumental color-magnitude diagrams can be produced at the telescope console during the few seconds between CCD readouts.
K2fov allows users to transform celestial coordinates into K2's pixel coordinate system for the purpose of preparing target proposals and field of view visualizations. In particular, the package, written in Python, adds the "K2onSilicon" and "K2findCampaigns" tools to the command line, allowing the visibility of targets to be checked in a user-friendly way.
IRSFRINGE is an IDL-based GUI package that allows observers to interactively remove fringes from IRS spectra. Fringes that originate from the detector subtrates are observed in the IRS Short-High (SH) and Long-High (LH) modules. In the Long-Low (LL) module, another fringe component is seen as a result of the pre-launch change in one of the LL filters. The fringes in the Short-Low (SL) module are not spectrally resolved. the fringes are already largely removed in the pipeline processing when the flat field is applied. However, this correction is not perfect and remaining fringes can be removed with IRSFRINGE from data in each module. IRSFRINGE is available as a stand-alone package and is also part of the Spectroscopic Modeling, Analysis and Reduction Tool (SMART, ascl:1210.021).
BART implements a Bayesian, Monte Carlo-driven, radiative-transfer scheme for extracting parameters from spectra of planetary atmospheres. BART combines a thermochemical-equilibrium code, a one-dimensional line-by-line radiative-transfer code, and the Multi-core Markov-chain Monte Carlo statistical module to constrain the atmospheric temperature and chemical-abundance profiles of exoplanets.
FBEYE, the "Flares By-Eye" detection suite, is written in IDL and analyzes Kepler light curves and validates flares. It works on any 3-column light curve that contains time, flux, and error. The success of flare identification is highly dependent on the smoothing routine, which may not be suitable for all sources.
TTVFaster implements analytic formulae for transit time variations (TTVs) that are accurate to first order in the planet–star mass ratios and in the orbital eccentricities; the implementations are available in several languages, including IDL, Julia, Python and C. These formulae compare well with more computationally expensive N-body integrations in the low-eccentricity, low mass-ratio regime when applied to simulated and to actual multi-transiting Kepler planet systems.
ViSBARD interactively visualizes and analyzes space physics data. It provides an interactive integrated 3-D and 2-D environment to determine correlations between measurements across many spacecraft. It supports a variety of spacecraft data products and MHD models and is easily extensible to others. ViSBARD provides a way of visualizing multiple vector and scalar quantities as measured by many spacecraft at once. The data are displayed three-dimesionally along the orbits which may be displayed either as connected lines or as points. The data display allows the rapid determination of vector configurations, correlations between many measurements at multiple points, and global relationships. With the addition of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model data, this environment can also be used to validate simulation results with observed data, use simulated data to provide a global context for sparse observed data, and apply feature detection techniques to the simulated data.
K2PS is an Oxford K2 planet search pipeline. Written in Python, it searches for transit-like signals from the k2sc-detrended light curves.
DOLPHOT is a stellar photometry package that was adapted from HSTphot for general use. It supports two modes; the first is a generic PSF-fitting package, which uses analytic PSF models and can be used for any camera. The second mode uses ACS PSFs and calibrations, and is effectively an ACS adaptation of HSTphot. A number of utility programs are also included with the DOLPHOT distribution, including basic image reduction routines.
centerRadon finds the center of stars based on Radon Transform to sub-pixel precision. For a coronagraphic image of a star, it starts from a given location, then for each sub-pixel position, it interpolates the image and sums the pixels along different angles, creating a cost function. The center of the star is expected to correspond with where the cost function maximizes. The default values are set for the STIS coronagraphic images of the Hubble Space Telescope by summing over the diagonals (i.e., 45° and 135°), but it can be generally applied to other high-contrast imaging instruments with or without Adaptive Optics systems such as HST-NICMOS, P1640, or GPI.
Transit Clairvoyance uses Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to predict the most likely short period transiters to have additional transiters, which may double the discovery yield of the TESS (Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite). Clairvoyance is a simple 2-D interpolant that takes in the number of planets in a system with period less than 13.7 days, as well as the maximum radius amongst them (in Earth radii) and orbital period of the planet with maximum radius (in Earth days) in order to predict the probability of additional transiters in this system with period greater than 13.7 days.
kplr provides a lightweight Pythonic interface to the catalog of planet candidates (Kepler Objects of Interest [KOIs]) in the NASA Exoplanet Archive and the data stored in the Barbara A. Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). kplr automatically supports loading Kepler data using pyfits (ascl:1207.009) and supports two types of data: light curves and target pixel files.
Transit calculates the transmission or emission spectrum of a planetary atmosphere with application to extrasolar-planet transit and eclipse observations, respectively. It computes the spectra by solving the one-dimensional line-by-line radiative-transfer equation for an atmospheric model.
Light curves from the Kepler telescope rely on "postage stamp" cutouts of a few pixels near each of 200,000 target stars. These light curves are optimized for the detection of short-term signals like planet transits but induce systematics that overwhelm long-term variations in stellar flux. Longer-term effects can be recovered through analysis of the Full Frame Images, a set of calibration data obtained monthly during the Kepler mission. The Python package f3 analyzes the Full Frame Images to infer long-term astrophysical variations in the brightness of Kepler targets, such as magnetic activity or sunspots on slowly rotating stars.
EXOSIMS generates and analyzes end-to-end simulations of space-based exoplanet imaging missions. The software is built up of interconnecting modules describing different aspects of the mission, including the observatory, optical system, and scheduler (encoding mission rules) as well as the physical universe, including the assumed distribution of exoplanets and their physical and orbital properties. Each module has a prototype implementation that is inherited by specific implementations for different missions concepts, allowing for the simulation of widely variable missions.
iSEDfit uses Bayesian inference to extract the physical properties of galaxies from their observed broadband photometric spectral energy distribution (SED). In its default mode, the inputs to iSEDfit are the measured photometry (fluxes and corresponding inverse variances) and a measurement of the galaxy redshift. Alternatively, iSEDfit can be used to estimate photometric redshifts from the input photometry alone.
After the priors have been specified, iSEDfit calculates the marginalized posterior probability distributions for the physical parameters of interest, including the stellar mass, star-formation rate, dust content, star formation history, and stellar metallicity. iSEDfit also optionally computes K-corrections and produces multiple "quality assurance" (QA) plots at each stage of the modeling procedure to aid in the interpretation of the prior parameter choices and subsequent fitting results. The software is distributed as part of the impro IDL suite.
OSPEX (Object Spectral Executive) is an object-oriented interface for X-ray spectral analysis of solar data. The next generation of SPEX (ascl:2007.017), it reads and displays input data, selects and subtracts background, selects time intervals of interest, selects a combination of photon flux model components to describe the data, and fits those components to the spectrum in each time interval selected. During the fitting process, the response matrix is used to convert the photon model to the model counts to compare with the input count data. The resulting time-ordered fit parameters are stored and can be displayed and analyzed with OSPEX. The entire OSPEX session can be saved in the form of a script and the fit results stored in the form of a FITS file. Part of the SolarSoft (ascl:1208.013) package, OSPEX works with any type of data structured in the form of time-ordered count spectra; RHESSI, Fermi, SOXS, MESSENGER, Yohkoh, SMM, and SMART data analysis have all been implemented in OSPEX.
Kadenza enables time-critical data analyses to be carried out using NASA's Kepler Space Telescope. It enables users to convert Kepler's raw data files into user-friendly Target Pixel Files upon downlink from the spacecraft. The primary motivation for this tool is to enable the microlensing, supernova, and exoplanet communities to create quicklook lightcurves for transient events which require rapid follow-up.
NRPy+ (Python-based Code generation for Numerical Relativity and Beyond) generates highly-optimized C code from complex tensorial expressions input in Einstein-like notation. NRPy+ uses SymPy as its computer algebra system backend. It is part of the NRPy+/SENR numerical relativity code package for solving Einstein's equations of general relativity to model compact objects at about 1/100 the cost in memory of more traditional, AMR-based numerical relativity codes, thus allowing desktop computers to be used for gravitational wave astrophysics.
The routines in ktransit create and fit a transiting planet model. The underlying model is a Fortran implementation of the Mandel & Agol (2002) limb darkened transit model. The code calculates a full orbital model and eccentricity can be allowed to vary; radial velocity data can also be calculated via the model and included in the fit.
EVEREST (EPIC Variability Extraction and Removal for Exoplanet Science Targets) removes instrumental noise from light curves with pixel level decorrelation and Gaussian processes. The code, written in Python, generates the EVEREST catalog and offers tools for accessing and interacting with the de-trended light curves. EVEREST exploits correlations across the pixels on the CCD to remove systematics introduced by the spacecraft’s pointing error. For K2, it yields light curves with precision comparable to that of the original Kepler mission. Interaction with the EVEREST catalog catalog is available via the command line and through the Python interface. Though written for K2, EVEREST can be applied to additional surveys, such as the TESS mission, to correct for instrumental systematics and enable the detection of low signal-to-noise transiting exoplanets.
ASP (Ames Stereo Pipeline) provides fully automated geodesy and stereogrammetry tools for processing stereo imagery captured from satellites (around Earth and other planets), robotic rovers, aerial cameras, and historical imagery, with and without accurate camera pose information. It produces cartographic products, including digital elevation models (DEMs), ortho-projected imagery, 3D models, and bundle-adjusted networks of cameras. ASP's data products are suitable for science analysis, mission planning, and public outreach.
xGDS (Exploration Ground Data Systems) synthesizes real world data (from sensors, robots, ROVs, mobile devices, etc) and human observations into rich, digital maps and displays for analysis, decision making, and collaboration. xGDS processes and maps data (including video) in real-time during operations and uses it to support live role-based geolocated note taking. Notes can be used to search for and display important data. The software enables real-time analysis of data, permitting one to make inferences and plan new data collection operations while still in the field.
STARRY computes light curves for various applications in astronomy: transits and secondary eclipses of exoplanets, light curves of eclipsing binaries, rotational phase curves of exoplanets, light curves of planet-planet and planet-moon occultations, and more. By modeling celestial body surface maps as sums of spherical harmonics, STARRY does all this analytically and is therefore fast, stable, and differentiable. Coded in C++ but wrapped in Python, STARRY is easy to install and use.
ODTBX (Orbit Determination Toolbox) provides orbit determination analysis, advanced mission simulation, and analysis for concept exploration, proposal, early design phase, and/or rapid design center environments. The core ODTBX functionality is realized through a set of estimation commands that incorporate Monte Carlo data simulation, linear covariance analysis, and measurement processing at a generic level; its functions and utilities are combined in a flexible architecture to allow modular development of navigation algorithms and simulations. ODTBX is written in Matlab and Java.
VPLanet (Virtual Planetary Laboratory) simulates planetary system evolution with a focus on habitability. Physical models, typically consisting of ordinary differential equations for stellar, orbital, tidal, rotational, atmospheric, internal, magnetic, climate, and galactic evolution, are coupled together to simulate evolution for the age of a system.
Lightkurve analyzes astronomical flux time series data, in particular the pixels and light curves obtained by NASA’s Kepler, K2, and TESS exoplanet missions. This community-developed Python package is designed to be user friendly to lower the barrier for students, astronomers, and citizen scientists interested in analyzing data from these missions. Lightkurve provides easy tools to download, inspect, and analyze time series data and its documentation is supported by a large syllabus of tutorials.
The Core Flight Executive is a portable, platform-independent embedded system framework that is the basis for flight software for satellite data systems and instruments; cFE can be used on other embedded systems as well. The Core Flight Executive is written in C and depends on the software library Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL), which is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/osal/.
cFS is a platform and project independent reusable software framework and set of reusable applications developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. There are three key aspects to the cFS architecture: a dynamic run-time environment, layered software, and a component based design, making it suitable for reuse on NASA flight projects and/or embedded software systems. This framework is used as the basis for the flight software for satellite data systems and instruments, but can also be used on other embedded systems. Modules of this package are used in NICER (Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer). The modules are available as separate downloads from SourceForge through the NASA cFS website.
ICSF (Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting) "corrects" (x,y) data in which the ordinate represents the average of a quantity over a finite interval in the abscissa. A typical example is spectral data, where the average intensity over a wavelength bin (the measured quantity) is assigned to the center of the bin. If the profile is curved, the average will be different from the discrete value at the bin center location. ICSF, written in IDL and available separately and as part of SolarSoft (ascl:1208.013), corrects the intensity using an iterative procedure and cubic spline. The corrected intensity equals the "true" intensity at bin center, rather than the average over the bin. Unlike other methods that are restricted to a single fitting function, typically a spline, ICSF can be used with any function, such as a cubic spline or a Gaussian, with slight changes to the code.
The SPICE (Spacecraft Planet Instrument C-matrix [“Camera matrix”] Events) toolkit offers a set of building blocks for constructing tools supporting multi-mission, international space exploration programs and research in planetary science, heliophysics, Earth science, and for observations from terrestrial observatories. It computes many kinds of observation geometry parameters, including the ephemerides, orientations, sizes, and shapes of planets, satellites, comets and asteroids. It can also compute the orientation of a spacecraft, its various moving structures, and an instrument's field-of-view location on a planet's surface or atmosphere. It can determine when a specified geometric event occurs, such as when an object is in shadow or is in transit across another object. The SPICE toolkit is available in FORTRAN 77, ANSI C, IDL, and MATLAB.
The ROSAT X-Ray Background Tool (sxrbg) calculates the average X-ray background count rate and statistical uncertainty in each of the six standard bands of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) diffuse background maps (R1, R2, R4, R5, R6, R7) for a specified astronomical position and a search region consisting of either a circle with a specified radius or an annulus with specified inner and outer radii centered on the position. The values returned by the tool are in units of 10^-6 counts/second/arcminute^2. sxrbg can also create a count-rate-based spectrum file which can be used with XSpec (ascl:9910.005) to calculate fluxes and offers support for counts statistics (cstat), an alternative method for generating a background spectrum. HEASoft (ascl:1408.004) is a prerequisite for building. The code is in the public domain.
CDAWeb (Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop Web) enables viewing essentially any data produced in Common Data Format/CDF with the ISTP/IACG Guidelines and supports interactive plotting of variables from multiple instruments on multiple investigations simultaneously on arbitrary, user-defined time-scales. It also supports data retrieval in both CDF or ASCII format. NASA's GSFC Space Physics Data Facility maintains a publicly available database that includes approximately 600 data variables from Geotail, Wind, Interball, Polar, SOHO, ancilliary spacecraft and ground-based investigations. CDAWeb includes high resolution digital data products that support event correlative science. The system combines the client-server user interface technology of the Web with a powerful set of customized routines based in the COTS Interactive Data Language (IDL) package to leverage the data format standards.
AutoBayes automatically generates customized algorithms from compact, declarative specifications in the data analysis domain, taking a statistical model as input and creating documented and optimized C/C++ code. The synthesis process uses Bayesian networks to enable problem decompositions and guide the algorithm derivation. Program schemas encapsulate advanced algorithms and data structures, and a symbolic-algebraic system finds closed-form solutions for problems and emerging subproblems. AutoBayes has been used to analyze planetary nebulae images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, and can be applied to other scientific data analysis tasks.
eleanor extracts target pixel files from TESS Full Frame Images and produces systematics-corrected light curves for any star observed by the TESS mission. eleanor takes a TIC ID, a Gaia source ID, or (RA, Dec) coordinates of a star observed by TESS and returns, as a single object, a light curve and accompanying target pixel data. The process can be customized, allowing, for example, examination of intermediate data products and changing the aperture used for light curve extraction. eleanor also offers tools that make it easier to work with stars observed in multiple TESS sectors.
ClusterPyXT (Cluster Pypeline for X-ray Temperature maps) creates X-ray temperature maps, pressure maps, surface brightness maps, and density maps from X-ray observations of galaxy clusters to show turbulence, shock fronts, nonthermal phenomena, and the overall dynamics of cluster mergers. It requires CIAO (ascl:1311.006) and CALDB. The code analyzes archival data and provides capability for integrating additional observations into the analysis. The ClusterPyXT code is general enough to analyze data from other sources, such as galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and supernovae, though minor modifications may be necessary.
sbpy, an Astropy affiliated package, supplements functionality provided by Astropy (ascl:1304.002) with functions and methods that are frequently used for planetary astronomy with a clear focus on asteroids and comets. It offers access tools for various databases for orbital and physical data, spectroscopy analysis tools and models, photometry models for resolved and unresolved observations, ephemerides services, and other tools useful for small-body planetary astronomy.
ZChecker finds, measures, and visualizes known comets in the Zwicky Transient Facility time-domain survey. Images of targets are identified using on-line ephemeris generation and survey metadata. The photometry of the targets are measured and the images are processed with temporal filtering to highlight morphological variations in time.
dips detrends timeseries of strictly periodic signals. It does not assume any functional form for the signal or the background or the noise; it disentangles the strictly periodic component from everything else. It has been used for detrending Kepler, K2 and TESS timeseries of periodic variable stars, eclipsing binary stars, and exoplanets.
EPOS (Exoplanet Population Observation Simulator) simulates observations of exoplanet populations. It provides an interface between planet formation simulations and exoplanet surveys such as Kepler. EPOS can also be used to estimate planet occurrence rates and the orbital architectures of planetary systems.
PLAN (PLanetesimal ANalyzer) identifies and characterizes planetesimals produced in numerical simulations of the Streaming Instability that includes particle self-gravity with code Athena (ascl:1010.014). PLAN works with the 3D particle output of Athena and finds gravitationally bound clumps robustly and efficiently. PLAN — written in C++ with OpenMP/MPI — is massively parallelized, memory-efficient, and scalable to analyze billions of particles and multiple snapshots simultaneously. The approach of PLAN is based on the dark matter halo finder HOP (ascl:1102.019), but with many customizations for planetesimal formation. PLAN can be easily adapted to analyze other object formation simulations that use Lagrangian particles (e.g., Athena++ simulations). PLAN is also equipped with a toolkit to analyze the grid-based hydro data (VTK dumps of primitive variables) from Athena, which requires the Boost MultiDimensional Array Library.
triceratops (Tool for Rating Interesting Candidate Exoplanets and Reliability Analysis of Transits Originating from Proximate Stars) validates planet candidates from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). The code calculates the probabilities of a wide range of transit-producing scenarios using the primary transit of the planet candidate and preexisting knowledge of its host and nearby stars. It then uses the known properties of these stars to calculate star-specific priors for each scenario with estimates of stellar multiplicity and planet occurrence rates.
MARGE (Machine learning Algorithm for Radiative transfer of Generated Exoplanets) generates exoplanet spectra across a defined parameter space, processes the output, and trains, validates, and tests machine learning models as a fast approximation to radiative transfer. It uses BART (ascl:1608.004) for spectra generation and modifies BART’s Bayesian sampler (MC3, ascl:1610.013) with a random uniform sampler to propose models within a defined parameter space. More generally, MARGE provides a framework for training neural network models to approximate a forward, deterministic process.
TESS-Point converts astronomical target coordinates given in right ascension and declination to detector pixel coordinates for the MIT-led NASA Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) spacecraft. The program can also provide detector pixel coordinates for a star by TESS input catalog identifier number and common astronomical name. Tess-point outputs the observing sector number, camera number, detector number, and pixel column and row.
HOMER (Helper Of My Eternal Retrievals) is a machine-learning-accelerated Bayesian inverse modeling code. Given some data and uncertainties, the code determines the posterior distribution of a model. HOMER uses MC3 (ascl:1610.013) for its MCMC; its forward model is a neural network surrogate model trained by MARGE (ascl:2003.010). The code produces plots of the 1D marginalized posteriors, 2D pairwise posteriors, and parameter history traces, and can also overplot the 1D and 2D posteriors for comparison with another posterior. HOMER computes the Bhattacharyya coefficient to compare the similarity of two 1D marginalized posteriors.
Torch simulates coupled gas and N-body dynamics in astrophysical systems such as newly forming star clusters. It combines the FLASH (ascl:1010.082) code for gas dynamics and the ph4 code for direct N-body evolution via the AMUSE framework.
simple_reg_dem reconstructs differential emission measures (DEMs) in the solar corona. It overcomes issues, such as complexity, idiosyncratic output, convergence difficulty, and lack of speed, that exists in other methods. Initially written for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) data, the algorithm is notable for its simplicity, and is robust and extensible to any other wavelengths (e.g., X-rays) where the DEM treatment is valid. It is available in the SolarSoft (ascl:1208.013) package.
ReadPDS reads in and visualizes data from the Planetary Data System in PDS4 format. Tools are available in Python as PDS4Viewer and in IDL as PDS4-IDL. These tools support PDS4 data, including images, spectra, and arrays and provide multiple views of the data, including summary, image, plot, and table views in addition to easy access to metadata such as structure labels and spectral characteristics.
SPEX provides a uniform interface suitable for the X-ray spectral analysis of a number of solar (or other) instruments in the X and Gamma Ray energy ranges. Part of the SolarSoft (ascl:1208.013) library, this package is suitable for any datastream which can be placed in the form of response vs interval where the response is usually a counting rate (spectrum) and the interval is normally an accumulation over time. Together with an algorithm which can be used to relate a model input spectrum to the observed response, generally a response matrix, the dataset is amenable to analysis with this package. Currently the data from a large number of instruments, including SMM (HXRBS, GRS Gamma, GRS X1, and GRS X2), Yohkoh (HXT, HXS, GRS, and SXT,) CGRO (BATSE SPEC and BATSE LAD), WIND (TGRS), HIREX, and NEAR (PIN). SPEX's next generation software is available in OSPEX (ascl:2007.018), an object-oriented package that is also part of and dependent on SolarSoft.
TRISTAN (TRIdimensional STANford) is a fully electromagnetic code with full relativistic particle dynamics. The code simulates large-scale space plasma phenomena such as the formation of systems of galaxies. TRISTAN particles which hit the boundaries are arrested there and redistributed more uniformly by having the boundaries slightly conducting, thus allowing electrons to recombine with ions and provides a realistic way of eliminating escaping particles from the code. Fresh particle fluxes can then be introduced independently across the boundaries. Written in 1993, this code has largely been superceded by TRISTAN-MP (ascl:1908.008).
GSpec analyzes the Fermi mission's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) data via a user-interactive GUI. The software provides a seamless interface to XSPEC (ascl:9910.005). It allows users to create their own Python scripts using the included libraries, and to define additional data reduction techniques, such as background fitting/estimation and data binning, as Python-based plugins. It is part of a larger effort to produce a set of GBM data tools to allow the broader community to analyze all aspects of GBM data, including the continuous data that GBM produces. GSpec is similar to RMfit (ascl:1409.011), a GUI-based spectral analysis code that specializes in the analysis of GBM trigger data, and is intended to eventually replace that IDL package.
The DR25 Kepler Robovetter is a robotic decision-making code that dispositions each Threshold Crossing Event (TCE) from the final processing (DR 25) of the Kepler data into Planet Candidates (PCs) and False Positives (FPs). The Robovetter provides four major flags to designate each FP TCE as Not Transit-Like (NTL), a Stellar Eclipse (SS), a Centroid Offset (CO), and/or an Ephemeris Match (EM). It produces a score ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 that indicates the Robovetter's disposition confidence, where 1.0 indicates strong confidence in PC, and 0.0 indicates strong confidence in FP. Finally, the Robovetter provides comments in a text string that indicate the specific tests each FP TCE fails and provides supplemental information on all TCEs as necessary.
EphemMatch reads in the period, epoch, positional, and other information of all the Kepler DR25 TCEs, as well as the cumulative KOI list, and lists of EBs from the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Working Group (http://keplerebs.villanova.edu) as well as several catalogs of EBs known from ground-based surveys. The code then performs matching to identify two different objects that have a statistically identical period and epoch (within some tolerance) and perform logic to identify which is the real source (the parent) and which is a false positive due to contamination from the parent (a child).
PyXspec is an object oriented Python interface to the XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) spectral-fitting program. It provides an alternative to Tcl, the sole scripting language for standard Xspec usage. With PyXspec loaded, a user can run Xspec with Python language scripts or interactively at a Python shell prompt; everything in PyXspec is accessible by importing the package xspec into your Python script. PyXspec can be utilized in a Python script or from the command line of the plain interactive Python interpreter. PyXspec does not implement its own command handler, so it is not intended to be run as the Python equivalent of a traditional interactive XSPEC session (which is really an enhanced interactive Tcl interpreter).
EqTide calculates the evolution of 2 bodies experiencing tidal evolution according to the "equilibrium tide" framework's "constant-phase-lag" and "constant-time-lag" models. The input file contains a list of options that can be set, as well as output parameters that print to a file during an integration. The example input files provide a guide for the syntax and grammar of EqTide.
CTR (Coronal Temperature Reconstruction) reconstructs differential emission measures (DEMs) in the solar corona. Written in IDL, the code guarantees positivity of the recovered DEM, enforces an explicit smoothness constraint, returns a featureless (flat) solution in the absence of information, and converges quickly. The algorithm is robust and can be extended to other wavelengths where the DEM treatment is valid.
The NASA Langley Fu-Liou radiative transfer code (also known as Ed4 LaRC Fu-Liou) computes broadband solar shortwave and thermal long wave profiles of down-welling and up-welling flux accounting for gas absorption by H2O, CO2, O3, O2, CH4, N2O and CFCs and absorption and scattering by clouds and aerosols. Longwave has options of a four-stream or 2/4 stream solver, while shortwave has options for two-stream, four-stream or Gamma weighted two-stream (GWTSA) which treats the inhomogeniety of cloud optical depth. A delta-Eddington approximation is used to treat the forward scattering peak. Water cloud properties are based on Mie calculations and ice cloud properties or the ice particle aspect ratio. Aerosol properties are given for 25 types.
Atmos contains two atmospheric models and scripts to couple them together. One atmospheric model calculates the profiles of chemical species, including both gaseous and aerosol phases, and the second model calculates the temperature profile. Because these profiles depend on each other - kinetic reaction rates are temperature-dependent and radiative transfer is subject to radiatively active gases - atmos alternates the running of these two models until both models have solutions consistent with the other one. While either of these models can be run with time-dependence, most applications of these models are to find steady-state solutions for the atmosphere that would be stable over long (geological/astronomical) time periods, given constant inputs to the atmosphere.
K2-CPM captures variability while preserving transit signals in Kepler data. Working at the pixel level, the model captures very fine-grained information about the variation of the spacecraft. The CPM models the systematic effects in the time series of a pixel using the pixels of many other stars and the assumption that any shared signal in these causally disconnected light curves is caused by instrumental effects. The target star's future and past are used and the data points are separated into training and test sets to ensure that information about any transit is perfectly isolated from the model. The method has four tuning parameters, the number of predictor stars or pixels, the autoregressive window size, and two L2-regularization amplitudes for model components, and consistently produces low-noise light curves.
MCPM extracts K2 photometry in dense stellar regions; the code is a modification and extension of the K2-CPM package (ascl:2107.024), which was developed for less-crowded fields. MCPM uses the pixel response function together with accurate astrometric grids, combining signals from a few pixels, and simultaneously fits for an astrophysical model to produce extracted more precise K2 photometry.
K2mosaic stitches the postage stamp-sized pixel masks obtained by NASA's Kepler and K2 missions together into CCD-sized mosaics and movies. The command-line tool's principal use is to take a set of Target Pixel Files (TPF) and turn them into more traditional FITS image files -- one per CCD channel and per cadence. K2mosaic can also be used to create animations from these mosaics. The mosaics produced by K2mosaic also makes the analysis of certain Kepler/K2 targets, such as clusters and asteroids, easier. Moreover such mosaics are useful to reveal the context of single-star observations, e.g., they enable users to check for the presence of instrumental noise or nearby bright objects.
KeplerPORTS calculates the detection efficiency of the DR25 Kepler Pipeline. It uses a detection contour model to quantify the recoverability of transiting planet signals due to the Kepler pipeline, and accurately portrays the ability of the Kepler pipeline to generate a Threshold Crossing Event (TCE) for a given hypothetical planet.
Snowball models atmospheric loss in order to constrain an atmosphere's cumulative impact of historic X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation-driven mass loss. The escape model interpolates the BaSTI luminosity evolution grid to the observed mass and luminosity of the host star.
OSPREI simulates the Sun-to-Earth (or satellite) behavior of CMEs. It is comprised of three separate models: ForeCAT, ANTEATR, and FIDO. ForeCAT uses the PFSS background to determine the external magnetic forces on a CME; ANTEATR takes the ForeCAT CME and propagates it to the final satellite distance, and outputs the final CME speed (both propagation and expansion), size, and shape (and their profiles with distance) as well as the arrival time and internal thermal and magnetic properties of the CME. FIDO takes the evolved CME from ANTEATR with the position and orientation from ForeCAT and passes the CME over a synthetic spacecraft. The relative location of the spacecraft within the CME determines the in situ magnetic field vector and velocity. It also calculates the Kp index from these values. OSPREI includes tools for creating figures from the results, including histograms, contour plots, and ensemble correlation plots, and new figures can be created using the results object that contains all the simulation data in an easily accessible format.