[ascl:1406.014]
IRAS90: IRAS Data Processing

Berry, David S.; Parsons, Diana C.; Gong, Wei; Currie, Malcolm J.; Warren-Smith, Rodney F.; Morris, Huw

IRAS90 is a suite of programs for processing IRAS data. It takes advantage of Starlink's (ascl:1110.012) ADAM environment, which provides multi-platform availability of both data and the programs to process it, and the user friendly interface of the parameter entry system. The suite can determine positions in astrometric coordinates, draw grids, and offers other functions for standard astronomical measurement and standard projections.

[ascl:1406.015]
IRCAMDR: IRCAM3 Data Reduction Software

Aspin, Colin; McCaughrean, Mark; Bridger, Alan B.; Baines, Dave; Beard, Steven; Chan, S.; Giddings, Jack; Hartley, K. F.; Horsfield, A.P.; Kelly, B. D.; Emerson, J. P.; Currie, Malcolm J.; Economou, Frossie

The UKIRT IRCAM3 data reduction and analysis software package, IRCAMDR (formerly ircam_clred) analyzes and displays any 2D data image stored in the standard Starlink (ascl:1110.012) NDF data format. It reduces and analyzes IRCAM1/2 data images of 62x58 pixels and IRCAM3 images of 256x256 size. Most of the applications will work on NDF images of any physical (pixel) dimensions, for example, 1024x1024 CCD images can be processed.

[ascl:2004.015]
IRDAP: SPHERE-IRDIS polarimetric data reduction pipeline

van Holstein, R. G.; Girard, J. H.; de Boer, J.; Snik, F.; Milli, J.; Stam, D. M.; Ginski, C.; Mouillet, D.; Wahhaj, Z.; Schmid, H. M.; Keller, C. U.; Langlois, M.; Dohlen, K.; Vigan, A.; Pohl, A.; Carbillet, M.; Fantinel, D.; Maurel, D.; Origné, A.; Petit, C. Ramos, J.; Rigal, F.; Sevin, A.; Boccaletti, A.; Le Coroller, H.; Dominik, C.; Henning, T.; Lagadec, E.; Ménard, F.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Chauvin, G.; Feldt, M.; Beuzit, J. -L.

IRDAP (IRDIS Data reduction for Accurate Polarimetry) accurately reduces SPHERE-IRDIS polarimetric data. It is a highly-automated end-to-end pipeline; its core feature is model-based correction of the instrumental polarization effects. IRDAP handles data taken both in field- and pupil-tracking mode and using the broadband filters Y, J, H and Ks. Data taken with the narrowband filters can be reduced as well, although with a somewhat worse accuracy. For pupil-tracking observations IRDAP can additionally apply angular differential imaging.

[ascl:1109.017]
IRDR: InfraRed Data Reduction

We describe the InfraRed Data Reduction (IRDR) software package, a small ANSI C library of fast image processing routines for automated pipeline reduction of infrared (dithered) observations. We developed the software to satisfy certain design requirements not met in existing packages (e.g., full weight map handling) and to optimize the software for large data sets (non-interactive tasks that are CPU and disk efficient). The software includes stand-alone C programs for tasks such as running sky frame subtraction with object masking, image registration and coaddition with weight maps, dither offset measurement using cross-correlation, and object mask dilation. Although we currently use the software to process data taken with CIRSI (a near-IR mosaic imager), the software is modular and concise and should be easy to adapt/reuse for other work.

[ascl:1205.007]
Iris: The VAO SED Application

Iris is a downloadable Graphical User Interface (GUI) application which allows the astronomer to build and analyze wide-band Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). The components of Iris have been contributed by members of the VAO. Specview, contributed by STScI, provides a GUI for reading, editing, and displaying SEDs, as well as defining models and parameter values. Sherpa, contributed by the Chandra project at SAO, provides a library of models, fit statistics, and optimization methods; the underlying I/O library, SEDLib, is a VAO product written by SAO to current IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance) data model standards. NED is a service provided by IPAC for easy location of data for a given extragalactic source, including SEDs. SedImporter converts non-standard SED data files into a format supported by Iris.

[ascl:1602.016]
IRSFRINGE: Interactive tool for fringe removal from Spitzer IRS spectra

IRSFRINGE is an IDL-based GUI package that allows observers to interactively remove fringes from IRS spectra. Fringes that originate from the detector subtrates are observed in the IRS Short-High (SH) and Long-High (LH) modules. In the Long-Low (LL) module, another fringe component is seen as a result of the pre-launch change in one of the LL filters. The fringes in the Short-Low (SL) module are not spectrally resolved. the fringes are already largely removed in the pipeline processing when the flat field is applied. However, this correction is not perfect and remaining fringes can be removed with IRSFRINGE from data in each module. IRSFRINGE is available as a stand-alone package and is also part of the Spectroscopic Modeling, Analysis and Reduction Tool (SMART, ascl:1210.021).

[ascl:1303.029]
iSAP: Interactive Sparse Astronomical Data Analysis Packages

iSAP consists of three programs, written in IDL, which together are useful for spherical data analysis. MR/S (MultiResolution on the Sphere) contains routines for wavelet, ridgelet and curvelet transform on the sphere, and applications such denoising on the sphere using wavelets and/or curvelets, Gaussianity tests and Independent Component Analysis on the Sphere. MR/S has been designed for the PLANCK project, but can be used for many other applications. SparsePol (Polarized Spherical Wavelets and Curvelets) has routines for polarized wavelet, polarized ridgelet and polarized curvelet transform on the sphere, and applications such denoising on the sphere using wavelets and/or curvelets, Gaussianity tests and blind source separation on the Sphere. SparsePol has been designed for the PLANCK project. MS-VSTS (Multi-Scale Variance Stabilizing Transform on the Sphere), designed initially for the FERMI project, is useful for spherical mono-channel and multi-channel data analysis when the data are contaminated by a Poisson noise. It contains routines for wavelet/curvelet denoising, wavelet deconvolution, multichannel wavelet denoising and deconvolution.

[ascl:1403.009]
ISAP: ISO Spectral Analysis Package

Ali, Babar; Bauer, Otto; Brauher, Jim; Buckley, Mark; Harwood, Andrew; Hur, Min; Khan, Iffat; Li, Jing; Lord, Steve; Lutz, Dieter; Mazzarella, Joe; Molinari, Sergio; Morris, Pat; Narron, Bob; Seidenschwang, Karla; Sidher, Sunil; Sturm, Eckhard; Swinyard, Bruce; Unger, Sarah; Verstraete, Laurent; Vivares, Florence; Wieprecht, Ecki

ISAP, written in IDL, simplifies the process of visualizing, subsetting, shifting, rebinning, masking, combining scans with weighted means or medians, filtering, and smoothing Auto Analysis Results (AARs) from post-pipeline processing of the Infrared Space Observatory's (ISO) Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) and Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) data. It can also be applied to PHOT-S and CAM-CVF data, and data from practically any spectrometer. The result of a typical ISAP session is expected to be a "simple spectrum" (single-valued spectrum which may be resampled to a uniform wavelength separation if desired) that can be further analyzed and measured either with other ISAP functions, native IDL functions, or exported to other analysis package (e.g., IRAF, MIDAS) if desired. ISAP provides many tools for further analysis, line-fitting, and continuum measurements, such as routines for unit conversions, conversions from wavelength space to frequency space, line and continuum fitting, flux measurement, synthetic photometry and models such as a zodiacal light model to predict and subtract the dominant foreground at some wavelengths.

[ascl:1809.010]
Isca: Idealized global circulation modeling

Vallis, Geoffrey K.; Colyer, Greg; Geen, Ruth; Gerber, Edwin; Jucker, Martin; Maher, Penelope; Paterson, Alexander; Pietschnig, Marianne; Penn, James; Thomson, Stephen I.

Isca provides a framework for the idealized modeling of the global circulation of planetary atmospheres at varying levels of complexity and realism. Though Isca is an outgrowth of models designed for Earth's atmosphere, it may readily be extended into other planetary regimes. Various forcing and radiation options are available. At the simple end of the spectrum a Held-Suarez case is available. An idealized grey radiation scheme, a grey scheme with moisture feedback, a two-band scheme and a multi-band scheme are also available, all with simple moist effects and astronomically-based solar forcing. At the complex end of the spectrum the framework provides a direct connection to comprehensive atmospheric general circulation models.

[ascl:1708.029]
iSEDfit: Bayesian spectral energy distribution modeling of galaxies

iSEDfit uses Bayesian inference to extract the physical properties of galaxies from their observed broadband photometric spectral energy distribution (SED). In its default mode, the inputs to iSEDfit are the measured photometry (fluxes and corresponding inverse variances) and a measurement of the galaxy redshift. Alternatively, iSEDfit can be used to estimate photometric redshifts from the input photometry alone.

After the priors have been specified, iSEDfit calculates the marginalized posterior probability distributions for the physical parameters of interest, including the stellar mass, star-formation rate, dust content, star formation history, and stellar metallicity. iSEDfit also optionally computes K-corrections and produces multiple "quality assurance" (QA) plots at each stage of the modeling procedure to aid in the interpretation of the prior parameter choices and subsequent fitting results. The software is distributed as part of the impro IDL suite.

[ascl:9909.003]
ISIS: A method for optimal image subtraction

ISIS is a complete package to process CCD images using the image Optimal subtraction method (Alard & Lupton 1998, Alard 1999). The ISIS package can find the best kernel solution even in case of kernel variations as a function of position in the image. The relevant computing time is minimal in this case and is only slightly different from finding constant kernel solutions. ISIS includes as well a number of facilities to compute the light curves of variables objects from the subtracted images. The basic routines required to build the reference frame and make the image registration are also provided in the package.

[ascl:1302.002]
ISIS: Interactive Spectral Interpretation System for High Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy

ISIS, the Interactive Spectral Interpretation System, is designed to facilitate the interpretation and analysis of high resolution X-ray spectra. It is being developed as a programmable, interactive tool for studying the physics of X-ray spectrum formation, supporting measurement and identification of spectral features, and interaction with a database of atomic structure parameters and plasma emission models.

[ascl:1601.021]
ISO: Isochrone construction

ISO transforms MESA history files into a uniform basis for interpolation and then constructs new stellar evolution tracks and isochrones from that basis. It is written in Fortran and requires MESA (ascl:1010.083), primarily for interpolation. Though designed to ingest MESA star history files, tracks from other stellar evolution codes can be incorporated by loading the tracks into the data structures used in the codes.

[ascl:1503.010]
isochrones: Stellar model grid package

Isochrones, written in Python, simplifies common tasks often done with stellar model grids, such as simulating synthetic stellar populations, plotting evolution tracks or isochrones, or estimating the physical properties of a star given photometric and/or spectroscopic observations.

[ascl:1409.006]
iSpec: Stellar atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances

iSpec is an integrated software framework written in Python for the treatment and analysis of stellar spectra and abundances. Spectra treatment functions include cosmic rays removal, continuum normalization, resolution degradation, and telluric lines identification. It can also perform radial velocity determination and correction and resampling. iSpec can also determine atmospheric parameters (i.e effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, micro/macroturbulence, rotation) and individual chemical abundances by using either the synthetic spectra fitting technique or equivalent widths method. The synthesis is performed with SPECTRUM (ascl:9910.002).

[ascl:2009.004]
ISPy3: Integrated-light Spectroscopy for Python3

The ISPy3 suite of Python routines models and analyzes integrated-light spectra of stars and stellar populations. The actual spectral modeling and related tasks such as setting up model atmospheres is done via external codes. Currently, the Kurucz codes (ATLAS/SYNTHE) and MARCS/TurboSpectrum are supported, though implementing other similar codes should be relatively straight forward.

[ascl:1010.047]
ISW and Weak Lensing Likelihood Code

ISW and Weak Lensing Likelihood code is the likelihood code that calculates the likelihood of Integrated Sachs Wolfe and Weak Lensing of Cosmic Microwave Background using the WMAP 3year CMB maps with mass tracers such as 2MASS (2-Micron All Sky Survey), SDSS LRG (Sloan Digital Sky Survey Luminous Red Galaxies), SDSS QSOs (Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasars) and NVSS (NRAO VLA All Sky Survey) radio sources. The details of the analysis (*thus the likelihood code) can be understood by reading the papers ISW paper and Weak lensing paper. The code does brute force theoretical matter power spectrum and calculations with CAMB. See the paper for an introduction, descriptions, and typical results from some pre-WMAP data. The code is designed to be integrated into CosmoMC. For further information concerning the integration, see Code Modification for integration into COSMOMC.

[ascl:1307.012]
ITERA: IDL Tool for Emission-line Ratio Analysis

ITERA, the IDL Tool for Emission-line Ratio Analysis, is an IDL widget tool that allows you to plot ratios of any strong atomic and ionized emission lines as determined by standard photoionization and shock models. These "line ratio diagrams" can then be used to determine diagnostics for nebulae excitation mechanisms or nebulae parameters such as density, temperature, metallicity, etc. ITERA can also be used to determine line sensitivities to such parameters, compare observations with the models, or even estimate unobserved line fluxes.

[ascl:1406.016]
IUEDR: IUE Data Reduction package

IUEDR reduces IUE data. It addresses the problem of working from the IUE Guest Observer tape or disk file through to a calibrated spectrum that can be used in scientific analysis and is a complete system for IUE data reduction. IUEDR was distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).

[ascl:1801.002]
iWander: Dynamics of interstellar wanderers

iWander assesses the origin of interstellar small bodies such as asteroids and comets. It includes a series of databases and tools that can be used in general for studying the dynamics of an interstellar vagabond object (small−body, interstellar spaceship and even stars).

[ascl:2210.020]
ixpeobssim: Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer simulator and analyzer

Baldini, Luca; Bucciantini, Niccolò; Lalla, Niccolò Di; Ehlert, Steven; Manfreda, Alberto; Negro, Michela; Omodei, Nicola; Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Sgrò, Carmelo; Silvestri, Stefano

The simulation and analysis framework ixpeobssim was specifically developed for the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE). It produces realistic simulated observations, in the form of event lists in FITS format, that also contain a strict superset of the information included in the publicly released IXPE data products. The framework's core simulation capabilities are complemented by post-processing applications that support the spatial, spectral, and temporal models needed for analysis of typical polarized X-ray sources, allowing implementation of complex, polarization-aware analysis pipelines. Where applicable, the data formats are consistent with the common display and analysis tools used by the community, *e.g.*, the binned count spectra can be fed into XSPEC (ascl:9910.005), along with the corresponding response functions, for doing standard spectral analysis. All ixpeobssim simulation and analysis tools are fully configurable via the command line.

[ascl:2009.007]
J plots: Tool for characterizing 2D and 3D structures in the interstellar medium

J plots classifies and quantifies a pixelated structure, based on its principal moments of inertia, thus enabling automatic detection and objective comparisons of centrally concentrated structures (cores), elongated structures (filaments) and hollow circular structures (bubbles) from the main population of slightly irregular blobs that make up most astronomical images. Examples of how to analyze 2D or 3D datasets, enabling an unbiased analysis and comparison of simulated and observed structures are provided along with the Python code.

[ascl:2208.015]
J-comb: Combine high-resolution and low-resolution data

J-comb combines high-resolution data with large-scale missing information with low-resolution data containing the short spacing. Based on uvcombine (ascl:2208.014), it takes as input FITS files of low- and high-resolution images, the angular resolution of the input images, and the pixel size of the input images, and outputs a FITS file of the combined image.

[ascl:1209.002]
JAGS: Just Another Gibbs Sampler

JAGS analyzes Bayesian hierarchical models using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation not wholly unlike BUGS. JAGS has three aims:

- to have a cross-platform engine for the BUGS language;
- to be extensible, allowing users to write their own functions, distributions and samplers; and
- to be a platform for experimentation with ideas in Bayesian modeling.

[ascl:1403.018]
JAM: Jeans Anisotropic MGE modeling method

The Jeans Anisotropic MGE (JAM) modeling method uses the Multi-Gaussian Expansion parameterization for the galaxy surface brightness. The code allows for orbital anisotropy (three-integrals distribution function) and also provides the full second moment tensor, including proper motions and radial velocities.

[ascl:1010.007]
JAVELIN: Just Another Vehicle for Estimating Lags In Nuclei

JAVELIN (formerly known as SPEAR) is an approach to reverberation mapping that computes the lags between the AGN continuum and emission line light curves and their statistical confidence limits. It uses a damped random walk model to describe the quasar continuum variability and the ansatz that emission line variability is a scaled, smoothed and displaced version of the continuum. While currently configured only to simultaneously fit light curve means, it includes a general linear parameters formalism to fit more complex trends or calibration offsets. The noise matrix can be modified to allow for correlated errors, and the correlation matrix can be modified to use a different stochastic process. The transfer function model is presently a tophat, but this can be altered by changing the line-continuum covariance matrices. It is also able to cope with some problems in traditional reverberation mapping, such as irregular sampling, correlated errors and seasonal gaps.

[ascl:2111.002]
JAX: Autograd and XLA

Bradbury, James; Frostig, Roy; Hawkins, Peter; Johnson, Matthew James; Leary, Chris; Maclaurin, Dougal; Necula, George; Paszke, Adam; VanderPlas, Jake; Wanderman-Milne, Skye; Zhang, Qiao

JAX brings Autograd and XLA together for high-performance machine learning research. It can automatically differentiate native Python and NumPy functions. The code can differentiate through loops, branches, recursion, and closures, and it can take derivatives of derivatives of derivatives. JAX supports reverse-mode differentiation (a.k.a. backpropagation) via grad as well as forward-mode differentiation, and the two can be composed arbitrarily to any order.

[ascl:2007.021]
JB2008: Empirical Thermospheric Density Model

JB2008 (Jacchia-Bowman 2008) is an empirical thermospheric density model developed as an improved revision to the Jacchia-Bowman 2006 model, based on Jacchia’s diffusion equations. Driving solar indices are computed from on-orbit sensor data, which are used for the solar irradiances in the extreme through far ultraviolet, including x-ray and Lyman-α wavelengths. Exospheric temperature equations are developed to represent the thermospheric EUV and FUV heating. Semiannual density equations based on multiple 81-day average solar indices are used to represent the variations in the semiannual density cycle that result from EUV heating, and geomagnetic storm effects are modeled using the Dst index as the driver of global density changes.

[ascl:1411.020]
JCMT COADD: UKT14 continuum and photometry data reduction

COADD was used to reduce photometry and continuum data from the UKT14 instrument on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in the 1990s. The software can co-add multiple observations and perform sigma clipping and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical analysis. Additional information on the software is available in the JCMT Spring 1993 newsletter (large PDF).

[ascl:1406.019]
JCMTDR: Applications for reducing JCMT continuum data in GSD format

JCMTDR reduces continuum on-the-fly mapping data obtained with UKT14 or the heterodyne instruments using the IFD on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. This program reduces archive data and heterodyne beam maps and was distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).

[ascl:2307.001]
Jdaviz: JWST astronomical data analysis tools in the Jupyter platform

JDADF Developers; Averbukh, Jesse; Bradley, Larry; Buikhuizen, Mario; Busko, Ivo; Cherinka, Brian; Conroy, Kyle; Earl, Nicholas; Fox, Ori; Geda, Robel; Jones, Craig; Karatay, Hatice; Kotler, Jenn; Lim, Pey Lian; Morris, Brett; Nguyen, Duy; O'Steen, Richard; Ogaz, Sara; Ogle, Patrick; Otor, O. Justin; Pacifici, Camilla; Robitaille, Thomas; Shanahan, Clare; Tollerud, Erik; Volfman, Sabrina

Jdaviz provides data viewers and analysis plugins that can be flexibly combined as desired to create interactive applications. It offers Specviz (ascl:1902.011) for visualization and quick-look analysis of 1D astronomical spectra; Mosviz for visualization of astronomical spectra, including 1D and 2D spectra as well as contextual information, and Cubeviz for visualization of spectroscopic data cubes (such as those produced by JWST MIRI). Imviz, which provides visualization and quick-look analysis for 2D astronomical images, is also included. Jdaviz is designed with instrument modes from the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in mind, but the tool is flexible enough to read in data from many astronomical telescopes, and the documentation provides a complete table of all supported modes.

[ascl:2305.020]
JEDI: James's EVE Dimming Index

JEDI searches for and characterizes coronal dimming in light curves produced from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Variability Experiment (EVE). The suite has a wrapper script that calls other functions, which can also be run independently assuming needed inputs from prior functions are provided. JEDI's functions fit light curves and return the best fit, compute precision for iron light curves, and find the biggest dimming depth and its time in a given light curve. JEDI also includes functions for finding the duration of the dimming, minimum, maximum, and mean slope of dimming of a light curve, and for identifying the biggest peak in two light curves, time shifting them so the peaks are concurrent, scaling them so the peaks are the same magnitude, and then subtracting them, among other useful functions.

[ascl:2304.006]
JET: JWST Exoplanet Targeting

JET (JWST Exoplanet Targeting) optimizes lists of exoplanet targets for atmospheric characterization by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The software uses catalogs of planet detections, either simulated, or actual and categorizes targets by radius and equilibrium temperature; it also estimates planet masses and generates model spectra and simulated instrument spectra. JET then performs a statistical analysis to determine if the instrument spectra can confirm an atmospheric detection and finally ranks the targets within each category by observation time required for detection.

[ascl:1702.005]
JetCurry: Modeling 3D geometry of AGN jets from 2D images

Written in Python, JetCurry models the 3D geometry of jets from 2-D images. JetCurry requires NumPy and SciPy and incorporates emcee (ascl:1303.002) and AstroPy (ascl:1304.002), and optionally uses VPython. From a defined initial part of the jet that serves as a reference point, JetCurry finds the position of highest flux within a bin of data in the image matrix and fits along the *x* axis for the general location of the bends in the jet. A spline fitting is used to smooth out the resulted jet stream.

[ascl:1810.003]
JETGET: Hydrodynamic jet simulation visualization and analysis

JETGET accesses, visualizes, and analyses (magnetized-)fluid dynamics data stored in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) and ASCII files. Although JETGET has been optimized to handle data output from jet simulations using the Zeus code (ascl:1306.014) from NCSA, it is also capable of analyzing other data output from simulations using other codes. JETGET can select variables from the data files, render both two- and three-dimensional graphics and analyze and plot important physical quantities. Graphics can be saved in encapsulated Postscript, JPEG, VRML, or saved into an MPEG for later visualization and/or presentations. The strength of JETGET in extracting the physics underlying such phenomena is demonstrated as well as its capabilities in visualizing the 3-dimensional features of the simulated magneto-hydrodynamic jets. The JETGET tool is written in Interactive Data Language (IDL) and uses a graphical user interface to manipulate the data. The tool was developed on a LINUX platform and can be run on any platform that supports IDL.

[ascl:2009.001]
JetSeT: Numerical modeling and SED fitting tool for relativistic jets

JetSeT reproduces radiative and accelerative processes acting in relativistic jets and fits the numerical models to observed data. This C/Python framework re-bins observed data, can define data sets, and binds to astropy tables and quantities. It can use Synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC), external Compton (EC) and EC against the CMB when defining complex numerical radiative scenarios. JetSeT can constrain the model in the pre-fitting stage based on accurate and already published phenomenological trends starting from parameters such as spectral indices, peak fluxes and frequencies, and spectral curvatures. The package fits multiwavelength SEDs using both frequentist approach and Bayesian MCMC sampling, and also provides self-consistent temporal evolution of the plasma under the effect of radiative and accelerative processes for both first order and second order (stochastic acceleration) processes.

[ascl:2112.027]
JexoSim 2.0: JWST Exoplanet Observation Simulator

JexoSim 2.0 (JWST Exoplanet Observation Simulator) simulates exoplanet transit observations using all four instruments of the James Webb Space Telescope, and is designed for the planning and validation of science cases for JWST. The code generates synthetic spectra that capture the full impact of complex noise sources and systematic trends, allowing for assessment of both accuracy and precision in the final spectrum. JexoSim does not contain all known systematics for the various instruments, but is a good starting point to investigate the effects of systematics, and has the framework to incorporate more systematics in the future.

[ascl:1308.016]
JHelioviewer: Visualization software for solar physics data

Mueller, Daniel; Dimitoglou, George; Caplins, Benjamin; Garcia Ortiz, Juan Pablo; Wamsler, Benjamin; Hughitt, Keith; Alexanderian, Alen; Ireland, Jack; Amadigwe, Desmond; Fleck, Bernhard

JHelioview is open source visualization software for solar physics data. The JHelioviewer client application enables users to browse petabyte-scale image archives; the JHelioviewer server integrates a JPIP server, metadata catalog, and an event server. JHelioview uses the JPEG 2000 image compression standard, which provides efficient access to petabyte-scale image archives; JHelioviewer also allows users to locate and manipulate specific data sets.

[ascl:1207.013]
JKTEBOP: Analyzing light curves of detached eclipsing binaries

The JKTEBOP code is used to fit a model to the light curves of detached eclipsing binary stars in order to derive the radii of the stars as well as various other quantities. It is very stable and includes extensive Monte Carlo or bootstrapping error analysis algorithms. It is also excellent for transiting extrasolar planetary systems. All input and output is done by text files; JKTEBOP is written in almost-standard FORTRAN 77 using first the g77 compiler and now the ifort compiler.

[ascl:1511.016]
JKTLD: Limb darkening coefficients

JKTLD outputs theoretically-calculated limb darkening (LD) strengths for equations (LD laws) which predict the amount of LD as a function of the part of the star being observed. The coefficients of these laws are obtained by bilinear interpolation (in effective temperature and surface gravity) in published tables of coefficients calculated from stellar model atmospheres by several researchers. Many observations of stars require the strength of limb darkening (LD) to be estimated, which can be done using theoretical models of stellar atmospheres; JKTLD can help in these circumstances.

[ascl:2006.013]
JoXSZ: Joint X-ray and SZ fitting for galaxy clusters in Python

JoXSZ jointly fits the thermodynamic profiles of galaxy clusters from both SZ and X-ray data using a Markov chain Monte Carlo fitting algorithm. It is an enhanced version of preprofit (ascl:1910.002), which fits only SZ data. JoXSZ parameterizes the pressure and electron density profile of a galaxy cluster with a given center and derives the temperature profile as the ratio of these quantities through the ideal gas law. The X-ray and SZ-based temperatures can be similar or different, which allows study of the cluster elongation along line of sight, gas clumping, or calibration uncertainties.

[submitted]
JPFITS (C# .Net FITS File Interaction)

FITS File interaction written in Visual Studio C# .Net.

JPFITS is not based upon any other implementation and is written from the ground-up, consistent with the FITS standard, designed to interact with FITS files as object-oriented structures.

JPFITS provides functionality to interact with FITS images and binary table extensions, as well as providing common mathematical methods for the manipulation of data, data reductions, profile fitting, photometry, etc.

JPFITS also implements object-oriented classes for Point Source Extraction, World Coordinate Solutions (WCS), WCS automated field solving, FITS Headers and Header Keys, etc.

The automatic world coordinate solver is based on the trigonometric algorithm as described here:

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1538-3873/ab7ee8

All function parameters, methods, properties, etc., are coded with XML descriptions which will function with Visual Studio. Other code editors may or may not read the XML files.

Everything which is reasonable to parallelize in order to benefit from the computation speed increase for multi-threaded systems has been done so. In all such cases function options are given in order to specify the use of parallelism or not. Generally, most image manipulation functions are highly amenable to parallelism. No parallelism is forced, i.e., any code which may execute parallelized is given a user option to do so or not.

[ascl:1908.017]
JPLephem: Jet Propulsion Lab ephemerides package

JPLephem loads and uses standard Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) ephemerides for predicting the position and velocity of a planet or other Solar System body. It is one of the foundations of the Skyfield (ascl:1907.024) astronomy library for Python, and can also be used as a standalone package to generate raw vectors.

[ascl:1511.002]
JSPAM: Interacting galaxies modeller

JSPAM models galaxy collisions using a restricted n-body approach to speed up computation. Instead of using a softened point-mass potential, the software supports a modified version of the three component potential created by Hernquist (1994, ApJS 86, 389). Although spherically symmetric gravitationally potentials and a Gaussian model for the bulge are used to increase computational efficiency, the potential mimics that of a fully consistent n-body model of a galaxy. Dynamical friction has been implemented in the code to improve the accuracy of close approaches between galaxies. Simulations using this code using thousands of particles over the typical interaction times of a galaxy interaction take a few seconds on modern desktop workstations, making it ideal for rapidly prototyping the dynamics of colliding galaxies. Extensive testing of the code has shown that it produces nearly identical tidal features to those from hierarchical tree codes such as Gadget but using a fraction of the computational resources. This code was used in the Galaxy Zoo: Mergers project and is very well suited for automated fitting of galaxy mergers with automated pattern fitting approaches such as genetic algorithms. Java and Fortran versions of the code are available.

[ascl:1607.007]
JUDE: An Utraviolet Imaging Telescope pipeline

JUDE (Jayant's UVIT Data Explorer) converts the Level 1 data (FITS binary table) from the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) on ASTROSAT into three output files: a photon event list as a function of frame number (FITS binary table); a FITS image file with two extensions; and a PNG file created from the FITS image file with an automated scaling.

[ascl:1812.016]
Juliet: Transiting and non-transiting exoplanetary systems modelling tool

Juliet essentially serves as a wrapper of other tools, including Batman (ascl:1510.002), George (ascl:1511.015), Dynesty (ascl:1809.013) and AstroPy (ascl:1304.002), to analyze and model transits, radial-velocities, or both from multiple instruments at the same time. Using nested sampling algorithms, it performs a thorough sampling of the parameter space and a model comparison via Bayesian evidences. Juliet also fits transiting and non-transiting multi-planetary systems, and Gaussian Processes (GPs) which might share hyperparameters between the photometry and radial-velocities simultaneously (e.g., stellar rotation periods).

[ascl:1109.024]
Jupiter: Multidimensional Astrophysical Hydrocode

Jupiter is a multidimensional astrophysical hydrocode. It is based on a Godunov method, and it is parallelized with MPI. The mesh geometry can either be cartesian, cylindrical or spherical. It allows mesh refinement and includes special features adapted to the description of planets embedded in disks and nearly steady states.

[ascl:1702.003]
juwvid: Julia code for time-frequency analysis

Juwvid performs time-frequency analysis. Written in Julia, it uses a modified version of the Wigner distribution, the pseudo Wigner distribution, and the short-time Fourier transform from MATLAB GPL programs, tftb-0.2. The modification includes the zero-padding FFT, the non-uniform FFT, the adaptive algorithm by Stankovic, Dakovic, Thayaparan 2013, the S-method, the L-Wigner distribution, and the polynomial Wigner-Ville distribution.

[ascl:1904.029]
JVarStar: Variable Star Analysis Library

JVarStar (Java Variable Star Analysis) performs pattern classification by analyzing variable star data. This all-in-one library package includes machine learning techniques, fundamental mathematical methods, and digital signal processing functions that can be externally referenced (i.e., from Python), or can be used for further Java development. This library has dependencies on several open source packages that, along with the developed functionality, provides a developer with an easily accessible library from which to construct stable variable star analysis and classification code.

[ascl:1504.017]
JWFront: Wavefronts and Light Cones for Kerr Spacetimes

JWFront visualizes wavefronts and light cones in general relativity. The interactive front-end allows users to enter the initial position values and choose the values for mass and angular momentum per unit mass. The wavefront animations are available in 2D and 3D; the light cones are visualized using the coordinate systems *(t, x, y)* or *(t, z, x)*. JWFront can be easily modified to simulate wavefronts and light cones for other spacetime by providing the Christoffel symbols in the program.

[ascl:2110.001]
JWSTSim: Geometric-Focused JWST Deep Field Image Simulation

JWST_Simulation generates a novel geometric-focused deep field simulation of the expected JWST future deep field image. Galaxies are represented by ellipses with randomly-generated positions and orientations. Three scripts are included: a deterministic simulation, an ensemble simulation, and a more-realistic monochrome image simulation. The following initial conditions can be perturbed in these codes: H0, Ωm, ΩΛ, the dark energy equation of state parameter, the number of unseen galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field Image (HUDF), the increase in effective radius due to the JWST’s higher sensitivity, the anisotropy of dark energy, and the maximum redshift reached by the JWST. Galaxy number densities are estimated using integration over comoving volume with an integration constant calibrated with the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. A galaxy coverage percentage is calculated for each image to determine the percentage of the background occupied by galaxies.

[ascl:1507.013]
K-Inpainting: Inpainting for Kepler

Inpainting is a technique for dealing with gaps in time series data, as frequently occurs in asteroseismology data, that may generate spurious peaks in the power spectrum, thus limiting the analysis of the data. The inpainting method, based on a sparsity prior, judiciously fills in gaps in the data, preserving the asteroseismic signal as far as possible. This method can be applied both on ground and space-based data. The inpainting technique improves the oscillation modes detection and estimation, the impact of the observational window function is reduced, and the interpretation of the power spectrum is simplified. K-Inpainting can be used to study very long time series of many stars because its computation is very fast.

[ascl:2107.024]
K2-CPM: Causal Pixel Model for K2 data

K2-CPM captures variability while preserving transit signals in Kepler data. Working at the pixel level, the model captures very fine-grained information about the variation of the spacecraft. The CPM models the systematic effects in the time series of a pixel using the pixels of many other stars and the assumption that any shared signal in these causally disconnected light curves is caused by instrumental effects. The target star's future and past are used and the data points are separated into training and test sets to ensure that information about any transit is perfectly isolated from the model. The method has four tuning parameters, the number of predictor stars or pixels, the autoregressive window size, and two L2-regularization amplitudes for model components, and consistently produces low-noise light curves.

[submitted]
K2CE: Kepler-K2 Cadence Events

Since early 2018, the Kepler/K2 project has been performing a uniform global reprocessing of data from K2 Campaigns 0 through 14. Subsequent K2 campaigns (C15-C19) are being processed using the same processing pipeline. One of the major benefits of the reprocessing effort is that, for the first time, short-cadence (1-min) light curves are produced in addition to the standard long-cadence (30-min) light curves. Users have been cautioned that the Kepler pipeline detrending module (PDC), developed for use on original Kepler data, has not been tailored for use on short-cadence K2 observations. Systematics due to events on fast timescales, such as thruster firings, are sometimes poorly corrected for many short-cadence targets. A Python data visualization and manipulation tool, called Kepler-K2 Cadence Events, has been developed that identifies and removes cadences associated with problematic thruster events, thus producing better light curves. Kepler-K2 Cadence Events can be used to visualize and manipulate light curve files and target pixel files from the Kepler, K2, and TESS missions. This software is available at the following NASA GitHub repository https://github.com/nasa/K2CE .

[ascl:1503.001]
K2flix: Kepler pixel data visualizer

K2flix makes it easy to inspect the CCD pixel data obtained by NASA's Kepler space telescope. The two-wheeled extended Kepler mission, K2, is affected by new sources of systematics, including pointing jitter and foreground asteroids, that are easier to spot by eye than by algorithm. The code takes Kepler's Target Pixel Files (TPF) as input and turns them into contrast-stretched animated gifs or MPEG-4 movies. K2flix can be used both as a command-line tool or using its Python API.

[ascl:1601.009]
K2fov: Field of view software for NASA's K2 mission

K2fov allows users to transform celestial coordinates into K2's pixel coordinate system for the purpose of preparing target proposals and field of view visualizations. In particular, the package, written in Python, adds the "K2onSilicon" and "K2findCampaigns" tools to the command line, allowing the visibility of targets to be checked in a user-friendly way.

[ascl:2107.026]
K2mosaic: Mosaic Kepler pixel data

K2mosaic stitches the postage stamp-sized pixel masks obtained by NASA's Kepler and K2 missions together into CCD-sized mosaics and movies. The command-line tool's principal use is to take a set of Target Pixel Files (TPF) and turn them into more traditional FITS image files -- one per CCD channel and per cadence. K2mosaic can also be used to create animations from these mosaics. The mosaics produced by K2mosaic also makes the analysis of certain Kepler/K2 targets, such as clusters and asteroids, easier. Moreover such mosaics are useful to reveal the context of single-star observations, *e.g.*, they enable users to check for the presence of instrumental noise or nearby bright objects.

[ascl:1602.014]
k2photometry: Read, reduce and detrend K2 photometry

Van Eylen, Vincent; Nowak, Grzegorz; Albrecht, Simon; Palle, Enric; Ribas, Ignasi; Bruntt, Hans; Perger, Manuel; Gandolfi, Davide; Hirano, Teriyuki; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Kiilerich, Amanda; Arranz, Jorge P.; Badenas, Mariona; Dai, Fei; Deeg, Hans J.; Guenther, Eike W.; Montanes-Rodriguez, Pilar; Narita, Norio; Rogers, Leslie A.; Bejar, Victor J. S.; Shrotriya, Tushar S.; Winn, Joshua N.; Sebastian, Daniel

k2photometry reads, reduces and detrends K2 photometry and searches for transiting planets. MAST database pixel files are used as input; the output includes raw lightcurves, detrended lightcurves and a transit search can be performed as well. Stellar variability is not typically well-preserved but parameters can be tweaked to change that. The BLS algorithm used to detect periodic events is a Python implementation by Ruth Angus and Dan Foreman-Mackey (https://github.com/dfm/python-bls).

[ascl:1607.010]
K2PS: K2 Planet search

K2PS is an Oxford K2 planet search pipeline. Written in Python, it searches for transit-like signals from the k2sc-detrended light curves.

[ascl:1605.012]
K2SC: K2 Systematics Correction

K2SC (K2 Systematics Correction) models instrumental systematics and astrophysical variability in light curves from the K2 mission. It enables the user to remove both position-dependent systematics and time-dependent variability (e.g., for transit searches) or to remove systematics while preserving variability (for variability studies). K2SC automatically computes estimates of the period, amplitude and evolution timescale of the variability for periodic variables and can be run on ASCII and FITS light curve files. Written in Python, this pipeline requires NumPy, SciPy, MPI4Py, Astropy (ascl:1304.002), and George (ascl:1511.015).

[ascl:1307.003]
K3Match: Point matching in 3D space

K3Match is a C library with Python bindings for fast matching of points in 3D space. It uses an implementation of three dimensional binary trees to efficiently find matches between points in 3D space. Two lists of points are compared and match indices as well as distances are given. K3Match can find either the nearest neighbour or all matches within a given search distance in 3D Cartesian space or on the surface of the 2D unit sphere in standard spherical or celestial coordinates.

[ascl:2106.013]
Kadath: Spectral solver

The Kadath library implements spectral methods in the context of theoretical physics. It is fully parallel; a sequential version can be installed. The library is written in C++, and solves a wide variety of problems. Several coordinates systems are implemented and additional geometries can be easily encoded. Partial differential equations of various types are discretized by means of spectral methods. The resulting system is solved using a Newton-Raphson iteration, allowing KADATH to deal with strongly non-linear situations. An optimized version of Kadath is available that improves memory management (reducing the number of uses of new and delete), inlines several member functions, and provides better management of the accessors for the arrays.

[ascl:1803.005]
Kadenza: Kepler/K2 Raw Cadence Data Reader

Kadenza enables time-critical data analyses to be carried out using NASA's Kepler Space Telescope. It enables users to convert Kepler's raw data files into user-friendly Target Pixel Files upon downlink from the spacecraft. The primary motivation for this tool is to enable the microlensing, supernova, and exoplanet communities to create quicklook lightcurves for transient events which require rapid follow-up.

[ascl:1607.013]
Kālī: Time series data modeler

The fully parallelized and vectorized software package Kālī models time series data using various stochastic processes such as continuous-time ARMA (C-ARMA) processes and uses Bayesian Markov Chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) for inferencing a stochastic light curve. Kālī is written in c++ with Python language bindings for ease of use. Kālī is named jointly after the Hindu goddess of time, change, and power and also as an acronym for KArma LIbrary.

[ascl:2011.003]
Kalkayotl: Inferring distances to stellar clusters from Gaia parallaxes

Olivares, J.; Sarro, L. M.; Bouy, H.; Miret-Roig, N.; Casamiquela, L.; Galli, P. A. B.; Berihuete, A.; Tarricq, Y.

Kalkayotl obtains samples of the joint posterior distribution of cluster parameters and distances to the cluster stars from Gaia parallaxes using Bayesian inference. The code is designed to deal with the parallax spatial correlations of Gaia data, and can accommodate different values of parallax zero point and spatial correlation functions.

[ascl:1906.005]
Kalman: Forecasts and interpolations for ALMA calibrator variability

Kalman models an inhomogeneous time series of measurements at different frequencies as noisy sampling from a finite mixture of Gaussian Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes to try to reproduce the variability of the fluxes and of the spectral indices of the quasars used as calibrators in the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA), assuming sensible parameters are provided to the model (obtained, for example, from maximum likelihood estimation). One routine in the Kalman Perl module calculates best forecast estimations based on a state space representation of the stochastic model using Kalman recursions, and another routine calculates the smoothed estimation (or interpolations) of the measurements and of the state space also using Kalman recursions. The code does not include optimization routines to calculate best fit parameters for the stochastic processes.

[ascl:1403.022]
KAPPA: Kernel Applications Package

KAPPA comprising about 180 general-purpose commands for image processing, data visualization, and manipulation of the standard Starlink data format--the NDF. It works with Starlink's various specialized packages; in addition to the NDF, KAPPA can also process data in other formats by using the "on-the-fly" conversion scheme. Many commands can process data arrays of arbitrary dimension, and others work on both spectra and images. KAPPA operates from both the UNIX C-shell and the ICL command language. KAPPA uses the Starlink environment (ascl:1110.012).

[ascl:1502.008]
KAPPA: Optically thin spectra synthesis for non-Maxwellian kappa-distributions

Based on the freely available CHIANTI (ascl:9911.004) database and software, KAPPA synthesizes line and continuum spectra from the optically thin spectra that arise from collisionally dominated astrophysical plasmas that are the result of non-Maxwellian κ-distributions detected in the solar transition region and flares. Ionization and recombination rates together with the ionization equilibria are provided for a range of κ values. Distribution-averaged collision strengths for excitation are obtained by an approximate method for all transitions in all ions available within CHIANTI; KAPPA also offers tools for calculating synthetic line and continuum intensities.

[ascl:1611.010]
Kapteyn Package: Tools for developing astronomical applications

The Kapteyn Package provides tools for the development of astronomical applications with Python. It handles spatial and spectral coordinates, WCS projections and transformations between different sky systems; spectral translations (e.g., between frequencies and velocities) and mixed coordinates are also supported. Kapteyn offers versatile tools for writing small and dedicated applications for the inspection of FITS headers, the extraction and display of (FITS) data, interactive inspection of this data (color editing) and for the creation of plots with world coordinate information. It includes utilities for use with matplotlib such as obtaining coordinate information from plots, interactively modifiable colormaps and timer events (module mplutil); tools for parsing and interpreting coordinate information entered by the user (module positions); a function to search for gaussian components in a profile (module profiles); and a class for non-linear least squares fitting (module kmpfit).

[ascl:1102.018]
Karma: Visualisation Test-Bed Toolkit

Karma is a toolkit for interprocess communications, authentication, encryption, graphics display, user interface and manipulating the Karma network data structure. It contains KarmaLib (the structured libraries and API) and a large number of modules (applications) to perform many standard tasks. A suite of visualisation tools are distributed with the library.

[ascl:2209.006]
KaRMMa: Curved-sky mass map reconstruction

KaRMMa (Kappa Reconstruction for Mass MApping) performs curved-sky mass map reconstruction using a lognormal prior from weak-lensing surveys. It uses a fully Bayesian approach with a physically motivated lognormal prior to sample from the posterior distribution of convergence maps. The posterior distribution of KaRMMa maps are nearly unbiased in one-point and two-point functions and peak/void counts. KaRMMa successfully captures the non-Gaussian nature of the distribution of κ values in the simulated maps, and KaRMMa posteriors correctly characterize the uncertainty in summary statistics.

[ascl:2305.004]
katdal: MeerKAT Data Access Library

katdal interacts with the chunk stores and HDF5 files produced by the MeerKAT radio telescope and its predecessors (KAT-7 and Fringe Finder), which are collectively known as MeerKAT Visibility Format (MVF) data sets. The library uses memory carefully, allowing data sets to be inspected and partially loaded into memory. Data sets may be concatenated and split via a flexible selection mechanism. In addition, katdal provides a script to convert these data sets to CASA MeasurementSets.

[ascl:2106.026]
Katu: Interaction of particles in plasma simulator

Katu evolves the interaction of particles (photons, protons, neutrons, leptons, pions and neutrinos) in plasma. The package comes with wrappers for emcee (ascl:1303.002) and pymultinest (ascl:1606.005) for Bayesian analysis, making the software applicable to blazars and able to extract relevant statistical information from their electromagnetic (and neutrino, if applicable) flux. The code is optimized for fast performance, and can be easily modified and extended.

[ascl:1701.005]
KAULAKYS: Inelastic collisions between hydrogen atoms and Rydberg atoms

KAULAKYS calculates cross sections and rate coefficients for inelastic collisions between Rydberg atoms and hydrogen atoms according to the free electron model of Kaulakys (1986, 1991). It is written in IDL and requires the code MSWAVEF (ascl:1701.006) to calculate momentum-space wavefunctions. KAULAKYS can be easily adapted to collisions with perturbers other than hydrogen atoms by providing the appropriate scattering amplitudes.

[ascl:2211.002]
KC: Analytical propagator with collision detection for Keplerian systems

The analytic propagator Kepler-Collisions calculates collisions for Keplerian systems. The algorithm maintains a list of collision possibilities and jumps from one collision to the next; since collisions are rare in astronomical scales, jumping from collision to collision and calculating each one is more efficient than calculating all the time steps that are between collisions.

[ascl:1701.010]
kcorrect: Calculate K-corrections between observed and desired bandpasses

kcorrect fits very restricted spectral energy distribution models to galaxy photometry or spectra in the restframe UV, optical and near-infrared. The main purpose of the fits are for calculating K-corrections. The templates used for the fits may also be interpreted physically, since they are based on the Bruzual-Charlot stellar evolution synthesis codes. Thus, for each fit galaxy kcorrect can provide an estimate of the stellar mass-to-light ratio.

[ascl:2301.019]
KCWI_DRP: Keck Cosmic Web Imager Data Reduction Pipeline in Python

KCWI_DRP, written in Python and based on kderp (ascl:2301.018), is the official DRP for the Keck Cosmic Web Imager at the W. M. Keck Observatory. It provides all of the functionality of the older pipeline and has three execution modes: multi-threading for CPU intensive tasks such as wavelength calibration, and multi-processing for large datasets. It offers vacuum to air and heliocentric or barycentric correction and the ability to use KOA file names or original file names. KCWI_DRP also improves the provenance and traceability of DRP versions and execution steps in the headers over kderp, and has versatile sky subtraction modes including using external sky frames and ability of masking regions.

[submitted]
KCWIKit: KCWI Post-Processing and Improvements

KCWIKit extends the official KCWI DRP (ascl:2301.019) with a variety of stacking tools and DRP improvements. The software offers masking and median filtering scripts to be used while running the KCWI DRP, and a step-by-step KCWI_DRP implementation for finer control over the reduction process. Once the DRP has finished, KCWIKit can be used to stack the output cubes via the Montage package. Various functions cross-correlate and mosaic the constituent cubes and the final stacked cubes are WCS corrected. Helper functions can then be used to deproject the stacked cube into lower-dimensional representations should the user desire.

[ascl:2107.022]
Kd-match: Correspondences of objects between two catalogs through pattern matching

Kd-match matches stellar catalogs for which the transformation between the coordinate systems of the two catalogs is unknown and might include shearing. The code uses the ratio of sides as the invariant under a coordinate transformation and searches for several triangles with similar transformations by building quadrilaterals from sets of four objects in each catalog and calculating the ratio of areas of the triangles that comprise the quadrilaterals. The k-d tree accelerates this quadrilateral search dramatically and is significantly faster than the customary direct search over triangles.

[ascl:2301.018]
kderp: Keck Cosmic Web Imager Data Extraction and Reduction Pipeline in IDL

kderp (KCWI Data Extraction and Reduction Pipeline) reduces data for the Keck Cosmic Web Imager. Written in IDL, it performs basic CCD reduction on raw images to produce bias and overscan subtracted, gain-corrected, trimmed and cosmic ray removed images; it can also subtract the sky. It defines the geometric transformations required to map each pixel in the 2d image into slice, postion, and wavelength, and performs flat field and illumination corrections. It generates cubes, applying the transformations previously solved to the object intensity, variance and mask images output from any of the previous stages, and uses a standard star observation to generate an inverse sensitivity curve which is applied to the corresponding observations to flux calibrate them.

This pipeline has been superseded by KCWI_DRP (ascl:2301.019).

[ascl:1712.001]
KDUtils: Kinematic Distance Utilities

The Kinematic Distance utilities (KDUtils) calculate kinematic distances and kinematic distance uncertainties. The package includes methods to calculate "traditional" kinematic distances as well as a Monte Carlo method to calculate kinematic distances and uncertainties.

[ascl:1702.007]
KEPLER: General purpose 1D multizone hydrodynamics code

KEPLER is a general purpose stellar evolution/explosion code that incorporates implicit hydrodynamics and a detailed treatment of nuclear burning processes. It has been used to study the complete evolution of massive and supermassive stars, all major classes of supernovae, hydrostatic and explosive nucleosynthesis, and x- and gamma-ray bursts on neutron stars and white dwarfs.

[ascl:2105.021]
Kepler's Goat Herd: Solving Kepler's equation via contour integration

Kepler's Goat Herd solves Kepler's equation using contour integration to solve the "geometric goat problem". The C++ code implements a variety of solution: 1.) Newton-Raphson: The quadratic Newton-Raphson root finder; 2.) Danby: The quartic root; 3.) Series: An elliptical series method; and 4.) Contour: A new method based on contour integration. Given an array of mean anomalies, an eccentricity and a desired precision, the code estimates the eccentric anomaly using each method. The accuracy of each approach is increased until the desired precision is reached, and timing is performed using the C++ chrono package.

[ascl:2308.012]
KeplerFit: Keplerian velocity distribution model fitter

Bosco, Felix; Beuther, H.; Ahmadi, A.; Mottram, J. C; Kuiper, R.; Linz, H.; Maud, L.; Winters, J. M.; Henning, T.; Feng, S.; Peters, T.; Semenov, D.; Klaassen, P. D.; Schilke, P.; Urquhart, J. S.; Beltrán, M. T.; Lumsden, S. L.; Leurini, S.; Moscadelli, L.; Cesaroni, R.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Palau, A.; Pudritz, R.; Wyrowski, F.; Longmore, S.

KeplerFit fits a Keplerian velocity distribution model to position-velocity (PV) data to obtain an estimate of the enclosed mass. The code extracts the scales of the pixels in both directions, spatial and spectral, then extracts the most extreme velocity at each position; this returns two arrays of positions and velocities. KeplerFit then models the extracted PV data and returns a set of the best-fit parameters, the standard deviations in each of the parameters, and the total residual of the fit.

[ascl:2107.027]
KeplerPORTS: Kepler Planet Occurrence Rate Tools

KeplerPORTS calculates the detection efficiency of the DR25 Kepler Pipeline. It uses a detection contour model to quantify the recoverability of transiting planet signals due to the Kepler pipeline, and accurately portrays the ability of the Kepler pipeline to generate a Threshold Crossing Event (TCE) for a given hypothetical planet.

[ascl:1706.012]
KeplerSolver: Kepler equation solver

KeplerSolver solves Kepler's equation for arbitrary epoch and eccentricity, using continued fractions. It is written in C and its speed is nearly the same as the SWIFT routines, while achieving machine precision. It comes with a test program to demonstrate usage.

[ascl:1806.022]
Keras: The Python Deep Learning library

Keras is a high-level neural networks API written in Python and capable of running on top of TensorFlow, CNTK, or Theano. It focuses on enabling fast experimentation.

[ascl:2305.012]
KERN: Radio telescope toolkit

KERN contains most of the standard tools needed to work with radio telescope data. The suite saves time and reduces frustration in setting up of scientific pipelines, and also improves scientific reproducibility. It includes a wide variety of packages, including 21cmfast (ascl:1102.023), BRATS (ascl:1806.025), CARTA (ascl:2103.031), casacore (ascl:1912.002), CubiCal (ascl:1805.031), DDFacet (ascl:2305.008), PyBDSF (ascl:1502.007),TiRiFiC (ascl:1208.008), WSClean (ascl:1408.023), and many others. KERN can be run on a supported platform such as Ubuntu, with Docker and Singularity, or in a virtual machine.

[ascl:1708.021]
KERTAP: Strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes

KERTAP computes the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles.

[ascl:1502.020]
ketu: Exoplanet candidate search code

ketu, written in Python, searches K2 light curves for evidence of exoplanets; the code simultaneously fits for systematic effects caused by small (few-pixel) drifts in the telescope pointing and other spacecraft issues and the transit signals of interest. Though more computationally expensive than standard search algorithms, it can be efficiently implemented and used to discover transit signals.

[ascl:2011.027]
kiauhoku: Stellar model grid interpolation

Claytor, Zachary R.; van Saders, Jennifer L.; Santos, Ângela R. G.; García, Rafael A.; Mathur, Savita; Tayar, Jamie; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Shetrone, Matthew

Kiauhoku interacts with, manipulates, and interpolates between stellar evolutionary tracks in a model grid. It was built for interacting with YREC models, but other stellar evolution model grids, including MIST, Dartmouth, and GARSTEC, are also available.

[ascl:2305.005]
killMS: Direction-dependent radio interferometric calibration package

killMS implements two very efficient algorithms for solving the Direction-Dependent calibration problem (also known as third generation calibration). This problem naturally arises in the Radio Interferometry Measurement Equation (RIME), but only became overwhelmingly problematic with the construction of the SKA precursors and pathfinders. Solving for the DDE calibration problem basically consists in inverting a number of non-linear equations, while the system is very large and often subject to ill conditioning. The two algorithms killMS uses are based on complex optimization techniques and exploit algorithmic shortcuts; killMS also runs an extended Kalman filter.

[ascl:2306.052]
kilopop: Binary neutron star population of optical kilonovae

kilopop produces binary neutron star kilonovae in the grey-body approximation. It can also create populations of these objects useful for forecasting detection and testing observing scenarios. Additionally, it uses an emulator for the grey-opacity of the material calibrated against a suite of numerical radiation transport simulations with the code SuperNu (ascl:2103.019).

[ascl:2302.014]
kima: Exoplanet detection in RVs with DNest4 and GPs

kima fits Keplerian curves to a set of RV measurements, using the Diffusive Nested Sampling (ascl:1010.029) algorithm to sample the posterior distribution for the model parameters. Additionally, the code can calculate the fully marginalized likelihood of a model with a given number of Keplerians and also infer the number of Keplerian signals detected in a given dataset. kima implements dedicated models for different analyses of a given dataset. The models share a common organization, but each has its own parameters (and thus priors) and settings.

[ascl:2403.003]
kinematic_scaleheight: Infer the vertical distribution of clouds in the solar neighborhood

kinematic_scaleheight uses MCMC methods to kinematically estimate the vertical distribution of clouds in the Galactic plane, including the least squares analysis of Crovisier (1978), an updated least squares analysis using a modern Galactic rotation model, and a Bayesian model sampled via MCMC as described in Wenger et al. (2024).

[ascl:1403.019]
KINEMETRY: Analysis of 2D maps of kinematic moments of LOSVD

KINEMETRY, written in IDL, analyzes 2D maps of the moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD). It generalizes the surface photometry to all moments of the LOSVD. It performs harmonic expansion of 2D maps of observed moments (surface brightness, velocity, velocity dispersion, h3, h4, etc.) along the best fitting ellipses (either fixed or free to change along the radii) to robustly quantify maps of the LOSVD moments, describe trends in structures, and detect morphological and kinematic sub-components.

[ascl:2008.001]
kinesis: Kinematic modeling of clusters

Kinesis fits the internal kinematics of a star cluster with astrometry and (incomplete) radial velocity data of its members. In the most general model, the stars can be a mixture of background (contamination) and the cluster, for which the (3,3) velocity dispersion matrix and velocity gradient (*i.e.*, dv_x/dx and dv_y/dx) are included. There are also simpler versions of the most general model and utilities to generate mock clusters and mock observations.

[ascl:2006.003]
KinMS: Three-dimensional kinematic modeling of arbitrary gas distributions

The KinMS (KINematic Molecular Simulation) package simulates observations of arbitrary molecular/atomic cold gas distributions from interferometers and line observations from integral field units. This modeling tool is optimized for situations where one has analytic forms for *e.g.* the rotation curve and/or surface brightness profiles (and may want to fit the parameters of these parametric models). It can, however, also be used as a tilted-ring modelling code. The routines are flexible and have been used in various different applications, including investigating the kinematics of molecular gas in early-type galaxies and determining supermassive black-hole masses from CO interferometric observations. They are also useful for creating mock observations from hydrodynamic simulations, and input data-cubes for further simulation in, for example, CASA's (ascl:1107.013) sim_observe tool. Interactive Data Language (IDL) and Python versions of the code are available.

[ascl:1401.001]
Kirin: N-body simulation library for GPUs

The use of graphics processing units offers an attractive alternative to specialized hardware, like GRAPE. The Kirin library mimics the behavior of the GRAPE hardware and uses the GPU to execute the force calculations. It is compatible with the GRAPE6 library; existing code that uses the GRAPE6 library can be recompiled and relinked to use the GPU equivalents of the GRAPE6 functions. All functions in the GRAPE6 library have an equivalent GPU implementation. Kirin can be used for direct N-body simulations as well as for treecodes; it can be run with shared-time steps or with block time-steps and allows non-softened potentials. As Kirin makes use of CUDA, it works only on NVIDIA GPUs.

[submitted]
Kliko - The Scientific Compute Container Format

We present Kliko, a Docker based container specification for running one or multiple related compute jobs. The key concepts of Kliko is the encapsulation of data processing software into a container and the formalisation of the input, output and task parameters. Formalisation is realised by bundling a container with a Kliko file, which describes the IO and task parameters. This Kliko container can then be opened and run by a Kliko runner. The Kliko runner will parse the Kliko definition and gather the values for these parameters, for example by requesting user input or pre defined values in a script. Parameters can be various primitive types, for example float, int or the path to a file. This paper will also discuss the implementation of a support library named Kliko which can be used to create Kliko containers, parse Kliko definitions, chain Kliko containers in workflows using, for example, Luigi a workflow manager. The Kliko library can be used inside the container interact with the Kliko runner. Finally this paper will discuss two reference implementations based on Kliko: RODRIGUES, a web based Kliko container schedular and output visualiser specifically for astronomical data, and VerMeerKAT, a multi container workflow data reduction pipeline which is being used as a prototype pipeline for the commisioning of the MeerKAT radio telescope.

[ascl:2008.003]
KLLR: Kernel Localized Linear Regression

Farahi, Arya; Evrard, August E.; McCarthy, Ian; Barnes, David J.; Kay, Scott T.; Anbajagane, Dhayaa; Dolag, Klaus; McCarthy, Ian G.; Nelson, Dylan; Pillepich, Annalisa

KLLR (Kernel Localized Linear Regression) generates estimates of conditional statistics in terms of the local slope, normalization, and covariance. This method provides a more nuanced description of population statistics appropriate for very large samples with non-linear trends. The code uses a bootstrap re-sampling technique to estimate the uncertainties and also provides tools to seamlessly generate visualizations of the model parameters.

[ascl:1606.012]
KMDWARFPARAM: Parameters estimator for K and M dwarf stars

KMDWARFPARAM estimates the physical parameters of a star with mass M < 0.8 M_sun given one or more observational constraints. The code runs a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo procedure to estimate the parameter values and their uncertainties.

[ascl:2106.001]
KOBE: Kepler Observes Bern Exoplanets

KOBE (Kepler Observes Bern Exoplanets) adds the geometrical limitations and the physical detection biases of the transit method to a given population of theoretical planets. In addition, it also adds the completeness and reliability of a transit survey.

[ascl:2004.010]
kombine: Kernel-density-based parallel ensemble sampler

kombine is an ensemble sampler built for efficiently exploring multimodal distributions. By using estimates of ensemble’s instantaneous distribution as a proposal, it achieves very fast burnin, followed by sampling with very short autocorrelation times.

[ascl:2211.016]
Korg: 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium stellar spectral synthesis

Korg computes stellar spectra from 1D model atmospheres and linelists assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium and implements both plane-parallel and spherical radiative transfer. The code is generally faster than other codes, and is compatible with automatic differentiation libraries and easily extensible, making it ideal for statistical inference and parameter estimation applied to large data sets.

[ascl:1504.013]
kozai: Hierarchical triple systems evolution

The kozai Python package evolves hierarchical triple systems in the secular approximation. As its name implies, the kozai package is useful for studying Kozai-Lidov oscillations. The kozai package can represent and evolve hierarchical triples using either the Delaunay orbital elements or the angular momentum and eccentricity vectors. kozai contains functions to calculate the period of Kozai-Lidov oscillations and the maximum eccentricity reached; it also contains a module to study octupole order effects by averaging over individual Kozai-Lidov oscillations.

[ascl:1807.027]
kplr: Tools for working with Kepler data using Python

kplr provides a lightweight Pythonic interface to the catalog of planet candidates (Kepler Objects of Interest [KOIs]) in the NASA Exoplanet Archive and the data stored in the Barbara A. Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). kplr automatically supports loading Kepler data using pyfits (ascl:1207.009) and supports two types of data: light curves and target pixel files.

[ascl:1609.003]
Kranc: Cactus modules from Mathematica equations

Kranc turns a tensorial description of a time dependent partial differential equation into a module for the Cactus Computational Toolkit (ascl:1102.013). This Mathematica application takes a simple continuum description of a problem and generates highly efficient and portable code, and can be used both for rapid prototyping of evolution systems and for high performance supercomputing.

[ascl:1402.011]
KROME: Chemistry package for astrophysical simulations

Grassi, Tommaso; Bovino, Stefano; Prieto, Joaquín; Seifried, Daniel; Simoncini, Eugenio; Gianturco, Francesco; Schleicher, Dominik

KROME, given a chemical network (in CSV format), automatically generates all the routines needed to solve the kinetics of the system modeled as a system of coupled Ordinary Differential Equations. It provides a large set of physical processes connected to chemistry, including photochemistry, cooling, heating, dust treatment, and reverse kinetics. KROME is flexible and can be used for a wide range of astrophysical simulations. The package contains a network for primordial chemistry, a small metal network appropriate for the modeling of low metallicities environments, a detailed network for the modeling of molecular clouds, and a network for planetary atmospheres as well as a framework for the modelling of the dust grain population.

[ascl:1505.004]
KS Integration: Kelvin-Stokes integration

KS Intergration solves for mutual photometric effects produced by planets and spots allowing for analysis of planetary occultations of spots and spots regions. It proceeds by identifying integrable and non integrable arcs on the objects profiles and analytically calculates the solution exploiting the power of Kelvin-Stokes theorem. It provides the solution up to the second degree of the limb darkening law.

[ascl:1804.026]
KSTAT: KD-tree Statistics Package

KSTAT calculates the 2 and 3-point correlation functions in discreet point data. These include the two-point correlation function in 2 and 3-dimensions, the anisotripic 2PCF decomposed in either sigma-pi or Kazin's dist. mu projection. The 3-point correlation function can also work in anisotropic coordinates. The code is based on kd-tree structures and is parallelized using a mixture of MPI and OpenMP.

[ascl:1807.028]
ktransit: Exoplanet transit modeling tool in python

The routines in ktransit create and fit a transiting planet model. The underlying model is a Fortran implementation of the Mandel & Agol (2002) limb darkened transit model. The code calculates a full orbital model and eccentricity can be allowed to vary; radial velocity data can also be calculated via the model and included in the fit.

[ascl:1407.011]
kungifu: Calibration and reduction of fiber-fed IFU astronomical spectroscopy

kungifu is a set of IDL software routines designed for the calibration and reduction of fiber-fed integral-field unit (IFU) astronomical spectroscopy. These routines can perform optimal extraction of IFU data and allow relative and absolute wavelength calibration to within a few hundredths of a pixel (for unbinned data) across 1200-2000 fibers. kungifu does nearly Poisson-limited sky subtraction, even in the I band, and can rebin in wavelength. The Princeton IDLUTILS and IDLSPEC2D packages must be installed for kungifu to run.

[ascl:2311.004]
KvW: Modified Kwee–Van Woerden method for eclipse minimum timing with reliable error estimates

The KvW code applies the Kwee Van Woerden (KvW) method for eclipse or transit minimum timing, with an improved error calculation that avoids underestimated errors in minimum times that may appear in the original method. This is particularly the case for low-noise eclipse or transit lightcurves from space or from modern ground instrumentation. The code requires an input light curve of near-equidistant points that contains only the eclipse, without any off-eclipse points, and is available in python and IDL. Both implementaitons return an eclipse minimum time with its error and provide optional text output and plots, as well as several levels of debug information.

[ascl:1507.004]
L-PICOLA: Fast dark matter simulation code

L-PICOLA generates and evolves a set of initial conditions into a dark matter field and can include primordial non-Gaussianity in the simulation and simulate the past lightcone at run-time, with optional replication of the simulation volume. It is a fast, distributed-memory, planar-parallel code. L-PICOLA is extremely useful for both current and next generation large-scale structure surveys.

[ascl:1207.005]
L.A.Cosmic: Laplacian Cosmic Ray Identification

Conventional algorithms for rejecting cosmic rays in single CCD exposures rely on the contrast between cosmic rays and their surroundings and may produce erroneous results if the point-spread function is smaller than the largest cosmic rays. This code uses a robust algorithm for cosmic-ray rejection, based on a variation of Laplacian edge detection. The algorithm identifies cosmic rays of arbitrary shapes and sizes by the sharpness of their edges and reliably discriminates between poorly sampled point sources and cosmic rays. Examples of its performance are given for spectroscopic and imaging data, including Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images, in the code paper.

[ascl:2112.024]
l1p: Python implementation of the l1 periodogram

The l1 periodogram searches for periodicities in unevenly sampled time series. It can be used similarly as a Lomb-Scargle periodogram, and retrieves a figure which has a similar aspect but has fewer peaks due to aliasing. It is primarily designed for the search of exoplanets in radial velocity data, but can be also used for other purposes. The principle of the algorithm is to search for a representation of the input signal as a sum of a small number of sinusoidal components, that is a representation which is sparse in the frequency domain. Here, "small number" means small compared to the number of observations.

[ascl:1601.011]
LACEwING: LocAting Constituent mEmbers In Nearby Groups

LACEwING (LocAting Constituent mEmbers In Nearby Groups) uses the kinematics (positions and motions) of stars to determine if they are members of one of 10 nearby young moving groups or 4 nearby open clusters within 100 parsecs. It is written for Python 2.7 and depends upon Numpy, Scipy, and Astropy (ascl:1304.002) modules. LACEwING can be used as a stand-alone code or as a module in other code. Additional python programs are present in the repository for the purpose of recalibrating the code and producing other analyses, including a traceback analysis.

[ascl:2104.008]
LaFuLi: NASA Langley Fu-Liou radiative transfer code

The NASA Langley Fu-Liou radiative transfer code (also known as Ed4 LaRC Fu-Liou) computes broadband solar shortwave and thermal long wave profiles of down-welling and up-welling flux accounting for gas absorption by H2O, CO2, O3, O2, CH4, N2O and CFCs and absorption and scattering by clouds and aerosols. Longwave has options of a four-stream or 2/4 stream solver, while shortwave has options for two-stream, four-stream or Gamma weighted two-stream (GWTSA) which treats the inhomogeniety of cloud optical depth. A delta-Eddington approximation is used to treat the forward scattering peak. Water cloud properties are based on Mie calculations and ice cloud properties or the ice particle aspect ratio. Aerosol properties are given for 25 types.

[ascl:2012.021]
LALSuite: LIGO Scientific Collaboration Algorithm Library Suite

LALSuite contains numerous gravitational wave analysis libraries. Written primarily in C, the libraries include math and signal analysis packages such as for vector manipulation, FFT, statistics, time-domain filtering, and numerical and signal injection routines. The libraries also include date and time and datatype factory routines, in addition to general and support tools and a variety of Python packages. Also included are packages for gravitational waveform and noise generation, burst gravitational wave data analysis, inspiral and ringdown CBC gravitational wave data analysis, pulsar and continuous wave gravitational wave data analysis, and Bayesian inference data analysis. Various wrappers and other tools are also included.

[ascl:1604.003]
LAMBDAR: Lambda Adaptive Multi-Band Deblending Algorithm in R

LAMBDAR measures galaxy fluxes from an arbitrary FITS image, covering an arbitrary photometric wave-band, when provided all parameters needed to construct galactic apertures at the required locations for multi-band matched aperture galactic photometry. Through sophisticated matched aperture photometry, the package develops robust Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) and accurately establishes the physical properties of galactic objects. LAMBDAR was based on a package detailed in Bourne et al. (2012) that determined galactic fluxes in low resolution Herschel images.

[ascl:1010.077]
LAMDA: Leiden Atomic and Molecular Database

LAMDA provides users of radiative transfer codes with the basic atomic and molecular data needed for the excitation calculation. Line data of a number of astrophysically interesting species are summarized, including energy levels, statistical weights, Einstein A-coefficients and collisional rate coefficients. Available collisional data from quantum chemical calculations and experiments are in some cases extrapolated to higher energies. Currently the database contains atomic data for 3 species and molecular data for 28 different species. In addition, several isotopomers and deuterated versions are available. This database should form an important tool in analyzing observations from current and future infrared and (sub)millimetre telescopes. Databases such as these rely heavily on the efforts by the chemical physics community to provide the relevant atomic and molecular data. Further efforts in this direction are strongly encouraged so that the current extrapolations of collisional rate coefficients can be replaced by actual calculations in future releases.

RADEX (ascl:1010.075), a computer program for performing statistical equilibrium calculations, is made publicly available as part of the data base.

[ascl:1409.003]
LANL*: Radiation belt drift shell modeling

LANL* calculates the magnetic drift invariant L*, used for modeling radiation belt dynamics and other space weather applications, six orders of magnitude (~ one million times) faster than convectional approaches that require global numerical field lines tracing and integration. It is based on a modern machine learning technique (feed-forward artificial neural network) by supervising a large data pool obtained from the IRBEM library, which is the traditional source for numerically calculating the L* values. The pool consists of about 100,000 samples randomly distributed within the magnetosphere (r: [1.03, 11.5] Re) and within a whole solar cycle from 1/1/1994 to 1/1/2005. There are seven LANL* models, each corresponding to its underlying magnetic field configuration that is used to create the data sample pool. This model has applications to real-time radiation belt forecasting, analysis of data sets involving tens of satellite-years of observations, and other problems in space weather.

[ascl:2104.020]
LAPACK: Linear Algebra PACKage

LAPACK provides routines for solving systems of simultaneous linear equations, least-squares solutions of linear systems of equations, eigenvalue problems, and singular value problems. The associated matrix factorizations (LU, Cholesky, QR, SVD, Schur, generalized Schur) are also provided, as are related computations such as reordering of the Schur factorizations and estimating condition numbers. Dense and banded matrices are handled, but not general sparse matrices. In all areas, similar functionality is provided for real and complex matrices, in both single and double precision. The list of LAPACK Contributors is available online.

[ascl:1703.001]
Larch: X-ray Analysis for Synchrotron Applications using Python

Larch is an open-source library and toolkit written in Python for processing and analyzing X-ray spectroscopic data. The primary emphasis is on X-ray spectroscopic and scattering data collected at modern synchrotron sources. Larch provides a wide selection of general-purpose processing, analysis, and visualization tools for processing X-ray data; its related target application areas include X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) maps, quantitative X-ray fluorescence, X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), and X-ray standing waves and surface scattering. Larch provides a complete set of XAFS Analysis tools and has support for visualizing and analyzing XRF maps and spectra, and additional tools for X-ray spectral analysis, data handling, and general-purpose data modeling.

[ascl:1208.015]
Lare3d: Lagrangian-Eulerian remap scheme for MHD

Lare3d is a Lagrangian-remap code for solving the non-linear MHD equations in three spatial dimensions.

[ascl:1806.021]
LASR: Linear Algorithm for Significance Reduction

LASR removes stellar variability in the light curves of δ-Scuti and similar stars. It subtracts oscillations from a time series by minimizing their statistical significance in frequency space.

[ascl:2010.006]
LaSSI: Large-Scale Structure Information

LaSSI produces forecasts for the LSST 3x2 point functions analysis, or the LSSTxCMB S4 and LSSTxSO 6x2 point functions analyses using a Fisher matrix. It computes the auto and cross correlations of galaxy number density, galaxy shear and CMB lensing convergence. The software includes the effect of Gaussian and outlier photo-z errors, shear multiplicative bias, linear galaxy bias, and extensions to ΛCDM.

[ascl:2306.033]
lasso_spectra: Predict properties from galaxy spectra using Lasso regression

Jensen, Hannes; Zackrisson, Erik; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Binggeli, Christian; Ausmees, Kristiina; Lundholm, Ulrika

lasso_spectra fits Lasso regression models to data, specifically galaxy spectra. It contains two classes for performing the actual model fitting. GeneralizedLasso is a tensorflow implementation of Lasso regression, which includes the ability to use link functions. SKLasso is a wrapper around the scikit-learn Lasso implementation intended to give the same syntax as GeneralizedLasso. It is much faster and more reliable, but does not support generalized linear models.

[ascl:2205.006]
LATTE: Lightcurve Analysis Tool for Transiting Exoplanet

LATTE identifies, vets and characterizes signals in TESS lightcurves to weed out instrumental and astrophysical false positives. The program performs a fast in-depth analysis of targets that have already been identified as promising candidates by the main TESS pipelines or via alternative methods such as citizen science. The code automatically downloads the data products for any chosen TIC ID (short or long cadence TESS data) and produces a number of diagnostic plots that are compiled in a concise report.

[ascl:1911.015]
LATTICEEASY: Lattice simulator for evolving interacting scalar fields in an expanding universe

LATTICEEASY creates lattice simulations of the evolution of interacting scalar fields in an expanding universe. The program can do runs with different parameters and new models can be easily introduced for evaluation. Simulations can be done in one, two, or three dimensions by resetting a single variable. Mathematica notebooks for plotting the output and a range of models are also available for download; a parallel processing version of LATTICEEASY called CLUSTEREASY (ascl:1911.016) is also available.

[ascl:1202.011]
Lattimer-Swesty Equation of State Code

The Lattimer-Swesty Equation of State code is rapid enough to use directly in hydrodynamical simulations such as stellar collapse calculations. It contains an adjustable nuclear force that accurately models both potential and mean-field interactions and allows for the input of various nuclear parameters, including the bulk incompressibility parameter, the bulk and surface symmetry energies, the symmetric matter surface tension, and the nucleon effective masses. This permits parametric studies of the equation of state in astrophysical situations. The equation of state is modeled after the Lattimer, Lamb, Pethick, and Ravenhall (LLPR) compressible liquid drop model for nuclei, and includes the effects of interactions and degeneracy of the nucleon outside nuclei.

[ascl:2210.018]
LavAtmos: Gas-melt equilibrium calculations for a given temperature and melt composition

LavAtmos performs gas-melt equilibrium calculations for a given temperature and melt composition. The thermodynamics of the melt are modeled by the MELTS code as presented in the Thermoengine package (ascl:2208.006). In combination with atmospheric chemistry codes, LavAtmos enables the characterization of interior compositions through atmospheric signatures.

[ascl:2301.014]
LBL: Line-by-line velocity measurements

Artigau, Étienne; Cadieux, Charles; Cook, Neil J.; Doyon, René; Vandal, Thomas; Donati, Jean-François; Moutou, Claire; Delfosse, Xavier; Fouqué, Pascal; Martioli, Eder; Bouchy, François; Parsons, Jasmine; Carmona, Andres; Dumusque, Xavier; Astudillo-Defru, Nicola; Bonfils, Xavier; Mignon, Lucille

LBL derives velocity measurements from high-resolution (R>50 000) datasets by accounting for outliers in the spectra data. It is tailored for fiber-fed multi-order spectrographs, both in optical and near-infrared (up to 2.5µm) domains. The domain is split into individual units (lines) and the velocity and its associated uncertainty are measured within each line and combined through a mixture model to allow for the presence of spurious values. In addition to the velocity, other quantities are also derived, the most important being a value (dW) that can be understood (for a Gaussian line) as a change in the line FWHM. These values provide useful stellar activity indicators. LBL works on data from a variety of instruments, including SPIRou, NIRPS, HARPS, and ESPRESSO. The code's output is an rdb table that can be uploaded to the online DACE pRV analysis tool.

[ascl:1405.001]
LBLRTM: Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model

LBLRTM (Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model) is an accurate line-by-line model that is efficient and highly flexible. LBLRTM attributes provide spectral radiance calculations with accuracies consistent with the measurements against which they are validated and with computational times that greatly facilitate the application of the line-by-line approach to current radiative transfer applications. LBLRTM has been extensively validated against atmospheric radiance spectra from the ultra-violet to the sub-millimeter.

LBLRTM's heritage is in FASCODE [Clough et al., 1981, 1992].

[ascl:1708.017]
LCC: Light Curves Classifier

Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio).

Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.

[ascl:1805.003]
lcps: Light curve pre-selection

lcps searches for transit-like features (i.e., dips) in photometric data. Its main purpose is to restrict large sets of light curves to a number of files that show interesting behavior, such as drops in flux. While lcps is adaptable to any format of time series, its I/O module is designed specifically for photometry of the Kepler spacecraft. It extracts the pre-conditioned PDCSAP data from light curves files created by the standard Kepler pipeline. It can also handle csv-formatted ascii files. lcps uses a sliding window technique to compare a section of flux time series with its surroundings. A dip is detected if the flux within the window is lower than a threshold fraction of the surrounding fluxes.

[ascl:2310.002]
lcsim: Light curve simulation code

lcsim creates artificial light curves using two algorithms. The first simulates Gaussian distributed light curves following a specific power spectral density (PSD) freely selectable by the user. The second algorithm simulates light curves following a specific PSD and matching a specific probability density function (PDF). The package provides methods to resample the simulated light curves and add "observational" noise. Furthermore, the package provides an interface to a SQLite3-based database to store and access the simulations.

[ascl:2205.013]
ld-exosim: Simulate biases using different limb darkening laws

ld-exosim selects the optimal (*i.e.* best estimator in a MSE sense) limb-darkening law for a given transiting exoplanet lightcurve and calculates the limb-darkening induced biases on various exoplanet parameters. Limb-darkening laws include linear, quadratic, logarithmic, square-root and three-parameter laws.

[ascl:1511.018]
LDC3: Three-parameter limb darkening coefficient sampling

LDC3 samples physically permissible limb darkening coefficients for the Sing et al. (2009) three-parameter law. It defines the physically permissible intensity profile as being everywhere-positive, monotonically decreasing from center to limb and having a curl at the limb. The approximate sampling method is analytic and thus very fast, reproducing physically permissible samples in 97.3% of random draws (high validity) and encompassing 94.4% of the physically permissible parameter volume (high completeness).

[ascl:1507.016]
Least Asymmetry: Centering Method

Lust, Nate B.; Britt, Daniel; Harrington, Joseph; Nymeyer, Sarah; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Ross, Emily L.; Bowman, William; Fraine, Jonathan

Least Asymmetry finds the center of a distribution of light in an image using the least asymmetry method; the code also contains center of light and fitting a Gaussian routines. All functions in Least Asymmetry are designed to take optional weights.

[ascl:1104.006]
LECTOR: Line-strengths in One-dimensional ASCII Spectra

LECTOR is a Fortran 77 code that measures line-strengths in one dimensional ascii spectra. The code returns the values of the Lick indices as well as those of Vazdekis & Arimoto 1999, Vazdekis et al. 2001, Rose 1994, Jones & Worthey 1995 and Cenarro et al. 2001. The code measures as many indices as you wish if the limits of two pseudocontinua (at each side of the feature) and the feature itself (i.e. Lick-style index definition) are provided. The Lick-style indices could be either expressed in pseudo-equivalent widths or in magnitudes. If requested the program provides index error estimates on the basis of photon statistics.

[ascl:2307.054]
LEFTfield: Forward modeling of cosmological density fields

LEFTfield forward models cosmological matter density fields and biased tracers of large-scale structure. The model, written in C++ code, is centered around classes encapsulating scalar, vector, and tensor grids. It includes the complete bias expansion at any order in perturbations and captures general expansion histories without relying on the EdS approximation; however, the latter is also implemented and results in substantially smaller computational demands. LEFTfield includes a subset of the nonlinear higher-derivative terms in the bias expansion of general tracers.

[ascl:2204.003]
legacystamps: Retrieve DESI Legacy Imaging Surveys cutouts

The Python module legacystamps provides easy retrieval, both standalone and scripted, of FITS and JPEG cutouts from the DESI Legacy Imaging Surveys through URLs provided by the Legacy Survey viewer.

[ascl:2010.013]
Legolas: Large Eigensystem Generator for One-dimensional pLASmas

Legolas (Large Eigensystem Generator for One-dimensional pLASmas) is a finite element code for MHD spectroscopy of 1D Cartesian/cylindrical equilibria with flow that balance pressure gradients, enriched with various non-adiabatic effects. The code's capabilities range from full spectrum calculations to eigenfunctions of specific modes to full-on parametric studies of various equilibrium configurations in different geometries.

[ascl:2111.007]
LEGWORK: LISA Evolution and Gravitational Wave ORbit Kit

LEGWORK (LISA Evolution and Gravitational Wave ORbit Kit) is a simple package for gravitational wave calculations. It evolves binaries and computes signal-to-noise ratios for binary systems potentially observable with LISA; it also visualizes the results. LEGWORK can also compare different detector sensitivity curves, compute the horizon distance for a collection of sources, and tracks signal-to-noise evolution over time.

[ascl:1809.001]
LEMON: Differential photometry pipeline

LEMON is a differential-photometry pipeline, written in Python, that determines the changes in the brightness of astronomical objects over time and compiles their measurements into light curves. This code makes it possible to completely reduce thousands of FITS images of time series in a matter of only a few hours, requiring minimal user interaction.

[ascl:2106.014]
Lemon: Linear integral Equations' Monte carlo solver based On the Neumann solution

Lemon solves the radiative transfer (RT) processes that contain scattering. These processes are described by differentio-integral equations with given initial or boundary conditions; Lemon solves these differentio-integral equations, which can be converted into the second kind integral equations of Fredholm. The code then obtains the Neumman solution (a series that consists of infinite terms of multiple integrals) from the Fredholm integral equation, and uses the Monte Carlo (MC) method to evaluate these integrals. Lemon is written in Fortran; IDL programs are included for plotting the results.

[ascl:1905.016]
LensCNN: Gravitational lens detector

The LensCNN (Convolutional Neural Network) identifies images containing gravitational lensing systems after being trained and tested on simulated images, recovering most systems that are identifiable by eye.

[ascl:1505.026]
Lensed: Forward parametric modelling of strong lenses

Lensed performs forward parametric modelling of strong lenses. Using a provided model, Lensed renders the expected image of the lensing event for a large number of parameter settings, thereby exploring the space of possible realizations of the observation. It compares the expectation to the observed image by calculating the likelihood that the observation was indeed produced by the assumed model, thus reconstructing the probability distribution over the parameter space of the model. Written in C, the code uses a massively parallel ray-tracing kernel to perform the necessary calculations on a graphics processing unit (GPU), making the precise rendering of the background lensed sources fast and allowing the simultaneous optimization of tens of parameters for the selected model.

[ascl:1308.004]
LensEnt2: Maximum-entropy weak lens reconstruction

LensEnt2 is a maximum entropy reconstructor of weak lensing mass maps. The method takes each galaxy shape as an independent estimator of the reduced shear field and incorporates an intrinsic smoothness, determined by Bayesian methods, into the reconstruction. The uncertainties from both the intrinsic distribution of galaxy shapes and galaxy shape estimation are carried through to the final mass reconstruction, and the mass within arbitrarily shaped apertures are calculated with corresponding uncertainties. The input is a galaxy ellipticity catalog with each measured galaxy shape treated as a noisy tracer of the reduced shear field, which is inferred on a fine pixel grid assuming positivity, and smoothness on scales of w arcsec where w is an input parameter. The ICF width w can be chosen by computing the evidence for it.

[ascl:2210.027]
LensingETC: Lensing Exposure Time Calculator

Shajib, Anowar J.; Glazebrook, Karl; Barone, Tania; Lewis, Geraint F.; Jones, Tucker; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; Collett, Thomas E.; Frieman, Joshua; Jacobs, Colin

LensingETC optimizes observing strategies for multi-filter imaging campaigns of galaxy-scale strong lensing systems. It uses the lens modelling software lenstronomy (ascl:1804.012) to simulate and model mock imaging data, forecasts the lens model parameter uncertainties, and optimizes observing strategies.

[ascl:2102.021]
lensingGW: Lensing of gravitational waves

lensingGW simulates lensed gravitational waves in ground-based interferometers from arbitrary compact binaries and lens models. Its algorithm resolves strongly lensed images and microimages simultaneously, such as the images resulting from hundreds of microlenses embedded in galaxies and galaxy clusters. It is based on Lenstronomy (ascl:1804.012),

[ascl:9903.001]
LENSKY: Galactic Microlensing Probability

Given a model for the Galaxy, this program computes the microlensing rate in any direction. Program features include the ability to include the brightness of the lens and to compute the probability of lens detection at any level of lensing amplification. The program limits itself to lensing by single stars of single sources. The program is currently setup to accept input from the Galactic models of Bahcall and Soniera (1982, 1986).

There are three files needed for LENSKY, the Fortran file lensky.for and two input files: galmod.dsk (15 Megs) and galmod.sph (22 Megs). The zip file available below contains all three files. The program generates output to the file lensky.out. The program is pretty self-explanatory past that.

[ascl:1010.050]
LensPerfect: Gravitational Lens Massmap Reconstructions Yielding Exact Reproduction of All Multiple Images

LensPerfect is a new approach to the massmap reconstruction of strong gravitational lenses. Conventional methods iterate over possible lens models which reproduce the observed multiple image positions well but not exactly. LensPerfect only produces solutions which fit all of the data exactly. Magnifications and shears of the multiple images can also be perfectly constrained to match observations.

[ascl:1102.025]
LensPix: Fast MPI full sky transforms for HEALPix

Modelling of the weak lensing of the CMB will be crucial to obtain correct cosmological parameter constraints from forthcoming precision CMB anisotropy observations. The lensing affects the power spectrum as well as inducing non-Gaussianities. We discuss the simulation of full sky CMB maps in the weak lensing approximation and describe a fast numerical code. The series expansion in the deflection angle cannot be used to simulate accurate CMB maps, so a pixel remapping must be used. For parameter estimation accounting for the change in the power spectrum but assuming Gaussianity is sufficient to obtain accurate results up to Planck sensitivity using current tools. A fuller analysis may be required to obtain accurate error estimates and for more sensitive observations. We demonstrate a simple full sky simulation and subsequent parameter estimation at Planck-like sensitivity.

[ascl:1705.009]
LensPop: Galaxy-galaxy strong lensing population simulation

LensPop simulates observations of the galaxy-galaxy strong lensing population in the Dark Energy Survey (DES), the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and Euclid surveys.

[ascl:2010.010]
lenspyx: Curved-sky python lensed CMB maps simulation package

lenspyx creates curved-sky python lensed CMB maps simulations; the software allows those familiar with healpy (ascl:2008.022) to build very easily lensed CMB simulations. Parallelization is done with openmp. The numerical cost is approximately that of an high-res harmonic transform. lenspyx provides two methods to build a simulation; one method computes a deflected spin-0 healpix map from its alm and deflection field alm, and the other computes a deflected spin-weight Healpix map from its gradient and curl modes and deflection field alm. lenspyx can be used in conjunction with the Planck 2018 CMB lensing pipeline plancklens (ascl:2010.009) to reproduce the published map and band-powers.

[ascl:1905.017]
LensQuEst: CMB Lensing QUadratic Estimator

LensQuEst forecasts the signal-to-noise of CMB lensing estimators (standard, shear-only, magnification-only), generates mock maps, lenses them, and applies various lensing estimators to them. It can manipulate flat sky maps in various ways, including FFT, filtering, power spectrum, generating Gaussian random field, and applying lensing to a map, and evaluate these estimators on flat sky maps.

[ascl:1102.004]
LENSTOOL: A Gravitational Lensing Software for Modeling Mass Distribution of Galaxies and Clusters (strong and weak regime)

We describe a procedure for modelling strong lensing galaxy clusters with parametric methods, and to rank models quantitatively using the Bayesian evidence. We use a publicly available Markov chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) sampler ('Bayesys'), allowing us to avoid local minima in the likelihood functions. To illustrate the power of the MCMC technique, we simulate three clusters of galaxies, each composed of a cluster-scale halo and a set of perturbing galaxy-scale subhalos. We ray-trace three light beams through each model to produce a catalogue of multiple images, and then use the MCMC sampler to recover the model parameters in the three different lensing configurations. We find that, for typical Hubble Space Telescope (HST)-quality imaging data, the total mass in the Einstein radius is recovered with ~1-5% error according to the considered lensing configuration. However, we find that the mass of the galaxies is strongly degenerated with the cluster mass when no multiple images appear in the cluster centre. The mass of the galaxies is generally recovered with a 20% error, largely due to the poorly constrained cut-off radius. Finally, we describe how to rank models quantitatively using the Bayesian evidence. We confirm the ability of strong lensing to constrain the mass profile in the central region of galaxy clusters in this way. Ultimately, such a method applied to strong lensing clusters with a very large number of multiple images may provide unique geometrical constraints on cosmology.

[ascl:1602.009]
LensTools: Weak Lensing computing tools

LensTools implements a wide range of routines frequently used in Weak Gravitational Lensing, including tools for image analysis, statistical processing and numerical theory predictions. The package offers many useful features, including complete flexibility and easy customization of input/output formats; efficient measurements of power spectrum, PDF, Minkowski functionals and peak counts of convergence maps; survey masks; artificial noise generation engines; easy to compute parameter statistical inferences; ray tracing simulations; and many others. It requires standard numpy and scipy, and depending on tools used, may require Astropy (ascl:1304.002), emcee (ascl:1303.002), matplotlib, and mpi4py.

[ascl:1804.012]
Lenstronomy: Multi-purpose gravitational lens modeling software package

Lenstronomy is a multi-purpose open-source gravitational lens modeling python package. Lenstronomy reconstructs the lens mass and surface brightness distributions of strong lensing systems using forward modelling and supports a wide range of analytic lens and light models in arbitrary combination. The software is also able to reconstruct complex extended sources as well as point sources. Lenstronomy is flexible and numerically accurate, with a clear user interface that could be deployed across different platforms. Lenstronomy has been used to derive constraints on dark matter properties in strong lenses, measure the expansion history of the universe with time-delay cosmography, measure cosmic shear with Einstein rings, and decompose quasar and host galaxy light.

[ascl:1307.005]
LENSVIEW: Resolved gravitational lens images modeling

Lensview models resolved gravitational lens systems based on LensMEM but using the Skilling & Bryan MEM algorithm. Though its primary purpose is to find statistically acceptable lens models for lensed images and to reconstruct the surface brightness profile of the source, LENSVIEW can also be used for more simple tasks such as projecting a given source through a lens model to generate a “true” image by conserving surface brightness. The user can specify complicated lens models based on one or more components, such as softened isothermal ellipsoids, point masses, exponential discs, and external shears; LENSVIEW generates a best-fitting source matching the observed data for each specific combination of model parameters.

[ascl:1910.011]
LEO-Py: Likelihood Estimation of Observational data with Python

LEO-Py uses a novel technique to compute the likelihood function for data sets with uncertain, missing, censored, and correlated values. It uses Gaussian copulas to decouple the correlation structure of variables and their marginal distributions to compute likelihood functions, thus mitigating inconsistent parameter estimates and accounting for non-normal distributions in variables of interest or their errors.

[ascl:1108.009]
LePHARE: Photometric Analysis for Redshift Estimate

LePHARE is a set of Fortran commands to compute photometric redshifts and to perform SED fitting. The latest version includes new features with FIR fitting and a more complete treatment of physical parameters and uncertainties based on PÉGASE and Bruzual & Charlot population synthesis models. The program is based on a simple chi2 fitting method between the theoretical and observed photometric catalogue. A simulation program is also available in order to generate realistic multi-colour catalogues taking into account observational effects.

[ascl:2208.009]
LeXInt: Leja Exponential Integrators

LeXInt (Leja interpolation for eXponential Integrators) is a temporal exponential integration package using the method of polynomial interpolation at Leja points. Exponential Rosenbrock (EXPRB) and Exponential Propagation Iterative Runge-Kutta (EPIRK) methods use the Leja interpolation method to compute the functions. For linear PDEs, one can get the exact solution (in time) by directly computing the matrix exponential.

[ascl:1711.018]
LExTeS: Link Extraction and Testing Suite

LExTeS (Link Extraction and Testing Suite) extracts hyperlinks from PDF documents, tests the extracted links to see which are broken, and tabulates the results. Though written to support a particular set of PDF documents, the dataset and scripts can be edited for use on other documents.

[ascl:1804.024]
LFlGRB: Luminosity function of long gamma-ray bursts

LFlGRB models the luminosity function (LF) of long Gamma Ray Bursts (lGRBs) by using a sample of Swift and Fermi lGRBs to re-derive the parameters of the Yonetoku correlation and self-consistently estimate pseudo-redshifts of all the bursts with unknown redshifts. The GRB formation rate is modeled as the product of the cosmic star formation rate and a GRB formation efficiency for a given stellar mass.

[ascl:1804.023]
LFsGRB: Binary neutron star merger rate via the luminosity function of short gamma-ray bursts

LFsGRB models the luminosity function (LF) of short Gamma Ray Bursts (sGRBs) by using the available catalog data of all short GRBs (sGRBs) detected till 2017 October, estimating the luminosities via pseudo-redshifts obtained from the Yonetoku correlation, and then assuming a standard delay distribution between the cosmic star formation rate and the production rate of their progenitors. The data are fit well both by exponential cutoff powerlaw and broken powerlaw models. Using the derived parameters of these models along with conservative values in the jet opening angles seen from afterglow observations, the true rate of short GRBs is derived. Assuming a short GRB is produced from each binary neutron star merger (BNSM), the rate of gravitational wave (GW) detections from these mergers are derived for the past, present and future configurations of the GW detector networks.

[ascl:1710.016]
LGMCA: Local-Generalized Morphological Component Analysis

LGMCA (Local-Generalized Morphological Component Analysis) is an extension to GMCA (ascl:1710.015). Similarly to GMCA, it is a Blind Source Separation method which enforces sparsity. The novel aspect of LGMCA, however, is that the mixing matrix changes across pixels allowing LGMCA to deal with emissions sources which vary spatially. These IDL scripts compute the CMB map from WMAP and Planck data; running LGMCA on the WMAP9 temperature products requires the main script and a selection of mandatory files, algorithm parameters and map parameters.

[ascl:1712.016]
LgrbWorldModel: Long-duration Gamma-Ray Burst World Model

LgrbWorldModel is written in Fortran 90 and attempts to model the population distribution of the Long-duration class of Gamma-Ray Bursts (LGRBs) as detected by the NASA's now-defunct Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). It is assumed that the population distribution of LGRBs is well fit by a multivariate log-normal distribution. The best-fit parameters of the distribution are then found by maximizing the likelihood of the observed data by BATSE detectors via a native built-in Adaptive Metropolis-Hastings Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (AMH-MCMC) Sampler.

[ascl:1408.002]
LIA: LWS Interactive Analysis

The Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) was one of two complementary spectrometers on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). LIA (LWS Interactive Analysis) is used for processing data from the LWS. It provides access to the different processing steps, including visualization of intermediate products and interactive manipulation of the data at each stage.

[ascl:1206.009]
Libimf

Libimf provides a collection of programming functions based on the general IMF-algorithm by Pflamm-Altenburg & Kroupa (2006).

[ascl:1502.016]
libnova: Celestial mechanics, astrometry and astrodynamics library

libnova is a general purpose, double precision, celestial mechanics, astrometry and astrodynamics library. Among many other calculations, it can calculate aberration, apparent position, proper motion, planetary positions, orbit velocities and lengths, angular separation of bodies, and hyperbolic motion of bodies.

[ascl:1604.002]
libpolycomp: Compression/decompression library

Libpolycomp compresses and decompresses one-dimensional streams of numbers by means of several algorithms. It is well-suited for time-ordered data acquired by astronomical instruments or simulations. One of the algorithms, called "polynomial compression", combines two widely-used ideas (namely, polynomial approximation and filtering of Fourier series) to achieve substantial compression ratios for datasets characterized by smoothness and lack of noise. Notable examples are the ephemerides of astronomical objects and the pointing information of astronomical telescopes. Other algorithms implemented in this C library are well known and already widely used, e.g., RLE, quantization, deflate (via libz) and Burrows-Wheeler transform (via libbzip2). Libpolycomp can compress the timelines acquired by the Planck/LFI instrument with an overall compression ratio of ~9, while other widely known programs (gzip, bzip2) reach compression ratios less than 1.5.

[ascl:1612.003]
libprofit: Image creation from luminosity profiles

libprofit is a C++ library for image creation based on different luminosity profiles. It offers fast and accurate two-dimensional integration for a useful number of profiles, including Sersic, Core-Sersic, broken-exponential, Ferrer, Moffat, empirical King, point-source and sky, with a simple mechanism for adding new profiles. libprofit provides a utility to read the model and profile parameters from the command-line and generate the corresponding image. It can output the resulting image as text values, a binary stream, or as a simple FITS file. It also provides a shared library exposing an API that can be used by any third-party application. R and Python interfaces are available: ProFit (ascl:1612.004) and PyProfit (ascl:1612.005).

[ascl:1010.020]
Libpsht: Algorithms for Efficient Spherical Harmonic Transforms

Libpsht (or "library for Performing Spherical Harmonic Transforms") is a collection of algorithms for efficient conversion between spatial-domain and spectral-domain representations of data defined on the sphere. The package supports transforms of scalars as well as spin-1 and spin-2 quantities, and can be used for a wide range of pixelisations (including HEALPix, GLESP and ECP). It will take advantage of hardware features like multiple processor cores and floating-point vector operations, if available. Even without this additional acceleration, the employed algorithms are among the most efficient (in terms of CPU time as well as memory consumption) currently being used in the astronomical community.

The library is written in strictly standard-conforming C90, ensuring portability to many different hard- and software platforms, and allowing straightforward integration with codes written in various programming languages like C, C++, Fortran, Python etc.

Libpsht is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL) version 2.

Development on this project has ended; its successor is libsharp (ascl:1402.033).

[ascl:2104.002]
Librarian: The HERA Librarian

The HERA Librarian system keeps track of all the primary data products for the telescope at a given site. The Librarian supports large data volumes and automated data processing capabilities. A web-based application handles human user and automatic requests and interfaces with a backing database and data storage servers. The system supports the long-term data storage of all relevant telescope data, as well as staging data to individual users' directories for processing.

[ascl:1402.033]
libsharp: Library for spherical harmonic transforms

Libsharp is a collection of algorithms for efficient conversion between maps on the sphere and their spherical harmonic coefficients. It supports a wide range of pixelisations (including HEALPix, GLESP, and ECP). This library is a successor of libpsht (ascl:1010.020); it adds MPI support for distributed memory systems and SHTs of fields with arbitrary spin, and also supports new developments in CPU instruction sets like the Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX) or fused multiply-accumulate (FMA) instructions. libsharp is written in portable C99; it provides an interface accessible to other programming languages such as C++, Fortran, and Python.

[ascl:2002.017]
libstempo: Python wrapper for Tempo2

libstempo uses the Tempo2 library (ascl:1210.015) to load a pulsar's tim/par files, providing Python access to the TOAs, the residuals, the timing-model parameters, the fit procedure, and more.

[ascl:2209.018]
libTheSky: Compute positions of celestial bodies and events

libTheSky compute the positions of celestial bodies, such as the Moon, planets, and stars, and events, including conjunctions and eclipses, with great accuracy. Written in Fortran, libTheSky can use different reference frames (heliocentric, geocentric, topocentric) and coordinate systems (ecliptic, equatorial, galactic; spherical, rectangular), and the user can choose low- or high-accuracy calculations, depending on need.

[ascl:2012.008]
LIFELINE: LIne proFiles in massivE coLliding wInd biNariEs

LIFELINE (LIne proFiles in massivE coLliding wInd biNariEs) simulates the X-ray lines profile in colliding wind binaries. The code is self-consistent and computes the distribution of the wind velocity, the characterization of the wind shock region, and the line profile. In addition to perform the overall computation, LIFELINE can use a pre-computed velocity distribution to compute the shock characteristics and the line profile, or use pre-computed shock characteristics and velocity distributions to compute only the line profile.

[ascl:2107.001]
light-curve: Light curve analysis toolbox

light-curve implements the extraction of numerous light curve features suitable for processing alert and archival data for the current ZTF and future Vera Rubin Observatory LSST photometric surveys. These high-performance irregular time series processing tools are written in Rust and Python.

[ascl:2102.006]
Lightbeam: Simulate light through weakly-guiding waveguides

Lightbeam simulates the 3D propagation of light through waveguides of arbitrary geometries. This code package is based off of the finite-differences beam propagation method, and employs a transverse adaptive mesh for extra computational efficiency. Also included are tools to simulate adaptive optics systems for use in conjunction with waveguides, useful in astronomical contexts for simulating coupling devices which transfer telescope light to the science instrument.

[ascl:1403.004]
Lightcone: Light-cone generating script

Lightcone works with simulated galaxy data stored in a relational database to rearrange the data in a shape of a light-cone; simulated galaxy data is expected to be in a box volume. The light-cone constructing script works with output from the SAGE semi-analytic model (ascl:1601.006), but will work with any other model that has galaxy positions (and other properties) saved per snapshots of the simulation volume distributed in time. The database configuration file is set up for PostgreSQL RDBMS, but can be modified for use with any other SQL database.

[ascl:1408.012]
LightcurveMC: An extensible lightcurve simulation program

LightcurveMC is a versatile and easily extended simulation suite for testing the performance of time series analysis tools under controlled conditions. It is designed to be highly modular, allowing new lightcurve types or new analysis tools to be introduced without excessive development overhead. The statistical tools are completely agnostic to how the lightcurve data is generated, and the lightcurve generators are completely agnostic to how the data will be analyzed. The use of fixed random seeds throughout guarantees that the program generates consistent results from run to run.

LightcurveMC can generate periodic light curves having a variety of shapes and stochastic light curves having a variety of correlation properties. It features two error models (Gaussian measurement and signal injection using a randomized sample of base light curves), testing of C1 shape statistic, periodograms, ΔmΔt plots, autocorrelation function plots, peak-finding plots, and Gaussian process regression. The code is written in C++ and R.

[ascl:1812.013]
Lightkurve: Kepler and TESS time series analysis in Python

Lightkurve Collaboration; Cardoso, José Vinícius de Miranda; Hedges, Christina; Gully-Santiago, Michael; Saunders, Nicholas; Cody, Ann Marie; Barclay, Thomas; Hall, Oliver; Sagear, Sheila; Turtelboom, Emma; Zhang, Johnny; Tzanidakis, Andy; Mighell, Ken; Coughlin, Jeff; Bell, Keaton; Berta-Thompson, Zach; Williams, Peter; Dotson, Jessie; Barentsen, Geert

Lightkurve analyzes astronomical flux time series data, in particular the pixels and light curves obtained by NASA’s Kepler, K2, and TESS exoplanet missions. This community-developed Python package is designed to be user friendly to lower the barrier for students, astronomers, and citizen scientists interested in analyzing data from these missions. Lightkurve provides easy tools to download, inspect, and analyze time series data and its documentation is supported by a large syllabus of tutorials.

[ascl:1711.009]
Lightning: SED Fitting Package

Lightning is a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting procedure that quickly and reliably recovers star formation history (SFH) and extinction parameters. The SFH is modeled as discrete steps in time. The code consists of a fully vectorized inversion algorithm to determine SFH step intensities and combines this with a grid-based approach to determine three extinction parameters.

[ascl:1906.007]
limb-darkening: Limb-darkening coefficients generator

Limb-darkening generates limb-darkening coefficients from ATLAS and PHOENIX model atmospheres using arbitrary response functions. The code uses PyFITS (ascl:1207.009) and has several other dependencies, and produces a folder of results with descriptions of the columns contained in each file.

[ascl:2312.017]
LimberJack.jl: Auto-differentiable methods for cosmology

Ruiz-Zapatero, J.; Alonso, D.; García-García, C.; Nicola, A.; Mootoovaloo, A.; Sullivan, J. M.; Bonici, M.; Ferreira, P. G.

LimberJack.jl performs cosmological analyses of 2 point auto- and cross-correlation measurements from galaxy clustering, CMB lensing and weak lensing data. Written in Julia, it obtains gradients for its outputs faster than traditional finite difference methods, making the code greatly synergistic with gradient-based sampling methods such as Hamiltonian Monte Carlo. LimberJack.jl can efficiently exploring parameter spaces with hundreds of dimensions.

[ascl:1107.012]
LIME: Flexible, Non-LTE Line Excitation and Radiation Transfer Method for Millimeter and Far-infrared Wavelengths

LIME solves the molecular and atomic excitation and radiation transfer problem in a molecular gas and predicting emergent spectra. The code works in arbitrary three dimensional geometry using unstructured Delaunay latices for the transport of photons. Various physical models can be used as input, ranging from analytical descriptions over tabulated models to SPH simulations. To generate the Delaunay grid we sample the input model randomly, but weigh the sample probability with the molecular density and other parameters, and thereby we obtain an average grid point separation that scales with the local opacity. Slow convergence of opaque models becomes traceable; when convergence between the level populations, the radiation field, and the point separation has been obtained, the grid is ray-traced to produced images that can readily be compared to observations. LIME is particularly well suited for modeling of ALMA data because of the high dynamic range in scales that can be resolved using this type of grid, and can furthermore deal with overlapping lines of multiple molecular and atomic species.

[ascl:1710.023]
LIMEPY: Lowered Isothermal Model Explorer in PYthon

LIMEPY solves distribution function (DF) based lowered isothermal models. It solves Poisson's equation used on input parameters and offers fast solutions for isotropic/anisotropic, single/multi-mass models, normalized DF values, density and velocity moments, projected properties, and generates discrete samples.

[ascl:2307.042]
LIMpy: Line Intensity Mapping in Python

Roy, Anirban; Valentín-Martínez, Dariannette; Wang, Kailai; Battaglia, Nicholas; van Engelen, Alexander

LIMpy models and analyzes multi-line intensity maps of CII (158 µ), OIII (88 µ), and CO (1-0) to CO (13-12) transitions. It can be used as an analytic model for star formation rate, to simulate line intensity maps based on halo catalogs, and to calculate the power spectrum from simulated maps and the cross-correlated signal between two separate lines. Among other things, LIMpy can also create multi-line luminosity models and determine the multi-line intensity power spectrum.

[ascl:2303.002]
line_selections: Automatic line detection for large spectroscopic surveys

The Python code line_selections reads synthetic "full" spectra and elemental spectra, automatically identifies the detectable lines at a given resolution (provided the linelist used to compute the spectra), and returns a table containing various properties of the lines (*e.g.*, purity, central wavelength, and depth). The code then stores the information in a pandas DataFrame. line_selections demonstrates where chemical information is present in a stellar spectrum, and allows the user to optimize observational strategies, such as choosing resolution and spectra windows, as well as analysis codes with the application of high-quality masks.

[ascl:2007.012]
Line-Stacker: Spectral lines stacking

Line-Stacker stacks both 3D cubes or already extracted spectra and is an extension of Stacker (ascl:1912.019). It is an ensemble of both CASA tasks and native python tasks. Line-Stacker supports image stacking and some additional tools, allowing further analysis of the stack product, are also included in the module.

[ascl:2104.027]
linemake: Line list generator

Placco, Vinicius M.; Sneden, Christopher; Roederer, Ian U.; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.; Hejazi, Neda; Maas, Zachary; Bernath, Peter

linemake generates formatted and curated atomic and molecular line lists suitable for spectral synthesis work. It is lightweight and easy-to-use. The code requires that the requested beginning and ending wavelengths not bridge the divide between two files of atomic line data; in such cases, run the code twice, once on either side of the divide, to generate the desired lists.

[ascl:1504.019]
LineProf: Line Profile Indicators

LineProf implements a series of line-profile analysis indicators and evaluates its correlation with RV data. It receives as input a list of Cross-Correlation Functions and an optional list of associated RV. It evaluates the line-profile according to the indicators and compares it with the computed RV if no associated RV is provided, or with the provided RV otherwise.

[ascl:1602.006]
LIRA: LInear Regression in Astronomy

LIRA (LInear Regression in Astronomy) performs Bayesian linear regression that accounts for heteroscedastic errors in both the independent and the dependent variables, intrinsic scatters (in both variables), time evolution of slopes, normalization and scatters, Malmquist and Eddington bias, and break of linearity. The posterior distribution of the regression parameters is sampled with a Gibbs method exploiting the JAGS (ascl:1209.002) library.

[ascl:1601.007]
LIRA: Low-counts Image Reconstruction and Analysis

LIRA (Low-counts Image Reconstruction and Analysis) deconvolves any unknown sky components, provides a fully Poisson 'goodness-of-fit' for any best-fit model, and quantifies uncertainties on the existence and shape of unknown sky. It does this without resorting to χ2 or rebinning, which can lose high-resolution information. It is written in R and requires the FITSio package.

[ascl:2205.017]
LiSA: LIghtweight Source finding Algorithms for analysis of HI spectral data

The LIghtweight Source finding Algorithms (LiSA) library finds HI sources in next generation radio surveys. LiSA can analyze input data cubes of any size with pipelines that automatically decompose data into different domains for parallel distributed analysis. For source finding, the library contains python modules for wavelet denoising of 3D spatial and spectral data, and robust automatic source finding using null-hypothesis testing. The source-finding algorithms all have options to automatically choose parameters, minimizing the need for manual fine tuning. Finally, LiSA also contains neural network architectures for classification and characterization of 3D spectral data.

[ascl:1112.009]
LISACode: A scientific simulator of LISA

LISACode is a simulator of the LISA mission. Its ambition is to achieve a new degree of sophistication allowing to map, as closely as possible, the impact of the different subsystems on the measurements. Its also a useful tool for generating realistic data including several kind of sources (Massive Black Hole binaries, EMRIs, cosmic string cusp, stochastic background, etc) and for preparing their analysis. It’s fully integrated to the Mock LISA Data Challenge. LISACode is not a detailed simulator at the engineering level but rather a tool whose purpose is to bridge the gap between the basic principles of LISA and a future, sophisticated end-to-end simulator.

[ascl:1902.005]
LiveData: Data reduction pipeline

LiveData is a multibeam single-dish data reduction system for bandpass calibration and gridding. It is used for processing Parkes multibeam and Mopra data.

[ascl:1906.011]
Lizard: An extensible Cyclomatic Complexity Analyzer

Lizard is an extensible Cyclomatic Complexity Analyzer for imperative programming languages including C/C++/C#, Python, Java, and Javascript. It counts the nloc (lines of code without comments) and CCN (cyclomatic complexity number), and takes a token count of functions and a parameter count of functions. It also does copy-paste detection (code clone detection/code duplicate detection) and many other forms of static code analysis. Lizard is often used in software-related research and calculates how complex the code looks rather than how complex the code really is; thought it's often very hard to get all the included folders and files right when they are complicated, that accuracy is not needed to determine cyclomatic complexity, which can be useful for measuring the maintainability of a software package.

[ascl:1906.020]
LIZARD: Particle initial conditions for cosmological simulations

LIZARD (Lagrangian Initialization of Zeldovich Amplitudes for Resimulations of Displacements) creates particle initial conditions for cosmological simulations using the Zel'dovich approximation for the matter and velocity power spectrum.

[ascl:1706.005]
LMC: Logarithmantic Monte Carlo

LMC is a Markov Chain Monte Carlo engine in Python that implements adaptive Metropolis-Hastings and slice sampling, as well as the affine-invariant method of Goodman & Weare, in a flexible framework. It can be used for simple problems, but the main use case is problems where expensive likelihood evaluations are provided by less flexible third-party software, which benefit from parallelization across many nodes at the sampling level. The parallel/adaptive methods use communication through MPI, or alternatively by writing/reading files, and mostly follow the approaches pioneered by CosmoMC (ascl:1106.025).

[ascl:1606.014]
Lmfit: Non-Linear Least-Square Minimization and Curve-Fitting for Python

Newville, Matthew; Stensitzki, Till; Allen, Daniel B; Rawlik, Michal; Ingargiola, Antonino; Nelson, Andrew

Lmfit provides a high-level interface to non-linear optimization and curve fitting problems for Python. Lmfit builds on and extends many of the optimization algorithm of scipy.optimize, especially the Levenberg-Marquardt method from optimize.leastsq. Its enhancements to optimization and data fitting problems include using Parameter objects instead of plain floats as variables, the ability to easily change fitting algorithms, and improved estimation of confidence intervals and curve-fitting with the Model class. Lmfit includes many pre-built models for common lineshapes.

[submitted]
loci: Smooth Cubic Multivariate Local Interpolations

loci is a shared library for interpolations in up to 4 dimensions. It is written in C and can be used with C/C++, Python and others. In order to calculate the coefficients of the cubic polynom, only local values are used: The data itself and all combinations of first-order derivatives, i.e. in 2D f_x, f_y and f_xy. This is in contrast to splines, where the coefficients are not calculated using derivatives, but non-local data, which can lead to over-smoothing the result.

[ascl:2004.001]
Locus: Optimized differential photometry

Locus implements the Locus Algorithm, which maximizes the performance of differential photometry systems by optimizing the number and quality of reference stars in the Field of View with the target.

[submitted]
LOFAR H5plot

Calibration solutions for the LOFAR radio telescope are stored in a 5-dimensional (time, frequency, station, polarisation and direction in the sky) HDF5 table. H5plot is a GUI application focussing on interactive visual inspection of these calibration solutions.

[ascl:2104.030]
lofti_gaiaDR2: Orbit fitting with Gaia astrometry

Lofti_gaia fits orbital parameters for one wide stellar binary relative to the other, when both objects are resolved in Gaia DR2. It takes as input only the Gaia DR2 source id of the two components, and their masses. It retrieves the relevant parameters from the Gaia archive, computes observational constraints for them, and fits orbital parameters to those measurements. It assumes the two components are bound in an elliptical orbit.

[ascl:2301.007]
LoLLiPoP: Low-L Likelihood Polarized for Planck

Tristram, Matthieu; Garrido, Xavier; Hamimeche, Samira; Lewis, Antony; Mangilli, A.; Plaszczynski, S.

LoLLiPoP is a Planck low-l polarization likelihood based on cross-power-spectra for which the bias is zero when the noise is uncorrelated between maps. It uses a modified approximation to apply to cross-power spectra and is interfaced with the Cobaya (ascl:1910.019) MCMC sampler. Cross-spectra are computed on the CMB maps from Commander component separation applied on each detset-split Planck frequency maps.

[ascl:2401.014]
LoRD: Locate Reconnection Distribution

LoRD (Locate Reconnection Distribution) identifies the locations and structures of 3D magnetic reconnection within discrete magnetic field data. The toolkit contains three main functions; the first, ARD (Analyze Reconnection Distribution) locates the grids undergoing reconnection without null points and also recognizes the local configurations of reconnection sites. ANP (Analyze Null Points) locates and classifies the 3D null points, and APNP (Analyze Projected Null Points) analyzes the 2D neutral points projected on a plane near a cell. LoRD is written in Matlab and the toolkit contains demo scripts.

[ascl:1608.018]
LORENE: Spectral methods differential equations solver

LORENE (Langage Objet pour la RElativité NumériquE) solves various problems arising in numerical relativity, and more generally in computational astrophysics. It is a set of C++ classes and provides tools to solve partial differential equations by means of multi-domain spectral methods. LORENE classes implement basic structures such as arrays and matrices, but also abstract mathematical objects, such as tensors, and astrophysical objects, such as stars and black holes.

[ascl:2401.006]
LoSoTo: LOFAR solutions tool

de Gasperin, F.; Dijkema, T. J.; Drabent, A.; Mevius, M.; Rafferty, D.; van Weeren, R.; Brüggen, M.; Callingham, J. R.; Emig, K. L.; Heald, G.; Intema, H. T.; Morabito, L. K.; Offringa, A. R.; Oonk, R.; Orrù, E.; Röttgering, H.; Sabater, J.; Shimwell, T.; Shulevski, A.; Williams, W.

LoSoTo (LOFAR Solution Tool) performs a variety of operations on H5parm data, which is based on the HDF5 format; it isolates direction independent systematic effects and can therefore be transferred to the target field. Subsets of data can be selected for each operation using lists of axes values, regular expressions, or intervals. The LoSoTo package stores solutions in arrays organized in a hierarchical fashion; this provides flexibility and preserves performance. The code can, for example, extract Faraday rotation from RR/LL phase solutions or a rotation matrix, clip solutions around the median, and calculate the ionospheric structure function. LoSoTo includes an outlier flagging procedure, normalizes solutions to a given value, and offers an advanced plotting routine, and many other operations.

[ascl:1309.003]
LOSP: Liège Orbital Solution Package

LOSP is a FORTRAN77 numerical package that computes the orbital parameters of spectroscopic binaries. The package deals with SB1 and SB2 systems and is able to adjust either circular or eccentric orbits through a weighted fit.

[ascl:1308.002]
LOSSCONE: Capture rates of stars by a supermassive black hole

LOSSCONE computes the rates of capture of stars by supermassive black holes. It uses a stationary and time-dependent solutions for the Fokker-Planck equation describing the evolution of the distribution function of stars due to two-body relaxation, and works for arbitrary spherical and axisymmetric galactic models that are provided by the user in the form of M(r), the cumulative mass as a function of radius.

[ascl:2207.017]
LOTUS: 1D Non-LTE stellar parameter determination via Equivalent Width method

LOTUS (non-LTE Optimization Tool Utilized for the derivation of atmospheric Stellar parameters) derives stellar parameters via Equivalent Width (EW) method with the assumption of 1D non-local thermodynamic equilibrium. It mainly applies on the spectroscopic data from high resolution spectral survey. It can provide extremely accurate measurement of stellar parameters compared with non-spectroscopic analysis from benchmark stars. LOTUS provides a fast optimizer for obtaining stellar parameters based on Differential Evolution algorithm, well constrained uncertainty of derived stellar parameters from slice-sampling MCMC from PyMC3 (ascl:1610.016), and can interpolate the Curve of Growth from theoretical EW grid under the assumptions of LTE and Non-LTE. It also visualizes excitation and ionization balance when at the optimal combination of stellar parameters.

[ascl:1010.038]
Low Resolution Spectral Templates For AGNs and Galaxies From 0.03 -- 30 microns

Assef, R. J.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brodwin, M.; Cool, R.; Forman, W.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Hickox, R. C.; Jones, C.; Le Floc'h, E.; Moustakas, J.; Murray, S. S.; Stern, D.

We present a set of low resolution empirical SED templates for AGNs and galaxies in the wavelength range from 0.03 to 30 microns based on the multi-wavelength photometric observations of the NOAO Deep-Wide Field Survey Bootes field and the spectroscopic observations of the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. Our training sample is comprised of 14448 galaxies in the redshift range 0<~z<~1 and 5347 likely AGNs in the range 0<~z<~5.58. We use our templates to determine photometric redshifts for galaxies and AGNs. While they are relatively accurate for galaxies, their accuracies for AGNs are a strong function of the luminosity ratio between the AGN and galaxy components. Somewhat surprisingly, the relative luminosities of the AGN and its host are well determined even when the photometric redshift is significantly in error. We also use our templates to study the mid-IR AGN selection criteria developed by Stern et al.(2005) and Lacy et al.(2004). We find that the Stern et al.(2005) criteria suffers from significant incompleteness when there is a strong host galaxy component and at z =~ 4.5, when the broad Halpha emission line is redshifted into the [3.6] band, but that it is little contaminated by low and intermediate redshift galaxies. The Lacy et al.(2004) criterion is not affected by incompleteness at z =~ 4.5 and is somewhat less affected by strong galaxy host components, but is heavily contaminated by low redshift star forming galaxies. Finally, we use our templates to predict the color-color distribution of sources in the upcoming WISE mission and define a color criterion to select AGNs analogous to those developed for IRAC photometry. We estimate that in between 640,000 and 1,700,000 AGNs will be identified by these criteria, but will have serious completeness problems for z >~ 3.4.

[ascl:1501.007]
LP-VIcode: La Plata Variational Indicators Code

LP-VIcode computes variational chaos indicators (CIs) quickly and easily. The following CIs are included:

- Lyapunov Indicators, also known as Lyapunov Characteristic Exponents, Lyapunov Characteristic Numbers or Finite Time Lyapunov Characteristic Numbers (LIs)

- Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits (MEGNO)

- Slope Estimation of the largest Lyapunov Characteristic Exponent (SElLCE)

- Smaller ALignment Index (SALI)

- Generalized ALignment Index (GALI)

- Fast Lyapunov Indicator (FLI)

- Orthogonal Fast Lyapunov Indicator (OFLI)

- Spectral Distance (SD)

- dynamical Spectra of Stretching Numbers (SSNs)

- Relative Lyapunov Indicator (RLI)

[ascl:2103.015]
LPF: Real-time detection of transient sources in radio data streams

LPF (Live Pulse Finder) provides real-time automated analysis of the radio image data stream at multiple frequencies. The fully automated GPU-based machine-learning backed pipeline performs source detection, association, flux measurement and physical parameter inference. At the end of the pipeline, an alert of a significant detection of a transient event can be sent out and the data saved for further investigation.

[ascl:1902.002]
LPNN: Limited Post-Newtonian N-body code for collisionless self-gravitating systems

The Limited Post-Newtonian N-body code (LPNN) simulates post-Newtonian interactions between a massive object and many low-mass objects. The interaction between one massive object and low-mass objects is calculated by post-Newtonian approximation, and the interaction between low-mass objects is calculated by Newtonian gravity. This code is based on the sticky9 code, and can be accelerated with the use of GPU in a CUDA (version 4.2 or earlier) environment.

[ascl:1306.012]
LRG DR7 Likelihood Software

This software computes likelihoods for the Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG) data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). It includes a patch to the existing CAMB software (ascl:1102.026; the February 2009 release) to calculate the theoretical LRG halo power spectrum for various models. The code is written in Fortran 90 and has been tested with the Intel Fortran 90 and GFortran compilers.

[ascl:1602.005]
LRGS: Linear Regression by Gibbs Sampling

LRGS (Linear Regression by Gibbs Sampling) implements a Gibbs sampler to solve the problem of multivariate linear regression with uncertainties in all measured quantities and intrinsic scatter. LRGS extends an algorithm by Kelly (2007) that used Gibbs sampling for performing linear regression in fairly general cases in two ways: generalizing the procedure for multiple response variables, and modeling the prior distribution of covariates using a Dirichlet process.

[ascl:1807.033]
LSC: Supervised classification of time-series variable stars

LSC (LINEAR Supervised Classification) trains a number of classifiers, including random forest and K-nearest neighbor, to classify variable stars and compares the results to determine which classifier is most successful. Written in R, the package includes anomaly detection code for testing the application of the selected classifier to new data, thus enabling the creation of highly reliable data sets of classified variable stars.

[ascl:1209.003]
LSD: Large Survey Database framework

The Large Survey Database (LSD) is a Python framework and DBMS for distributed storage, cross-matching and querying of large survey catalogs (>10^9 rows, >1 TB). The primary driver behind its development is the analysis of Pan-STARRS PS1 data. It is specifically optimized for fast queries and parallel sweeps of positionally and temporally indexed datasets. It transparently scales to more than >10^2 nodes, and can be made to function in "shared nothing" architectures.

[ascl:1612.002]
LSDCat: Line Source Detection and Cataloguing Tool

LSDCat is a conceptually simple but robust and efficient detection package for emission lines in wide-field integral-field spectroscopic datacubes. The detection utilizes a 3D matched-filtering approach for compact single emission line objects. Furthermore, the software measures fluxes and extents of detected lines. LSDCat is implemented in Python, with a focus on fast processing of large data-volumes.

[ascl:1505.012]
LSSGALPY: Visualization of the large-scale environment around galaxies on the 3D space

LSSGALPY provides visualization tools to compare the 3D positions of a sample (or samples) of isolated systems with respect to the locations of the large-scale structures galaxies in their local and/or large scale environments. The interactive tools use different projections in the 3D space (right ascension, declination, and redshift) to study the relation of the galaxies with the LSS. The tools permit visualization of the locations of the galaxies for different values of redshifts and redshift ranges; the relationship of isolated galaxies, isolated pairs, and isolated triplets to the galaxies in the LSS can be visualized for different values of the declinations and declination ranges.

[ascl:1312.006]
LTL: The Little Template Library

LTL provides dynamic arrays of up to 7-dimensions, subarrays and slicing, support for fixed-size vectors and matrices including basic linear algebra operations, expression templates-based evaluation, and I/O facilities for ascii and FITS format files. Utility classes for command-line processing and configuration-file processing are provided as well.

[ascl:1404.001]
LTS_LINEFIT & LTS_PLANEFIT: LTS fit of lines or planes

LTS_LINEFIT and LTS_PLANEFIT are IDL programs to robustly fit lines and planes to data with intrinsic scatter. The code combines the Least Trimmed Squares (LTS) robust technique, proposed by Rousseeuw (1984) and optimized in Rousseeuw & Driessen (2006), into a least-squares fitting algorithm which allows for intrinsic scatter. This method makes the fit converge to the correct solution even in the presence of a large number of catastrophic outliers, where the much simpler σ-clipping approach can converge to the wrong solution. The code is also available in Python as ltsfit.

[ascl:2403.011]
LtU-ILI: Robust machine learning in astro

Ho, Matthew; Bartlett, Deaglan J.; Chartier, Nicolas; Cuesta-Lazaro, Carolina; Ding, Simon; Lapel, Axel; Lemos, Pablo; Lovell, Christopher C.; Makinen, T. Lucas; Modi, Chirag; Pandya, Viraj; Pandey, Shivam; Perez, Lucia A.; Wandelt, Benjamin; Bryan, Greg L.

LtU-ILI (Learning the Universe Implicit Likelihood Inference) performs machine learning parameter inference. Given labeled training data or a stochastic simulator, the LtU-ILI piepline automatically trains state-of-the-art neural networks to learn the data-parameter relationship and produces robust, well-calibrated posterior inference. The package comes with a wide range of customizable complexity, including posterior-, likelihood-, and ratio-estimation methods for ILI, including sequential learning analogs, and various neural density estimators, including mixture density networks, conditional normalizing flows, and ResNet-like ratio classifiers. It offers fully-customizable, exotic embedding networks, including CNNs and Graph Neural Networks, and a unified interface for multiple ILI backends such as sbi, pydelfi, and lampe. LtU-ILI also handles multiple marginal and multivariate posterior coverage metrics, and offers Jupyter and command-line interfaces and a parallelizable configuration framework for efficient hyperparameter tuning and production runs.

[ascl:1201.016]
LumFunc: Luminosity Function Modeling

LumFunc is a numerical code to model the Luminosity Function based on central galaxy luminosity-halo mass and total galaxy luminosity-halo mass relations. The code can handle rest b_J-band (2dFGRS), r'-band (SDSS), and K-band luminosities, and any redshift with redshift dependences specified by the user. It separates the luminosity function (LF) to conditional luminosity functions, LF as a function of halo mass, and also to galaxy types. By specifying a narrow mass range, the code will return the conditional luminosity functions. The code returns luminosity functions for galaxy types as well (broadly divided to early-type and late-type). The code also models the cluster luminosity function, either mass averaged or for individual clusters.

[ascl:2401.003]
LUNA: Forward model luna simulator

LUNA generates dynamically accurate lightcurves from a planet-moon pair, analytically accounting for shadow overlaps, stellar limb darkening, and planet-moon dynamical motion. The code takes transit timing/duration variations and ingress/egress asymmetries into consideration not only for the planet, but also the moon. LUNA was designed to be analytical and dynamical and to incorporate limb darkening (including non-linear laws) and account for all orbital elements, including eccentricity and longitude of the ascending node. Because the software is precise and analytic, LUNA is a highly potent tool for exomoon detection.

[ascl:1803.012]
LWPC: Long Wavelength Propagation Capability

Long Wavelength Propagation Capability (LWPC), written as a collection of separate programs that perform unique actions, generates geographical maps of signal availability for coverage analysis. The program makes it easy to set up these displays by automating most of the required steps. The user specifies the transmitter location and frequency, the orientation of the transmitting and receiving antennae, and the boundaries of the operating area. The program automatically selects paths along geographic bearing angles to ensure that the operating area is fully covered. The diurnal conditions and other relevant geophysical parameters are then determined along each path. After the mode parameters along each path are determined, the signal strength along each path is computed. The signal strength along the paths is then interpolated onto a grid overlying the operating area. The final grid of signal strength values is used to display the signal-strength in a geographic display. The LWPC uses character strings to control programs and to specify options. The control strings have the same meaning and use among all the programs.

[ascl:2312.005]
LyaCoLoRe: Generate simulated Lyman alpha forest spectra

Farr, James; Font-Ribera, Andreu; du Mas des Bourboux, Hélion; Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Andrea; Sánchez, F. Javier; Pontzen, Andrew; Xochitl González-Morales, Alma; Alonso, David; Brooks, David; Doel, Peter; Etourneau, Thomas; Guy, Julien; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; de la Macorra, Axel; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Rich, James; Slosar, Anže; Tarle, Gregory; Yutong, Duan; Zhang, Kai

LyaCoLoRe uses CoLoRe (ascl:2111.009) simulations to generate simulated Lyman alpha forest spectra. The code takes the output files from CoLoRe as an input, carries out several stages of processing, and produces realistic skewers of transmitted flux fraction as an output. The repository includes tools to tune the parameters within LyaCoLoRe's transformation, and to measure the 1D power spectrum of output skewers quickly.

[ascl:1607.018]
LZIFU: IDL emission line fitting pipeline for integral field spectroscopy data

LZIFU (LaZy-IFU) is an emission line fitting pipeline for integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data. Written in IDL, the pipeline turns IFS data to 2D emission line flux and kinematic maps for further analysis. LZIFU has been applied and tested extensively to various IFS data, including the SAMI Galaxy Survey, the Wide-Field Spectrograph (WiFeS), the CALIFA survey, the S7 survey and the MUSE instrument on the VLT.

[ascl:2212.019]
m2mcluster: Star clusters made-to-measure modeling

m2mcluster performs made-to-measure modeling of star clusters, and can fit target observations of a Galactic globular cluster's 3D density profile and individual kinematic properties, including proper motion velocity dispersion, and line of sight velocity dispersion. The code uses AMUSE (ascl:1107.007) to model the gravitational *N*-body evolution of the system between time steps; GalPy (ascl:1411.008) is also required.

[ascl:1407.005]
MAAT: MATLAB Astronomy and Astrophysics Toolbox

The MATLAB Astronomy and Astrophysics Toolbox (MAAT) is a collection of software tools and modular functions for astronomy and astrophysics written in the MATLAB environment. It includes over 700 MATLAB functions and a few tens of data files and astronomical catalogs. The scripts cover a wide range of subjects including: astronomical image processing, ds9 control, astronomical spectra, optics and diffraction phenomena, catalog retrieval and searches, celestial maps and projections, Solar System ephemerides, planar and spherical geometry, time and coordinates conversion and manipulation, cosmology, gravitational lensing, function fitting, general utilities, plotting utilities, statistics, and time series analysis.

[ascl:1209.006]
macula: Rotational modulations in the photometry of spotted stars

Photometric rotational modulations due to starspots remain the most common and accessible way to study stellar activity. Modelling rotational modulations allows one to invert the observations into several basic parameters, such as the rotation period, spot coverage, stellar inclination and differential rotation rate. The most widely used analytic model for this inversion comes from Budding (1977) and Dorren (1987), who considered circular, grey starspots for a linearly limb darkened star. That model is extended to be more suitable in the analysis of high precision photometry such as that by Kepler. Macula, a Fortran 90 code, provides several improvements, such as non-linear limb darkening of the star and spot, a single-domain analytic function, partial derivatives for all input parameters, temporal partial derivatives, diluted light compensation, instrumental offset normalisations, differential rotation, starspot evolution and predictions of transit depth variations due to unocculted spots. The inclusion of non-linear limb darkening means macula has a maximum photometric error an order-of-magnitude less than that of Dorren (1987) for Sun-like stars observed in the Kepler-bandpass. The code executes three orders-of-magnitude faster than comparable numerical codes making it well-suited for inference problems.

[ascl:1306.010]
MADCOW: Microwave Anisotropy Dataset Computational softWare

MADCOW is a set of parallelized programs written in ANSI C and Fortran 77 that perform a maximum likelihood analysis of visibility data from interferometers observing the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. This software has been used to produce power spectra of the CMB with the Very Small Array (VSA) telescope.

[ascl:2302.019]
MADCUBA: MAdrid Data CUBe Analysis

MADCUBA analyzes astronomical datacubes and multiple spectra from various astronomical facilities, including ALMA, Herschel, VLA, IRAM 30m, APEX, GBT, and others. These telescopes, and in particular ALMA, generate extremely large datacubes (spatial, spectral and polarization). This software combines a user-friendly interface and powerful data analysis system to derive the physical conditions of molecular gas, its chemical complexity and the kinematics from datacubes. Built using the ImageJ (ascl:1206.013) infrastructure, MADCUBA visualizes astronomical datacubes with thousands on spectral channels, and datasets with thousands of spectra; it also identifies molecular species using publicly available molecular catalogs. It can automatically derive the physical parameters of the molecular species: column density, excitation temperature, velocity and linewidths and provides the best non-linear least-squared fit using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, among other tasks.

[ascl:1712.012]
MadDM: Computation of dark matter relic abundance

MadDM computes dark matter relic abundance and dark matter nucleus scattering rates in a generic model. The code is based on the existing MadGraph 5 architecture and as such is easily integrable into any MadGraph collider study. A simple Python interface offers a level of user-friendliness characteristic of MadGraph 5 without sacrificing functionality. MadDM is able to calculate the dark matter relic abundance in models which include a multi-component dark sector, resonance annihilation channels and co-annihilations. The direct detection module of MadDM calculates spin independent / spin dependent dark matter-nucleon cross sections and differential recoil rates as a function of recoil energy, angle and time. The code provides a simplified simulation of detector effects for a wide range of target materials and volumes.

[ascl:2009.009]
MADHAT: Gamma-ray emission analyzer

Boddy, Kimberly K.; Hill, Stephen; Kumar, Jason; Sandick, Pearl; Haghi, Barmak Shams Es; Marfatia, Danny

MADHAT (Model-Agnostic Dark Halo Analysis Tool) analyzes gamma-ray emission from dwarf satellite galaxies and dwarf galaxy candidates due to dark matter annihilation, dark matter decay, or other nonstandard or unknown astrophysics. The tool is data-driven and model-independent, and provides statistical upper bounds on the number of observed photons in excess of the number expected using a stacked analysis of any selected set of dwarf targets. MADHAT also calculates the resulting bounds on the properties of dark matter under any assumptions the user makes regarding dark sector particle physics or astrophysics.

[ascl:2012.010]
MADLens: Differentiable lensing simulator

MADLens produces non-Gaussian cosmic shear maps at arbitrary source redshifts. A MADLens simulation with only 256^3 particles produces convergence maps whose power agree with theoretical lensing power spectra up to scales of L=10000. The code is based on a highly parallelizable particle-mesh algorithm and employs a sub-evolution scheme in the lensing projection and a machine-learning inspired sharpening step to achieve these high accuracies.

[ascl:1110.018]
MADmap: Fast Parallel Maximum Likelihood CMB Map Making Code

MADmap produces maximum-likelihood images of the sky from time-ordered data which include correlated noise, such as those gathered by Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. It works efficiently on platforms ranging from small workstations to the most massively parallel supercomputers. Map-making is a critical step in the analysis of all CMB data sets, and the maximum-likelihood approach is the most accurate and widely applicable algorithm; however, it is a computationally challenging task. This challenge will only increase with the next generation of ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite CMB polarization experiments. The faintness of the B-mode signal that these experiments seek to measure requires them to gather enormous data sets. MADmap has the ability to address problems typically encountered in the analysis of realistic CMB data sets. The massively parallel and distributed implementation is detailed and scaling complexities are given for the resources required. MADmap is capable of analyzing the largest data sets now being collected on computing resources currently available.

[ascl:2206.018]
MADYS: Isochronal parameter determination for young stellar and substellar objects

MADYS (Manifold Age Determination for Young Stars) determines the age and mass of young stellar and substellar objects. The code automatically retrieves and cross-matches photometry from several catalogs, estimates interstellar extinction, and derives age and mass estimates for individual objects through isochronal fitting. MADYS harmonizes the heterogeneity of publicly-available isochrone grids and the user can choose amongst several models, some of which have customizable astrophysical parameters. Particular attention has been dedicated to the categorization of these models, labeled through a four-level taxonomical classification.

[ascl:2205.005]
maelstrom: Forward modeling of pulsating stars in binaries

Hey, Daniel R.; Murphy, Simon J.; Foreman-Mackey, Dan; Bedding, Timothy R.; Pope, Benjamin J.S.; Hogg, David W.

maelstrom models binary orbits through the phase modulation technique. This set of custom PyMC3 models and solvers fit each individual datapoint in the time series by forward modeling the time delay onto the light curve. This approach fully captures variations in a light curve caused by an orbital companion.

[ascl:1010.044]
MAESTRO: An Adaptive Low Mach Number Hydrodynamics Algorithm for Stellar Flows

MAESTRO, a low Mach number stellar hydrodynamics code, simulates long-time, low-speed flows that would be prohibitively expensive to model using traditional compressible codes. MAESTRO is based on an equation set derived using low Mach number asymptotics; this equation set does not explicitly track acoustic waves and thus allows a significant increase in the time step. MAESTRO is suitable for two- and three-dimensional local atmospheric flows as well as three-dimensional full-star flows, and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) has been incorporated into the code. The expansion of the base state for full-star flows using a novel mapping technique between the one-dimensional base state and the Cartesian grid is also available.

NOTE: MAESTRO is no longer being actively developed. Users should switch to MAESTROeX (ascl:1908.019) to take advantage of the latest capabilities.

[ascl:1908.019]
MAESTROeX: Low Mach number stellar hydrodynamics code

MAESTROeX solves the equations of low Mach number hydrodynamics for stratified atmospheres or stars with a general equation of state. It includes reactions and thermal diffusion and can be used on anything from a single core to 100,000s of processor cores with MPI + OpenMP. MAESTROeX maintains the accuracy of its predecessor MAESTRO (ascl:1010.044) while taking advantage of a simplified temporal integration scheme and leveraging the AMReX software framework for block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) applications.

[ascl:2007.015]
MAGI: Initial-condition generator for galactic N-body simulations

MAGI (MAny-component Galaxy Initializer) generates initial conditions for numerical simulations of galaxies that resemble observed galaxies and are dynamically stable for time-scales longer than their characteristic dynamical times, taking into account galaxy bulges, discs, and haloes. MAGI adopts a distribution-function-based method and supports various kinds of density models, including custom-tabulated inputs and the presence of more than one disc, and is fast and easy to use.

[ascl:1709.010]
MagIC: Fluid dynamics in a spherical shell simulator

MagIC simulates fluid dynamics in a spherical shell. It solves for the Navier-Stokes equation including Coriolis force, optionally coupled with an induction equation for Magneto-Hydro Dynamics (MHD), a temperature (or entropy) equation and an equation for chemical composition under both the anelastic and the Boussinesq approximations. MagIC uses either Chebyshev polynomials or finite differences in the radial direction and spherical harmonic decomposition in the azimuthal and latitudinal directions. The time-stepping scheme relies on a semi-implicit Crank-Nicolson for the linear terms of the MHD equations and a Adams-Bashforth scheme for the non-linear terms and the Coriolis force.

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