[ascl:1704.009]
Photo-z-SQL: Photometric redshift estimation framework

Photo-z-SQL is a flexible template-based photometric redshift estimation framework that can be seamlessly integrated into a SQL database (or DB) server and executed on demand in SQL. The DB integration eliminates the need to move large photometric datasets outside a database for redshift estimation, and uses the computational capabilities of DB hardware. Photo-z-SQL performs both maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation and handles inputs of variable photometric filter sets and corresponding broad-band magnitudes.

[ascl:2406.021]
photochem: Chemical model of planetary atmospheres

Photochem models the photochemical and climate composition of a planet's atmosphere. It takes inputs such as the stellar UV flux and atmospheric temperature structure to find the steady-state chemical composition of an atmosphere, or evolve atmospheres through time. Photochem also contains 1-D climate models and a chemical equilibrium solver.

[ascl:2312.011]
PhotochemPy: 1-D photochemical model of rocky planet atmospheres

PhotochemPy finds the steady-state chemical composition of an atmosphere or evolves atmospheres through time. Given inputs such as the stellar UV flux and atmospheric temperature structure, the code creates a photochemical model of a planet's atmosphere. PhotochemPy is a distant fork of Atmos (ascl:2106.039). It provides a Python wrapper to Fortran source code but can also be used exclusively in Fortran.

[ascl:1712.013]
photodynam: Photodynamical code for fitting the light curves of multiple body systems

Photodynam facilitates so-called "photometric-dynamical" modeling. This model is quite simple and this is reflected in the code base. A N-body code provides coordinates and the photometric code produces light curves based on coordinates.

[ascl:2302.003]
PHOTOe: Monte Carlo model for simulating the slowing down of photoelectrons

PHOTOe simulates the slowing down of photoelectrons in a gas with arbitrary amounts of H, He and O atoms, and thermal electrons, making PHOTOe useful for investigating the atmospheres of exoplanets. The multi-score scheme used in this code differs from other Monte Carlo approaches in that it efficiently handles rare collisional channels, as in the case of low-abundance excited atoms that undergo superelastic and inelastic collisions. PHOTOe outputs include production and energy yields, steady-state photoelectron flux, and estimates of the 'relaxation' time required by the photoelectrons to slow down from the injection energy to the cutoff energy. The model can also estimate the pathlength travelled by the photoelectrons while relaxing.

[ascl:1405.013]
PHOTOM: Photometry of digitized images

Eaton, Nicholas; Draper, Peter W.; Allan, Alasdair; Naylor, Tim; Mukai, Koji; Currie, Malcolm J.; McCaughrean, Mark

PHOTOM performs photometry of digitized images. It has two basic modes of operation: using an interactive display to specify the positions for the measurements, or obtaining those positions from a file. In both modes of operation PHOTOM performs photometry using either the traditional aperture method or via optimal extraction. When using the traditional aperture extraction method the target aperture can be circular or elliptical and its size and shape can be varied interactively on the display, or by entering values from the keyboard. Both methods allow the background sky level to be either sampled interactively by the manual positioning of an aperture, or automatically from an annulus surrounding the target object. PHOTOM is the photometry backend for the GAIA tool (ascl:1403.024) and is part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).

[ascl:1703.004]
PHOTOMETRYPIPELINE: Automated photometry pipeline

PHOTOMETRYPIPELINE (PP) provides calibrated photometry from imaging data obtained with small to medium-sized observatories. PP uses Source Extractor (ascl:1010.064) and SCAMP (ascl:1010.063) to register the image data and perform aperture photometry. Calibration is obtained through matching of field stars with reliable photometric catalogs. PP has been specifically designed for the measurement of asteroid photometry, but can also be used to obtain photometry of fixed sources.

[ascl:1901.007]
Photon: Python tool for data plotting

Photon makes simple 1D plots in python. It uses mainly matplotlib and PyQt5 and has been build to be fully customizable, allowing the user to change the fontstyle, fontsize, fontcolors, linewidth of the axes, thickness, and other parameters, and see the changes directly in the plot. Once a customization is created, it can be saved in a configuration file and reloaded for future use, allowing reuse of the customization for other plots. The main tool is a graphical user interface and it is started using a command line interface.

[ascl:2306.007]
PhotoParallax: Data-driven photometric parallaxes built with Gaia and 2MASS

PhotoParallax calculates photometric parallaxes for distant stars in the Gaia TGAS catalog without any use of physical stellar models or stellar density models of the Milky Way. It uses the geometric parallaxes to calibrate a photometric model that is purely statistical, which is a model of the data rather than a model of stars per se.

[ascl:1408.022]
PhotoRApToR: PHOTOmetric Research APplication TO Redshifts

PhotoRApToR (PHOTOmetric Research APplication TO Redshifts) solves regression and classification problems and is specialized for photo-z estimation. PhotoRApToR offers data table manipulation capabilities and 2D and 3D graphics tools for data visualization; it also provides a statistical report for both classification and regression experiments. The code is written in Java; the machine learning model is in C++ to increase the core execution speed.

[ascl:1609.011]
Photutils: Photometry tools

Bradley, Larry; Sipocz, Brigitta; Robitaille, Thomas; Tollerud, Erik; Deil, Christoph; Vinícius, Zè; Barbary, Kyle; Günther, Hans Moritz; Bostroem, Azalee; Droettboom, Michael; Bray, Erik; Bratholm, Lars Andersen; Pickering, T. E.; Craig, Matt; Pascual, Sergio; Greco, Johnny; Donath, Axel; Kerzendorf, Wolfgang; Littlefair, Stuart; Barentsen, Geert; D'Eugenio, Francesco; Weaver, Benjamin Alan

Photutils provides tools for detecting and performing photometry of astronomical sources. It can estimate the background and background rms in astronomical images, detect sources in astronomical images, estimate morphological parameters of those sources (e.g., centroid and shape parameters), and perform aperture and PSF photometry. Written in Python, it is an affiliated package of Astropy (ascl:1304.002).

[ascl:1112.004]
PHOX: X-ray Photon Simulator

PHOX is a novel, virtual X-ray observatory designed to obtain synthetic observations from hydro-numerical simulations. The code is a photon simulator and can be apply to simulate galaxy clusters. In fact, X-ray observations of clusters of galaxies continue to provide us with an increasingly detailed picture of their structure and of the underlying physical phenomena governing the gaseous component, which dominates their baryonic content. Therefore, it is fundamental to find the most direct and faithful way to compare such observational data with hydrodynamical simulations of cluster-like objects, which can currently include various complex physical processes. Here, we present and analyse synthetic Suzaku observations of two cluster-size haloes obtained by processing with PHOX the hydrodynamical simulation of the large-scale, filament-like region in which they reside. Taking advantage of the simulated data, we test the results inferred from the X-ray analysis of the mock observations against the underlying, known solution. Remarkably, we are able to recover the theoretical temperature distribution of the two haloes by means of the multi-temperature fitting of the synthetic spectra. Moreover, the shapes of the reconstructed distributions allow us to trace the different thermal structure that distinguishes the dynamical state of the two haloes.

[ascl:2309.008]
PI: Plages Identification

Plages Identification identifies solar plages from Ca II K photographic observations irrespective of noise level, brightness, and other image properties. The code provides an efficient, reliable method for identifying solar plages. The output of the algorithm is an image highlighting the plages and the calculated plage index. Plages Identification is also deployed as a webapp, allowing users to experiment with different hyperparameters and visualize their impact on the output image in real time.

[ascl:1408.003]
PIA: ISOPHOT Interactive Analysis

Gabriel, Carlos; Acosta, Jose; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Skaley, Detlef; Tai, Wai Ming; Morris, Huw; Merluzzi, Paola

ISOPHOT is one of the instruments on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). ISOPHOT Interactive Analysis (PIA) is a scientific and calibration interactive data analysis tool for ISOPHOT data reduction. Written in IDL under Xwindows, PIA offers a full context sensitive graphical interface for retrieving, accessing and analyzing ISOPHOT data. It is available in two nearly identical versions; a general observers version omits the calibration sequences.

[ascl:1412.007]
PIAO: Python spherIcAl Overdensity code

PIAO is an efficient memory-controlled Python code that uses the standard spherical overdensity (SO) algorithm to identify halos. PIAO employs two additional parameters besides the overdensity Δc. The first is the mesh-box size, which splits the whole simulation box into smaller ones then analyzes them one-by-one, thereby overcoming a possible memory limitation problem that can occur when dealing with high-resolution, large-volume simulations. The second is the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) neighbors number, which is used for the SPH density calculation.

[ascl:1905.019]
PICASO: Planetary Intensity Code for Atmospheric Scattering Observations

PICASO (Planetary Intensity Code for Atmospheric Scattering Observations), written in Python, computes the reflected light of exoplanets at any phase geometry using direct and diffuse scattering phase functions and Raman scattering spectral features.

[ascl:2106.018]
picca: Package for Igm Cosmological-Correlations Analyses

du Mas des Bourboux, Hélion; Rich, James; Font-Ribera, Andreu; de Sainte Agathe, Victoria; Farr, James; Etourneau, Thomas; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Cuceu, Andrei; Balland, Christophe; Bautista, Julian E.; Blomqvist, Michael; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Chabanier, Solène; Chaussidon, Edmond; Dawson, Kyle; González-Morales, Alma X.; Guy, Julien; Lyke, Brad W.; de la Macorra, Axel; Mueller, Eva-Maria; Myers, Adam D.; Nitschelm, Christian; Muñoz Gutiérrez, Andrea; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Parker, James; Percival, Will J.; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Petitjean, Patrick; Pieri, Matthew M.; Ravoux, Corentin; Rossi, Graziano; Schneider, Donald P.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Slosar, Anže; Stermer, Julianna; Vivek, M.; Yèche, Christophe; Youles, Samantha

picca fits continua of forests, computes correlation functions (1D and 3D) and power-spectra (1D), computes covariance matrices, and fits models for the correlation functions. This set of tools is used for the analysis of the Lyman-alpha forest sample from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) and the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI).

[ascl:1610.001]
Piccard: Pulsar timing data analysis package

Piccard is a Bayesian-inference pipeline for Pulsar Timing Array (PTA) data and interacts with Tempo2 (ascl:1210.015) through libstempo (ascl:2002.017). The code is used mainly for single-pulsar analysis and gravitational-wave detection purposes of full Pulsar Timing Array datasets. Modeling of the data can include correlated signals per frequency or modeled spectrum, with uniform, dipolar, quadrupolar, or anisotropic correlations; multiple error bars and EFACs per pulsar; and white and red noise. Timing models can be numerically included, either by using the design matrix (linear timing model), or by calling libstempo for the full non-linear timing model. Many types of samplers are included. For common-mode mitigation, the signals can be reconstructed mitigating arbitrary signals simultaneously.

[ascl:1306.011]
Pico: Parameters for the Impatient Cosmologist

Pico is an algorithm that quickly computes the CMB scalar, tensor and lensed power spectra, the matter transfer function and the WMAP 5 year likelihood. It is intended to accelerate parameter estimation codes; Pico can compute the CMB power spectrum and matter transfer function, as well as any computationally expensive likelihoods, in a few milliseconds. It is extremely fast and accurate over a large volume of parameter space and its accuracy can be improved by using a larger training set. More generally, Pico allows using massively parallel computing resources, including distributed computing projects such as Cosmology@Home, to speed up the slow steps in inherently sequential calculations.

[ascl:1607.009]
PICsar: Particle in cell pulsar magnetosphere simulator

PICsar simulates the magnetosphere of an aligned axisymmetric pulsar and can be used to simulate other arbitrary electromagnetics problems in axisymmetry. Written in Fortran, this special relativistic, electromagnetic, charge conservative particle in cell code features stretchable body-fitted coordinates that follow the surface of a sphere, simplifying the application of boundary conditions in the case of the aligned pulsar; a radiation absorbing outer boundary, which allows a steady state to be set up dynamically and maintained indefinitely from transient initial conditions; and algorithms for injection of charged particles into the simulation domain. PICsar is parallelized using MPI and has been used on research problems with ~1000 CPUs.

[ascl:1408.014]
pieflag: CASA task to efficiently flag bad data

pieflag compares bandpass-calibrated data to a clean reference channel and identifies and flags essentially all bad data. pieflag compares visibility amplitudes in each frequency channel to a 'reference' channel that is rfi-free (or manually ensured to be rfi-free). pieflag performs this comparison independently for each correlation on each baseline, but will flag all correlations if threshold conditions are met. To operate effectively, pieflag must be supplied with bandpass-calibrated data. pieflag has two core modes of operation (static and dynamic flagging) with an additional extend mode; the type of data largely determines which mode to choose. Instructions for pre-processing data and selecting the mode of operation are provided in the help file. Once pre-processing and selecting the mode of operation are done, pieflag should work well 'out of the box' with its default parameters.

[ascl:2102.024]
Piff: PSFs In the Full FOV

Piff models the point-spread function (PSF) across multiple detectors in the full field of view (FOV). Models can be built in chip coordinates or in sky coordinates if needed to account for the effects of astrometric distortion. The software can fit in either real or Fourier space, and can identify and excise outlier stars that are poor exemplars of the PSF according to some metric.

[ascl:1806.014]
pile-up: Monte Carlo simulations of star-disk torques on hot Jupiters

The pile-up gnuplot script generates a Monte Carlo simulation with a selectable number of randomized drawings (1000 by default, ~1min on a modern laptop). For each realization, the script calculates the torque acting on a hot Jupiter around a young, solar-type star as a function of the star-planet distance. The total torque on the planet is composed of the disk torque in the type II migration regime (that is, the planet is assumed to have opened up a gap in the disk) and of the stellar tidal torque. The model has four free parameters, which are drawn from a normal or lognormal distribution: (1) the disk's gas surface density at 1 astronomical unit, (2) the magnitude of tidal dissipation within the star, (3) the disk's alpha viscosity parameter, and (4) and the mean molecular weight of the gas in the disk midplane. For each realization, the total torque is screened for a distance at which it becomes zero. If present, then this distance would represent a tidal migration barrier to the planet. In other words, the planet would stop migrating. This location is added to a histogram on top of the main torque-over-distance panel and the realization is counted as one case that contributes to the overall survival rate of hot Jupiters. Finally, the script generates an output file (PDF by default) and prints the hot Jupiter survival rate for the assumed parameterization of the star-planet-disk system.

[ascl:1407.012]
PINGSoft2: Integral Field Spectroscopy Software

PINGSoft2 visualizes, manipulates and analyzes integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data based on either 3D cubes or Raw Stacked Spectra (RSS) format. Any IFS data can be adapted to work with PINGSoft2, regardless of the original data format and the size/shape of the spaxel. Written in IDL, PINGSoft2 is optimized for fast visualization rendering; it also includes various routines useful for generic astronomy and spectroscopy tasks.

[ascl:2209.008]
PINION: Accelerating radiative transfer simulations for cosmic reionization

PINION (Physics-Informed neural Network for reIONization) predicts the complete 4-D hydrogen fraction evolution from the smoothed gas and mass density fields from pre-computed N-body simulations. Trained on C^{2}-Ray simulation outputs with a physics constraint on the reionization chemistry equation, PINION accurately predicts the entire reionization history between z = 6 and 12 with only five redshift snapshots and a propagation mask as a simplistic approximation of the ionizing photon mean free path. The network's predictions are in good agreement with simulation to redshift z > 7, though the oversimplified propagation mask degrades the network's accuracy for z < 7.

[ascl:1910.001]
PINK: Parallelized rotation and flipping INvariant Kohonen maps

Morphological classification is one of the most demanding challenges in astronomy. With the advent of all-sky surveys, an enormous amount of imaging data is publicly available, and are typically analyzed by experts or encouraged amateur volunteers. For upcoming surveys with billions of objects, however, such an approach is not feasible anymore. PINK (Parallelized rotation and flipping INvariant Kohonen maps) is a simple yet effective variant of a rotation-invariant self-organizing map that is suitable for many analysis tasks in astronomy. The code reduces the computational complexity via modern GPUs and applies the resulting framework to galaxy data for morphological analysis.

[ascl:1305.007]
PINOCCHIO: PINpointing Orbit-Crossing Collapsed HIerarchical Objects

PINOCCHIO generates catalogues of cosmological dark matter halos with known mass, position, velocity and merger history. It is able to reproduce, with very good accuracy, the hierarchical formation of dark matter halos from a realization of an initial (linear) density perturbation field, given on a 3D grid. Its setup is similar to that of a conventional N-body simulation, but it is based on the powerful Lagrangian Perturbation Theory. It runs in just a small fraction of the computing time taken by an equivalent N-body simulation, producing promptly the merging histories of all halos in the catalog.

[ascl:1902.007]
PINT: High-precision pulsar timing analysis package

Luo, Jing; Ransom, Scott; Demorest, Paul; van Haasteren, Rutger; Ray, Paul; Stovall, Kevin; Bachetti, Matteo; Archibald, Anne; Kerr, Matthew; Colen, Jonathan; Jenet, Fredrick

PINT (PINT Is Not Tempo3) analyzes high-precision pulsar timing data, enabling interactive data analysis and providing an extensible and flexible development platform for timing applications. PINT utilizes well-debugged public Python packages and modern software development practices (e.g., the NumPy and Astropy libraries, version control and development with git and GitHub, and various types of testing) for increased development efficiency and enhanced stability. PINT has been developed and implemented completely independently from traditional pulsar timing software such as TEMPO (ascl:1509.002) and Tempo2 (ascl:1210.015) and is a robust tool for cross-checking timing analyses and simulating data.

[ascl:1007.001]
PINTofALE: Package for Interactive Analysis of Line Emission

PINTofALE was originally developed to analyze spectroscopic data from optically-thin coronal plasmas, though much of the software is sufficiently general to be of use in a much wider range of astrophysical data analyses. It is based on a modular set of IDL tools that interact with an atomic database and with observational data. The tools are designed to allow easy identification of spectral features, measure line fluxes, and carry out detailed modeling. The basic philosophy of the package is to provide access to the innards of atomic line databases, and to have flexible tools to interactively compare with the observed data. It is motivated by the large amount of book-keeping, computation and iterative interaction that is required between the researcher and observational and theoretical data in order to derive astrophysical results. The tools link together transparently and automatically the processes of spectral "browsing", feature identification, measurement, and computation and derivation of results. Unlike standard modeling and fitting engines currently in use, PINTofALE opens up the "black box" of atomic data required for UV/X-ray analyses and allows the user full control over the data that are used in any given analysis.

[ascl:2103.024]
PION: Computational fluid-dynamics package for astrophysics

PION (PhotoIonization of Nebulae) is a grid-based fluid dynamics code for hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics, including a ray-tracing module for calculating the attenuation of radiation from point sources of ionizing photons. It also has a module for coupling fluid dynamics and the radiation field to microphysical processes such as heating/cooling and ionization/recombination. PION models the evolution of HII regions, photoionized bubbles that form around hot stars, and has been extended to include stellar wind sources so that both wind bubbles and photoionized bubbles can be simulated at the same time. It is versatile enough to be extended to other applications.

[ascl:2404.002]
PIPE: Extracting PSF photometry from CHEOPS data

PIPE (PSF Imagette Photometric Extraction) extracts PSF (point-spread function) photometry from data acquired by the space telescope CHEOPS (CHaracterisation of ExOPlanetS). Advantages of PSF photometry over standard aperture photometry include reduced sensitivity to contaminants such as background stars, cosmic ray hits, and hot/bad pixels. For CHEOPS, an additional advantage is that photometry can be extracted from an imagette, a small window around the target that is downlinked at a shorter cadence than the larger-sized subarray used for aperture photometry. These advantages make PIPE particularly well suited for targets brighter or fainter than the nominal G = 7-11 mag range of CHEOPS, *i.e.*, where short-cadence imagettes are available (bright end) or when contamination becomes a problem (faint end). Within the nominal range, PIPE usually offers no advantage over the standard aperture photometry.

[ascl:2306.021]
pipes_vis: Interactive GUI and visualizer tool for SPS spectra

pipes_vis is an interactive graphical user interface for visualizing SPS spectra. Powered by Bagpipes (ascl:2104.017), it provides real-time manipulation of a model galaxy's star formation history, dust, and other relevant properties through sliders and text boxes.

[ascl:1611.015]
Pippi: Parse and plot MCMC chains

Pippi (parse it, plot it) operates on MCMC chains and related lists of samples from a function or distribution, and can merge, parse, and plot sample ensembles ('chains') either in terms of the likelihood/fitness function directly, or as implied posterior probability densities. Pippi is compatible with ASCII text and hdf5 chains, operates out of core, and can post-process chains on the fly.

[ascl:2311.011]
PIPPIN: Polarimetric Differential Imaging (PDI) pipeline for NACO data

PIPPIN (PDI pipeline for NACO data) reduces the polarimetric observations made with the VLT/NACO instrument. It applies the Polarimetric Differential Imaging (PDI) technique to distinguish the polarized, scattered light from the (largely) un-polarized, stellar light. As a result, circumstellar dust can be uncovered. PIPPIN appropriately handles various instrument configurations, including half-wave plate and de-rotator usage, Wollaston beam-splitter, and wiregrid observations. As part of the PDI reduction, PIPPIN performs various levels of corrections for instrumental polarization and crosstalk.

[ascl:2108.019]
PIPS: Period detection and Identification Pipeline Suite

Murakami, Yukei S.; Jennings, Connor; Hoffman, Andrew M.; Sunseri, James; Baer-Way, Raphael; Stahl, Benjamin E.; Savel, Arjun B.; Altunin, Ivan; Girish, Nachiket; Filippenko, Alexei V.

PIPS analyzes the lightcurves of astronomical objects whose brightness changes periodically. Originally developed to determine the periods of RR Lyrae variable stars, the code offers many features designed for variable star analysis and can obtain period values for almost any type of lightcurve with both speed and accuracy. PIPS determines periods through several different methods, analyzes the morphology of lightcurves via Fourier analysis, estimates the statistical significance of the detected signal, and determines stellar properties based on pre-existing stellar models.

[ascl:1405.012]
PISA: Position Intensity and Shape Analysis

PISA (Position, Intensity and Shape Analysis) routines deal with the location and parameterization of objects on an image frame. The core of this package is the routine PISAFIND which performs image analysis on a 2-dimensional data frame. The program searches the data array for objects that have a minimum number of connected pixels above a given threshold and extracts the image parameters (position, intensity, shape) for each object. The image parameters can be determined using thresholding techniques or an analytical stellar profile can be used to fit the objects. In crowded regions deblending of overlapping sources can be performed. PISA is distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).

[ascl:2110.007]
PISCOLA: Python for Intelligent Supernova-COsmology Light-curve Analysis

PISCOLA (Python for Intelligent Supernova-COsmology Light-curve Analysis) fits supernova light curves and corrects them in a few lines of code. It uses Gaussian Processes to estimate rest-frame light curves of transients without needing an underlying light-curve template. The user can add filters, calculates the light-curves parameters, and obtain transmission functions for the observed filters and the Bessell filters. The correction process can be applied with default settings to obtain restframe light curves and light-curve parameters. PISCOLA can plot the SN light curves, filter transmission functions, light-curves fits results, the mangling function for a given phase, and includes several utilities that can, for example, convert fluxes to magnitudes and magnitudes to fluxes, and trim leading and trailing zeros from a 1-D array or sequence.

[ascl:2010.014]
Pix2Prof: Deep learning for textraction of useful sequential information from galaxy imagery

Pix2Prof produces a surface brightness profile from an unprocessed galaxy image from the SDSS in either the g, r, or i bands. It is fast, and given suitable training data, Pix2Prof can be retrained to produce any galaxy profile from any galaxy image.

[ascl:2207.033]
piXedfit: Analyze spatially resolved SEDs of galaxies

piXedfit provides a self-contained set of tools for analyzing spatially resolved properties of galaxies using imaging data or a combination of imaging data and the integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data. piXedfit has six modules that can handle all tasks in the analysis of the spatially resolved SEDs of galaxies, including images processing, a spatial-matching between reduced broad-band images with an IFS data cube, pixel binning, performing SED fitting, and making visualization plots for the SED fitting results.

[ascl:1102.007]
PixeLens: A Portable Modeler of Lensed Quasars

We introduce and implement two novel ideas for modeling lensed quasars. The first is to require different lenses to agree about H_{0}. This means that some models for one lens can be ruled out by data on a different lens. We explain using two worked examples. One example models 1115+080 and 1608+656 (time-delay quadruple systems) and 1933+503 (a prospective time-delay system) all together, yielding time-delay predictions for the third lens and a 90% confidence estimate of H_{0}^{-1}=14.6+9.4-1.7 Gyr (H_{0}=67+9-26 km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}) assuming ΩM=0.3 and Ω_{Λ}=0.7. The other example models the time-delay doubles 1520+530, 1600+434, 1830-211, and 2149-275, which gives H_{0}^{-1}=14.5+3.3-1.5 Gyr (H_{0}=67+8-13 km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}). Our second idea is to write the modeling software as a highly interactive Java applet, which can be used both for coarse-grained results inside a browser and for fine-grained results on a workstation. Several obstacles come up in trying to implement a numerically intensive method thus, but we overcome them.

[ascl:2102.003]
Pixell: Rectangular pixel map manipulation and harmonic analysis library

Pixell loads, manipulates, and analyzes maps stored in rectangular pixelization. It is mainly targeted for use with maps of the sky (e.g., CMB intensity and polarization maps, stacks of 21 cm intensity maps, binned galaxy positions or shear) in cylindrical projection, but its core functionality is more general. It extends numpy's ndarray to an ndmap class that associates a World Coordinate System (WCS) with a numpy array. It includes tools for Fourier transforms (through numpy or pyfft) and spherical harmonic transforms (through libsharp2 (ascl:1402.033)) of such maps and tools for visualization (through the Python Image Library).

[ascl:2210.012]
pixmappy: Python interface to gbdes astrometry solutions

pixmappy provides a Python interface to gbdes pixel map (astrometry) solutions. It reads the YAML format astrometry solutions produced by gbdes (ascl:2210.011) and issues a PixelMap instance, which is a map from one 2d coordinate system ("pixel") to another ("world") 2d system. A PixelMap instance can be used as a function mapping one (or many) coordinate pairs. An inverse method does reverse mapping, and the local jacobian of the map is available also. The type of mapping that can be expressed is very flexible, and PixelMaps can be compounded into chains of tranformations.

[ascl:1305.005]
PkdGRAV2: Parallel fast-multipole cosmological code

PkdGRAV2 is a high performance N-body treecode for self-gravitating astrophysical simulations. It is designed to run efficiently in serial and on a wide variety of parallel computers including both shared memory and message passing architectures. It can spatially adapt to large ranges in particle densities, and temporally adapt to large ranges in dynamical timescales. The code uses a non-standard data structure for efficiently calculating the gravitational forces, a variant on the k-D tree, and a novel method for treating periodic boundary conditions.

[ascl:1609.016]
PKDGRAV3: Parallel gravity code

Pkdgrav3 is an 𝒪(*N*) gravity calculation method; it uses a binary tree algorithm with fifth order fast multipole expansion of the gravitational potential, using cell-cell interactions. Periodic boundaries conditions require very little data movement and allow a high degree of parallelism; the code includes GPU acceleration for all force calculations, leading to a significant speed-up with respect to previous versions (ascl:1305.005). Pkdgrav3 also has a sophisticated time-stepping criterion based on an estimation of the local dynamical time.

[ascl:2307.055]
plan-net: Bayesian neural networks for exoplanetary atmospheric retrieval

Cobb, Adam D.; Himes, Michael D.; Soboczenski, Frank; Zorzan, Simone; O'Beirne, Molly D.; Güneş Baydin, Atılım; Gal, Yarin; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Arney, Giada N.; Angerhausen, Daniel

plan-net uses machine learning with an ensemble of Bayesian neural networks for atmospheric retrieval; this approach yields greater accuracy and more robust uncertainties than a single model. A new loss function for BNNs learns correlations between the model outputs. Performance is improved by incorporating domain-specific knowledge into the machine learning models and provides additional insight by inferring the covariance of the retrieved atmospheric parameters.

[ascl:1911.001]
PLAN: A Clump-finder for Planetesimal Formation Simulations

PLAN (PLanetesimal ANalyzer) identifies and characterizes planetesimals produced in numerical simulations of the Streaming Instability that includes particle self-gravity with code Athena (ascl:1010.014). PLAN works with the 3D particle output of Athena and finds gravitationally bound clumps robustly and efficiently. PLAN — written in C++ with OpenMP/MPI — is massively parallelized, memory-efficient, and scalable to analyze billions of particles and multiple snapshots simultaneously. The approach of PLAN is based on the dark matter halo finder HOP (ascl:1102.019), but with many customizations for planetesimal formation. PLAN can be easily adapted to analyze other object formation simulations that use Lagrangian particles (e.g., Athena++ simulations). PLAN is also equipped with a toolkit to analyze the grid-based hydro data (VTK dumps of primitive variables) from Athena, which requires the Boost MultiDimensional Array Library.

[ascl:1505.032]
Planck Level-S: Planck Simulation Package

The Planck simulation package takes a cosmological model specified by the user and calculates a potential CMB sky consistent with this model, including astrophysical foregrounds, and then performs a simulated observation of this sky. This Simulation embraces many instrumental effects such as beam convolution and noise. Alternatively, the package can simulate the observation of a provided sky model, generated by another program such as the Planck Sky Model software. The Planck simulation package does not only provide Planck-like data, it can also be easily adopted to mimic the properties of other existing and upcoming CMB experiments.

[ascl:2010.009]
plancklens: Planck 2018 lensing pipeline

plancklens contains most of Planck 2018 CMB lensing pipeline and makes it possible to reproduce the published map and band-powers. Some numerical parts are written in Fortran, and portions of it (structure and code) have been directly adapted from pre-existing work by Duncan Hanson. The lensed CMB skies is produced by the stand-alone package lenspyx (ascl:2010.010).

[ascl:1607.005]
Planetary3br: Three massive body resonance calculator

Given two planets P1 and P2 with arbitrary orbits, planetary3br calculates all possible semimajor axes that a third planet P0 can have in order for the system to be in a three body resonance; these are identified by the combination k0*P0 + k1*P1 + k2*P2. P1 and P2 are assumed to be not in an exact two-body resonance. The program also calculates three "strengths" of the resonance, one for each planet, which are only indicators of the dynamical relevance of the resonance on each planet. Sample input data are available along with the Fortran77 source code.

[ascl:1311.004]
PlanetPack: Radial-velocity time-series analysis tool

PlanetPack facilitates and standardizes the advanced analysis of radial velocity (RV) data for the goal of exoplanets detection, characterization, and basic dynamical N-body simulations. PlanetPack is a command-line interpreter that can run either in an interactive mode or in a batch mode of automatic script interpretation.

[ascl:1911.007]
planetplanet: General photodynamical code for exoplanet light curves

planetplanet models exoplanet transits, secondary eclipses, phase curves, and exomoons, as well as eclipsing binaries, circumbinary planets, and more. The code was originally developed to model planet-planet occultation (PPO) light curves for the TRAPPIST-1 system, but it is generally applicable to any exoplanet system. During a PPO, a planet occults (transits) the disk of another planet in the same planetary system, blocking its thermal (and reflected) light, which can be measured photometrically by a distant observer. planetplanet is coded in C and wrapped in a user-friendly Python interface.

[ascl:2309.020]
PlanetSlicer: Orange-slice algorithm for fitting brightness maps to phase curves

PlanetSlicer fits brightness maps to phase curves using the "orange-slice" method and works both for self-luminous objects and those that diffuse reflected light assuming Lambertian reflectance. In both cases, the model supposes that a spherical object can be divided into slices of constant brightness (or albedo) which may be integrated to yield the total flux observed, given the angles of observation. The package contains two key functions: toPhaseCurve and fromPhaseCurve; the former integrates the brightness for each slice to calculate the observed total flux from the object, given the longitude of observation. The latter does the opposite, estimating the brightness of the slices from a set of observed total flux (the phase curve).

[ascl:2107.019]
PlaSim: Planet Simulator

Lunkeit, Frank; Blessing, Simon; Friedrich, Klaus; Jansen, Heiko; Kirk, Edilbert; Luksch, Ute; Sielmann, Frank

PlaSim is a climate model of intermediate complexity for Earth, Mars and other planets. It is written for a university environment, to be used to train the next GCM (general circulation model) developers, to support scientists in understanding climate processes, and to do fundamental research. In addition to an atmospheric GCM of medium complexity, PlaSim includes other compartments of the climate system such as, for example, an ocean with sea ice and a land surface with a biosphere. These other compartments are reduced to linear systems. In other words, PlaSim consists of a GCM with a linear ocean/sea-ice module formulated in terms of a mixed layer energy balance. The soil/biosphere module is introduced analoguously. Thus, working with PlaSim is like testing the performance of an atmospheric or oceanic GCM interacting with various linear processes, which parameterize the variability of the subsystems in terms of their energy (and mass) balances.

[ascl:1906.019]
PlasmaPy: Core Python package for plasma physics

PlasmaPy Community; Murphy, Nicholas A.; Stańczak, Dominik; Kozlowski, Pawel M.; Langendorf, Samuel J.; Leonard, Andrew J.; Beckers, Jasper P.; Haggerty, Colby C.; Mumford, Stuart J.; Malhotra, Ritiek; Bessi, Ludovico; Carroll, Sean; Choubey, Apoorv; Díaz Pérez, Roberto; Einhorn, Leah; Fan, Thomas; Goudeau, Graham; Guidoni, Silvina; Hillairet, Julien; How, Poh Zi; Huang, Yi-Min; Humphrey, Nabil; Isupova, Maria; Kulshrestha, Siddharth; Kuszaj, Piotr; Munn, Joshua; Parashar, Tulasi; Patel, Neil; Raj, Raajit; Sherpa, Dawa Nurbu; Stansby, David; Tavant, Antoine; Xu, Sixue

PlasmaPy provides core functionality and a common framework for data visualization and analysis for plasma physics. It has modules for basic plasma physics calculations, running desktop-scale simulations to test preliminary ideas such as one-dimensional MHD/PIC or test particles, or comparing data from two different sources, such as simulations and spacecraft.

[ascl:1506.003]
PLATO Simulator: Realistic simulations of expected observations

Marcos-Arenal, P.; Zima, W.; De Ridder, J.; Aerts, C.; Huygen, R.; Samadi, R.; Green, J.; Piotto, G.; Salmon, S.; Catala, C.; Rauer, H.

PLATO Simulator is an end-to-end simulation software tool designed for the performance of realistic simulations of the expected observations of the PLATO mission but easily adaptable to similar types of missions. It models and simulates photometric time-series of CCD images by including models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the stellar field, the jitter movements of the spacecraft, and all important natural noise sources.

[ascl:1903.014]
PLATON: PLanetary Atmospheric Transmission for Observer Noobs

PLATON (PLanetary Atmospheric Transmission for Observer Noobs) calculates transmission spectra for exoplanets and retrieves atmospheric characteristics based on observed spectra; it is based on ExoTransmit (ascl:1611.005). PLATON supports the most common atmospheric parameters, such as temperature, metallicity, C/O ratio, cloud-top pressure, and scattering slope. It also has less commonly included features, such as a Mie scattering cloud model and unocculted starspot corrections.

[ascl:1907.009]
Plonk: Smoothed particle hydrodynamics data analysis and visualization

Plonk analyzes and visualizes smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation data, focusing on astrophysical applications. It calculates extra quantities on the particles, calculates and plots radial profiles, accesses subsets of particles, and provides visualization of any quantity defined on the particles via kernel density estimation. Plock's visualization module uses Splash (ascl:1103.004) to produce images using smoothed particle hydrodynamics interpolation. The code is modular and extendible, and can be scripted or used interactively.

[ascl:1106.003]
PLplot: Cross-platform Software Package for Scientific Plots

Irwin, Alan W.; Ross, Andrew; Furnish, Geoffrey; Babcock, Hazen; Tomé, António; Markus, Arjen; Roach, Andrew; Carty, Hezekiah M.; Hunt, Doug; Dishaw, James; Bauck, Jerry; LeBrun, Maurice; Rosenberg, Phil; Smekal, Werner

PLplot is a cross-platform software package for creating scientific plots. To help accomplish that task it is organized as a core C library, language bindings for that library, and device drivers which control how the plots are presented in non-interactive and interactive plotting contexts. The PLplot core library can be used to create standard x-y plots, semi-log plots, log-log plots, contour plots, 3D surface plots, mesh plots, bar charts and pie charts. Multiple graphs (of the same or different sizes) may be placed on a single page, and multiple pages are allowed for those device formats that support them. PLplot has core support for Unicode. This means for our many Unicode-aware devices that plots can be labelled using the enormous selection of Unicode mathematical symbols. A large subset of our Unicode-aware devices also support complex text layout (CTL) languages such as Arabic, Hebrew, and Indic and Indic-derived CTL scripts such as Devanagari, Thai, Lao, and Tibetan. PLplot device drivers support a number of different file formats for non-interactive plotting and a number of different platforms that are suitable for interactive plotting. It is easy to add new device drivers to PLplot by writing a small number of device dependent routines.

[ascl:1206.007]
Plumix: Generating mass segregated star clusters

Plumix is a small package for generating mass segregated star clusters. Its output can be directly used as input initial conditions for NBODY4 or NBODY6 code. Mass segregation stands as one of the most robust features of the dynamical evolution of self-gravitating star clusters. We formulate parametrized models of mass segregated star clusters in virial equilibrium. To this purpose we introduce mean inter-particle potentials for statistically described unsegregated systems and suggest a single-parameter generalization of its form which gives a mass-segregated state. Plumix is a numerical C-code generating the cluster according the algorithm given for construction of appropriate star cluster models. Their stability over several crossing-times is verified by following the evolution by means of direct N-body integration.

[ascl:1010.045]
PLUTO: A Code for Flows in Multiple Spatial Dimensions

PLUTO is a modular Godunov-type code intended mainly for astrophysical applications and high Mach number flows in multiple spatial dimensions. The code embeds different hydrodynamic modules and multiple algorithms to solve the equations describing Newtonian, relativistic, MHD, or relativistic MHD fluids in Cartesian or curvilinear coordinates. PLUTO is entirely written in the C programming language and can run on either single processor machines or large parallel clusters through the MPI library. A simple user-interface based on the Python scripting language is available to setup a physical problem in a quick and self-explanatory way. Computations may be carried on either static or adaptive (structured) grids, the latter functionality being provided through the Chombo adaptive mesh refinement library.

[ascl:2211.008]
pmclib: Population Monte Carlo library

Benabed, Karim; Cappé, Olivier; Cardoso, Jean-François; Fort, Gersende; Kilbinger, Martin; Prunet, Simon; Robert, Christian P.; Wraith, Darren

The Population Monte-Carlo (PMC) sampling code pmclib performs fast end efficient parallel iterative importance sampling to compute integrals over the posterior including the Bayesian evidence.

[ascl:9909.001]
PMCode: Particle-Mesh Code for Cosmological Simulations

Particle-Mesh (PM) codes are still very useful tools for testing predictions of cosmological models in cases when extra high resolution is not very important. We release for public use a cosmological PM N-body code. The code is very fast and simple. We provide a complete package of routines needed to set initial conditions, to run the code, and to analyze the results. The package allows you to simulate models with numerous combinations of parameters: open/flat/closed background, with or without the cosmological constant, different values of the Hubble constant, with or without hot neutrinos, tilted or non-tilted initial spectra, different amount of baryons.

[ascl:1102.008]
PMFAST: Towards Optimal Parallel PM N-body Codes

The parallel PM N-body code PMFAST is cost-effective and memory-efficient. PMFAST is based on a two-level mesh gravity solver where the gravitational forces are separated into long and short range components. The decomposition scheme minimizes communication costs and allows tolerance for slow networks. The code approaches optimality in several dimensions. The force computations are local and exploit highly optimized vendor FFT libraries. It features minimal memory overhead, with the particle positions and velocities being the main cost. The code features support for distributed and shared memory parallelization through the use of MPI and OpenMP, respectively.

The current release version uses two grid levels on a slab decomposition, with periodic boundary conditions for cosmological applications. Open boundary conditions could be added with little computational overhead. Timing information and results from a recent cosmological production run of the code using a 3712^3 mesh with 6.4 x 10^9 particles are available.

[ascl:1102.015]
PMFASTIC: Initial condition generator for PMFAST

PMFASTIC is a parallel initial condition generator, a slab decomposition Fortran 90 parallel cosmological initial condition generator for use with PMFAST (ascl:1102.008). Files required for generating initial dark matter particle distributions and instructions are included, however one would require CMBFAST (ascl:9909.004) to create alternative transfer functions.

[ascl:2107.003]
PMN-body: Particle Mesh N-body code

PMN-body computes the non-linear evolution of the cosmological matter density contrast. It is based on the Particle Mesh (PM) technique. Written in C, the code is parallelized for shared-memory machines using Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP).

[ascl:2205.001]
PMOIRED: Parametric Modeling of Optical Interferometric Data

PMOIRED models astronomical spectro-interferometric data stored in the OIFITS format. Parametric modeling is used to describe the observed scene as blocks such as disks, rings and Gaussians which can be combined and their parameters linked. It includes plotting, least-square fitting and bootstrapping estimation of uncertainties. For spectroscopic instruments (such as GRAVITY), tools are provided to model spectral lines and correct spectra for telluric lines.

[ascl:1010.065]
PN: Higher Post Newtonian Gravity Calculations

Motivated by experimental probes of general relativity, we adopt methods from perturbative (quantum) field theory to compute, up to certain integrals, the effective lagrangian for its n-body problem. Perturbation theory is performed about a background Minkowski spacetime to O[(v/c)^4] beyond Newtonian gravity, where v is the typical speed of these n particles in their center of energy frame. For the specific case of the 2 body problem, the major efforts underway to measure gravitational waves produced by in-spiraling compact astrophysical binaries require their gravitational interactions to be computed beyond the currently known O[(v/c)^7]. We argue that such higher order post-Newtonian calculations must be automated for these field theoretic methods to be applied successfully to achieve this goal. In view of this, we outline an algorithm that would in principle generate the relevant Feynman diagrams to an arbitrary order in v/c and take steps to develop the necessary software. The Feynman diagrams contributing to the n-body effective action at O[(v/c)^6] beyond Newton are derived.

[ascl:2307.009]
pnautilus: Three-phase chemical code

The three-phase pnautilus chemical code finds the abundance of each species by solving rate equations for gas-phase and grain surface chemistries. It performs gas–grain simulations in which both the icy mantle and the surface are considered active, taking into account mantle photodissociation, diffusion, and reactions; the code also considers the competition among reaction, diffusion and evaporation.

[ascl:1302.004]
pNbody: A python parallelized N-body reduction toolbox

pNbody is a parallelized python module toolbox designed to manipulate and interactively display very large N-body systems. It allows the user to perform complicated manipulations with only very few commands and to load an N-body system and explore it interactively using the python interpreter. pNbody may also be used in python scripts. pNbody contains graphical facilities for creating maps of physical values of the system, such as density, temperature, and velocities maps. Stereo capabilities are also implemented. pNbody is not limited by file format; the user may use a parameter file to redefine how to read a preferred format.

[ascl:2011.025]
PNICER: Extinction estimator

PNICER estimates extinction for individual sources and creates extinction maps using unsupervised machine learning algorithms. Extinction towards single sources is determined by fitting Gaussian Mixture Models along the extinction vector to (extinction-free) control field observations. PNICER also offers access to the well-established NICER technique in a simple unified interface and is capable of building extinction maps including the NICEST correction for cloud substructure.

[ascl:2207.018]
pocoMC: Preconditioned Monte Carlo method for accelerated Bayesian inference

pocoMC performs Bayesian inference, including model comparison, for challenging scientific problems. The code utilizes a normalizing flow to precondition the target distribution by removing any correlations between its parameters. pocoMC then generates posterior samples, used for parameter estimation, with a powerful adaptive Sequential Monte Carlo algorithm manifesting a sampling efficiency that can be orders of magnitude higher than without precondition. Furthermore, pocoMC also provides an unbiased estimate of the model evidence that can be used for the task of Bayesian model comparison. The code is designed to excel in demanding parameter estimation problems that include multimodal and highly non–Gaussian target distributions.

[ascl:1907.006]
POCS: PANOPTES Observatory Control System

PANOPTES (Panoptic Astronomical Networked Observatories for a Public Transiting Exoplanets Survey) is a citizen science project for low cost, robotic detection of transiting exoplanets. POCS (PANOPTES Observatory Control System) is the main software driver for the PANOPTES telescope system, responsible for high-level control of the unit. POCS defines an Observatory class that automatically controls a commercially available equatorial mount, including image analysis and corresponding mount adjustment to obtain a percent-level photometric precision.

[ascl:1408.005]
POET: Planetary Orbital Evolution due to Tides

POET (Planetary Orbital Evolution due to Tides) calculates the orbital evolution of a system consisting of a single star with a single planet in orbit under the influence of tides. The following effects are The evolutions of the semimajor axis of the orbit due to the tidal dissipation in the star and the angular momentum of the stellar convective envelope by the tidal coupling are taken into account. In addition, the evolution includes the transfer of angular momentum between the stellar convective and radiative zones, effect of the stellar evolution on the tidal dissipation efficiency, and stellar core and envelope spins and loss of stellar convective zone angular momentum to a magnetically launched wind. POET can be used out of the box, and can also be extended and modified.

[ascl:2208.011]
POIS: Python Optical Interferometry Simulation

POIS (Python Optical Interferometry Simulation) provides the building blocks to simulate the operation of a ground-based optical interferometer perturbed by atmospheric seeing perturbations. The package includes functions to generate simulated atmospheric turbulent wavefront perturbations, correct these perturbations using adaptive optics, and combine beams from an arbitrary number of telescopes, with or without spatial filtering, to provide complex fringe visibility measurements.

[ascl:2403.005]
Poke: Polarization ray tracing and Gaussian beamlet module for Python

Ashcraft, Jaren N.; Mulhal, Kenji; Douglas, Ewan S.; Kim, Daewook; Riggs, A.J. E.; Anche, Ramya M.; Brendel, Trent; Derby, Kevin Z.; Dube, Brandon D.; Jarecki, Quinn; Jenkins, Emory; Milani, Kian

Poke (pronounced /poʊˈkeɪ/ or po-kay) uses commercial ray tracing APIs and open-source physical optics engines to simultaneously model scalar wavefront error, diffraction, and polarization to bridge the gap between ray trace models and diffraction models. It operates by storing ray data from a commercial ray tracing engine into a Python object, from which physical optics calculations can be made. Poke provides two propagation physics modules, Gaussian Beamlet Decomposition and Polarization Ray Tracing, that add to the utility of existing scalar diffraction models. Gaussian Beamlet Decomposition is a ray-based approach to diffraction modeling that integrates physical optics models with ray trace models to directly capture the influence of ray aberrations in diffraction simulations. Polarization Ray Tracing is a ray-based method of vector field propagation that can diagnose the polarization aberrations in optical systems.

[ascl:1505.018]
POKER: P Of K EstimatoR

POKER (P Of K EstimatoR) estimates the angular power spectrum of a 2D map or the cross-power spectrum of two 2D maps in the flat sky limit approximation in a realistic data context: steep power spectrum, non periodic boundary conditions, arbitrary pixel resolution, non trivial masks and observation patch geometry.

[ascl:1807.001]
POLARIS: POLArized RadIation Simulator

POLARIS (POLArized RadIation Simulator) simulates the intensity and polarization of light emerging from analytical astrophysical models as well as complex magneto-hydrodynamic simulations on various grids. This 3D Monte-Carlo continuum radiative transfer code is written in C++ and is capable of performing dust heating, dust grain alignment, line radiative transfer, and synchrotron simulations to calculate synthetic intensity and polarization maps. The code makes use of a full set of physical quantities (density, temperature, velocity, magnetic field distribution, and dust grain properties as well as different sources of radiation) as input.

[ascl:2402.006]
polarizationtools: Polarization analysis and simulation tools in python

polarizationtools converts, analyzes, and simulates polarization data. The different python scripts (1) convert Stokes parameters into linear polarization parameters with proper treatment of the uncertainties and vice versa; (2) shift electric vector position angle (EVPA) data points in time series to account for the 180 degrees ambiguity; (3) identify rotations of the EVPA e.g. in blazar polarization monitoring data according to various rotation definitions; and (4) simulate polarization time series as a random walk in the Stokes Q-U plane.

[ascl:2102.011]
polgraw-allsky: All-sky almost-monochromatic gravitational-wave pipeline

Astone, Pia; Bejger, Michał; Bolek, Jan; Ciecieląg, Paweł; Dorosh, Orest; Garus, Aleksander; Królak, Andrzej; Nagy-Egri, Máté Ferenc; Piętka, Maciej; Pisarski, Andrzej; Poghosyan, Gevorg; Sieniawska, Magdalena; Skrzypiec, Rafał

polgraw-allsky searches for almost monochromatic gravitational wave signals. This pipeline searches for continuous gravitational wave signals in time-domain data using the F-statistic on data from a network of detectors. The software generates a parameter space grid, conducts a coherent search for candidate signals in narrowband time segments, and searches for coincidences among different time segments. The pipeline also estimates the false alarm probability of coincidences and follows up on interesting outliers.

[ascl:1406.012]
POLMAP: Interactive data analysis package for linear spectropolarimetry

POLMAP provides routines for displaying and analyzing spectropolarimetry data that are not available in the complementary TSP package. Commands are provided to read and write TSP (ascl:1406.011) polarization spectrum format files from within POLMAP. This code is distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).

[ascl:1405.014]
POLPACK: Imaging polarimetry reduction package

POLPACK maps the linear or circular polarization of extended astronomical objects, either in a single waveband, or in multiple wavebands (spectropolarimetry). Data from both single and dual beam polarimeters can be processed. It is part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).

[ascl:1603.018]
PolRadTran: Polarized Radiative Transfer Model Distribution

PolRadTran is a plane-parallel polarized radiative transfer model. It is used to compute the radiance exiting a vertically inhomogeneous atmosphere containing randomly-oriented particles. Both solar and thermal sources of radiation are considered. A direct method of incorporating the polarized scattering information is combined with the doubling and adding method to produce a relatively simple formulation.

[ascl:1109.005]
PolSpice: Spatially Inhomogeneous Correlation Estimator for Temperature and Polarisation

PolSpice (aka Spice) is a tool to statistically analyze Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data, as well as any other diffuse data pixelized on the sphere.

This Fortran90 program measures the 2 point auto (or cross-) correlation functions w(θ) and the angular auto- (or cross-) power spectra C(l) from one or (two) sky map(s) of Stokes parameters (intensity I and linear polarisation Q and U). It is based on the fast Spherical Harmonic Transforms allowed by isolatitude pixelisations such as Healpix [for Npix pixels over the whole sky, and a C(l) computed up to l=lmax, PolSpice complexity scales like Npix1/2 lmax2 instead of Npix lmax2]. It corrects for the effects of the masks and can deal with inhomogeneous weights given to the pixels of the map. In the case of polarised data, the mixing of the E and B modes due to the cut sky and pixel weights can be corrected for to provide an unbiased estimate of the "magnetic" (B) component of the polarisation power spectrum. Most of the code is parallelized for shared memory (SMP) architecture using OpenMP.

[ascl:2307.020]
PolyBin: Binned polyspectrum estimation on the full sky

PolyBin estimates the binned power spectrum, bispectrum, and trispectrum for full-sky HEALPix maps such as the CMB. This can include both spin-0 and spin-2 fields, such as the CMB temperature and polarization, or galaxy positions and galaxy shear. Alternatively, one can use only scalar maps. For each statistic, two estimators are available: the standard (ideal) estimators, which do not take into account the mask, and window-deconvolved estimators. For the second case, a Fisher matrix must be computed; this depends on binning and the mask, but does not need to be recomputed for each new simulation. PolyBin can compute both the parity-even and parity-odd components, accounting for any leakage between the two, for the bispectrum and trispectrum.

[ascl:2404.006]
PolyBin3D: Binned polyspectrum estimation for 3D large-scale structure

PolyBin3D estimates the binned power spectrum and bispectrum for 3D fields such as the distributions of matter and galaxies. For each statistic, two estimators are available: the standard (ideal) estimators, which do not take into account the mask, and window-deconvolved estimators. In the second case, the computation of a Fisher matrix is required; this depends on binning and the mask, but does not need to be recomputed for each new simulation. PolyBin3D supports GPU acceleration using JAX. It is a sister code to PolyBin (ascl:2307.020), which computes the polyspectra of data on the two-sphere, and is a modern reimplementation of the former Spectra-Without-Windows (ascl:2108.011) code.

[ascl:1502.011]
PolyChord: Nested sampling for cosmology

PolyChord is a Bayesian inference tool for the simultaneous calculation of evidences and sampling of posterior distributions. It is a variation on John Skilling's Nested Sampling, utilizing Slice Sampling to generate new live points. It performs well on moderately high dimensional (~100s D) posterior distributions, and can cope with arbitrary degeneracies and multimodality.

[ascl:2007.009]
polyMV: Multipolar coefficients converter

polyMV converts multipolar coefficients (alms in healpix order) into Multipole Vectors (MVs) and also Fréchet Vectors (FVs) given a specific multipole. The code uses MPSolve (ascl:2007.008) and is order of magnitudes faster than other existing public codes at high multipoles.

[ascl:1912.001]
Polyspectrum: Computing polyspectra using an FFT estimator

Polyspectrum computes the polyspectrum from 3D grids using a fast Fourier transformation (FFT) estimator. The code, written in C and MPI-parallelized, support the computation of power- and bispectra; it also supports higher-order polyspectra, but streamlining the input data is required.

[ascl:2012.016]
Pomegranate: Probabilistic model builder

Pomegranate builds probabilistic models in Python that is implemented in Cython for speed. The code merges the easy-to-use API of scikit-learn with the modularity of probabilistic modeling, including general mixture and hidden Markov models and Bayesian networks, to allow users to specify complicated models without the need to be concerned about implementation details. The models are built from the ground up and natively support features such as multi-threaded parallelism and out-of-core processing.

[ascl:1805.011]
PoMiN: A Post-Minkowskian N-Body Solver

PoMiN is a lightweight N-body code based on the Post-Minkowskian N-body Hamiltonian of Ledvinka, Schafer, and Bicak, which includes General Relativistic effects up to first order in Newton's constant G, and all orders in the speed of light c. PoMiN is a single file written in C and uses a fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration scheme. PoMiN has also been written to handle an arbitrary number of particles (both massive and massless) with a computational complexity that scales as O(N^2).

[ascl:2407.018]
pony3d: Efficient island-finding tool for radio spectral line imaging

pony3d statistically identifies islands of contiguous emission inside a three-dimensional volume. The primary functionality is the rapid and reliable creation of masks for the deconvolution of radio interferometric radio spectral line emission. It has been designed to run on the output of the wsclean imager (ascl:1408.023) whereby the individual FITS image per frequency plane enables a high degree of parallelism, but can work on any image set providing this criterion is met. Single channel island rejection is offered, along with 3D mask dilation and boxcar averaging. pony3d is also a prototype source-finding and extraction tool.

[ascl:2007.006]
PoPE: Population Profile Estimator

PoPE (Population Profile Estimator) analyzes spatial distribution or internal spatial structure problems of samples of astronomical systems. This population-based Bayesian inference model uses the conditional statistics of spatial profile of multiple observables assuming the individual observations are measured with errors of varying magnitude. Assuming the conditional statistics of the observables can be described with a multivariate normal distribution, the model reduces to the conditional average profile and conditional covariance between all observables. The method consists of two steps: (1) reconstructing the average profile using non-parametric regression with Gaussian Processes and (2) estimating the property profiles covariance given a set of independent variable. PoPE is computationally efficient and capable of inferring average profiles of a population from noisy measurements without stacking and binning nor parameterizing the shape of the average profile.

[ascl:1602.018]
POPPY: Physical Optics Propagation in PYthon

Perrin, Marshall; Long, Joseph; Douglas, Ewan; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Slocum, Christine; and others

POPPY (Physical Optics Propagation in PYthon) simulates physical optical propagation including diffraction. It implements a flexible framework for modeling Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction and point spread function formation, particularly in the context of astronomical telescopes. POPPY provides the optical modeling framework for WebbPSF (ascl:1504.007) and was developed as part of a simulation package for JWST, but is available separately and is broadly applicable to many kinds of imaging simulations.

[ascl:0202.001]
PopRatio: A program to calculate atomic level populations in astrophysical plasmas

PopRatio is a Fortran 90 code to calculate atomic level populations in astrophysical plasmas. The program solves the equations of statistical equilibrium considering all possible bound-bound processes: spontaneous, collisional or radiation induced (the later either directly or by fluorescence). There is no limit on the number of levels or in the number of processes that may be taken into account. The program may find a wide range of applicability in astronomical problems, such as interpreting fine-structure absorption lines or collisionally excited emission lines and also in calculating the cooling rates due to collisional excitation.

[ascl:1912.008]
PopSyCLE: Population Synthesis for Compact object Lensing Events

PopSyCLE performs compact object population synthesis while taking photometric and astrometric microlensing effects into consideration. It uses Galaxia (ascl:1101.007) to produces a synthetic survey, injects compact objects into the resulting survey, and then produces a list of microlensing events, enabling the discovery of black holes with microlensing. It can be used to examine historical microlensing events from photometric surveys to statistically constrain the abundance of black holes in our galaxy, and to forward model microlensing survey results to constrain, for example, the properties of compact objects, Galactic structure, and the initial-final mass relation.

[ascl:2202.021]
popsynth: Observed surveys from latent population models

Popsynth provides an abstract way to generate survey populations from arbitrary luminosity functions and redshift distributions. Additionally, auxiliary quantities can be sampled and stored. Populations can be saved and restored via an HDF5 files for later use, and population synthesis routines can be created via classes or structured YAML files. Users can construct their own classes for spatial, luminosity, and other distributions, all of which can be connected to arbitrarily complex selection functions.

[ascl:2106.037]
PORTA: POlarized Radiative TrAnsfer

PORTA solves three-dimensional non-equilibrium radiative transfer problems with massively parallel computers. The code can be used for modeling the spectral line polarization produced by the scattering of anisotropic radiation and the Hanle and Zeeman effects assuming complete frequency redistribution, either using two-level or multilevel atomic models. The numerical method of solution used to find the self-consistent values of the atomic density matrix at each point of the model’s Cartesian grid is based on Jacobi iterative scheme and on a short-characteristics formal solver of the Stokes-vector transfer equation that uses monotonic Bézier interpolation. The code can also be used to compute the linear polarization of the continuum radiation caused by Rayleigh and Thomson scattering in 3D models of stellar atmospheres, and to solve the simpler 3D radiative transfer problem of unpolarized radiation in multilevel systems. PORTA accepts/produces HDF5 input/output and offers an advanced graphical user interface.

[ascl:2003.006]
PORTAL: POlarized Radiative Transfer Adapted to Lines

PORTAL (POlarized Radiative Transfer Adapted to Lines), a 3D polarized radiative transfer code, simulates the emergence of polarization in the emission of atomic or molecular (sub-)millimeter lines. Written in Fortran90, PORTAL can be used in standalone mode or can process the output of other 3D radiative transfer codes

[ascl:2104.031]
Posidonius: N-Body simulator for planetary and/or binary systems

Posidonius is a N-body code based on the tidal model used in Mercury-T (ascl:1511.020). It uses the REBOUND (ascl:1110.016) symplectic integrator WHFast to compute the evolution of positions and velocities, which is also combined with a midpoint integrator to calculate the spin evolution in a consistent way. As Mercury-T, Posidonius takes into account tidal forces, rotational-flattening effects and general relativity corrections. It also includes different evolution models for FGKML stars and gaseous planets. The N-Body code is written in Rust; a Python package is provided to easily define simulation cases in JSON format, which is readable by the Posidonius integrator.

[ascl:1411.021]
POSTMORTEM: Visibility data reduction and map making package

POSTMORTEM is the visibility data reduction and map making package from MRAO (Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory) and is used with the Ryle and CLFST telescopes at Cambridge. It contains sub-systems for nonitoring telescope performance, displaying and editing the visibility data, performing calibrations, removing flux from interfering bright sources, and map-making. It requires PGPLOT (ascl:1103.002), SLALIB (ascl:1403.025), and NAG numerical routines, all of which are distributed with the STARLINK software collection (ascl:1110.012) or available separately.

[ascl:2210.019]
POSYDON: Single and binary star population synthesis code

Fragos, Tassos; Andrews, Jeff J.; Bavera, Simone S.; Berry, Christopher P. L.; Coughlin, Scott; Dotter, Aaron; Giri, Prabin; Kalogera, Vicky; Katsaggelos, Aggelos; Kovlakas, Konstantinos; Lalvani, Shamal; Misra, Devina; Srivastava, Philipp M.; Qin, Ying; Rocha, Kyle A.; Roman-Garza, Jaime; Serra, Juan Gabriel; Stahle, Petter; Sun, Meng; Teng, Xu; Trajcevski, Goce; Hai Tran, Nam; Xing, Zepei; Zapartas, Emmanouil; Zevin, Michael

POSYDON (POpulation SYnthesis with Detailed binary-evolution simulatiONs) incorporates full stellar structure and evolution modeling for single and binary-star population synthesis. The code is modular and allows the user to specify initial population properties and adopt choices that determine how stellar evolution proceeds. Populations are simulated with the use of MESA (ascl:1010.083) evolutionary tracks for single, non-interacting, and interacting binaries organized in grids. Machine-learning methods are incorporated and applied on the grids for classification and various interpolation calculations, and the development of irregular grids guided by active learning, for computational efficiency.

[ascl:2006.018]
Powderday: Dust radiative transfer package

Narayanan, Desika; Turk, Matthew J.; Robitaille, Thomas; Kelly, Ashley J.; Connor McClellan, B.; Sharma, Ray S.; Garg, Prerak; Abruzzo, Matthew; Choi, Ena; Conroy, Charlie; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Kimock, Benjamin; Li, Qi; Lovell, Christopher C.; Lower, Sidney; Privon, George C.; Roberts, Jonathan; Sethuram, Snigdaa; Snyder, Gregory F.; Thompson, Robert; Wise, John H.

The dust radiative transfer software Powderday interfaces with galaxy formation simulations to produce spectral energy distributions and images. The code uses fsps (ascl:1010.043) and its Python bindings python-fsps for stellar SEDs, Hyperion (ascl:1207.004) for dust radiative transfer, and works with a variety of packages, including Arepo (ascl:1909.010), Changa (ascl:1105.005), Gasoline (ascl:1710.019), and Gizmo (ascl:1410.003); threaded throughout is yt (ascl:1011.022).

[ascl:1807.021]
POWER: Python Open-source Waveform ExtractoR

POWER (Python Open-source Waveform ExtractoR) monitors the status and progress of numerical relativity simulations and post-processes the data products of these simulations to compute the gravitational wave strain at future null infinity.

[ascl:1805.001]
powerbox: Arbitrarily structured, arbitrary-dimension boxes and log-normal mocks

powerbox creates density grids (or boxes) with an arbitrary two-point distribution (i.e. power spectrum). The software works in any number of dimensions, creates Gaussian or Log-Normal fields, and measures power spectra of output fields to ensure consistency. The primary motivation for creating the code was the simple creation of log-normal mock galaxy distributions, but the methodology can be used for other applications.

[ascl:2406.025]
PowerSpecCovFFT: FFTLog-based computation of non-Gaussian analytic covariance of galaxy power spectrum multipoles

PowerSpecCovFFT computes the non-Gaussian (regular trispectrum and its shot noise) part of the analytic covariance matrix of the redshift-space galaxy power spectrum multipoles using an FFTLog-based method. The galaxy trispectrum is based on a tree-level standard perturbation theory but with a slightly different galaxy bias expansion. The code computes the non-Gaussian covariance of the power spectrum monopole, quadrupole, hexadecapole, and their cross-covariance up to kmax ~ 0.4 h/Mpc.

[ascl:1110.017]
POWMES: Measuring the Power Spectrum in an N-body Simulation

POWMES is a F90 program to measure very accurately the power spectrum in a N-body simulation, using Taylor expansion of some order on the cosine and sine transforms. It can read GADGET format and requires FFTW2 to be installed.

[ascl:2301.023]
PoWR: Potsdam Wolf-Rayet Models

Hamann, W. R.; Gräfener, G.; Koesterke, L.; Sander, A.; Shenar, T.; Hainich, R.; Gímenez-García, A.; Todt, H.

PoWR (Potsdam Wolf-Rayet Models) calculates synthetic spectra for Wolf-Rayet and OB stars from model atmospheres which account for Non-LTE, spherical expansion and metal line blanketing. The model data is provided through a web interface and includes Spectral Energy Distribution, line spectrum in high resolution for different wavelength bands, and atmosphere stratification. For Wolf-Rayet stars of the nitrogen subclass, there are grids of hydrogen-free models and of models with a specified mass fraction of hydrogen. The iron-group and total CNO mass fractions correspond to the metallicity of the Galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud, or the Small Magellanic Cloud, respectively. The source code is available as a tarball on the same web interface.

[ascl:2212.017]
powspec: Power and cross spectral density of 2D arrays

powspec provides functions to compute power and cross spectral density of 2D arrays. Units are properly taken into account. It can, for example, create fake Gaussian field images, compute power spectra P(k) of each image, shrink a mask with regard to a kernel, generate a Gaussian field, and plot various results.

[ascl:1401.009]
PPF module for CAMB

The main CAMB code supports smooth dark energy models with constant equation of state and sound speed of one, or a quintessence model based on a potential. This modified code generalizes it to support a time-dependent equation of state w(a) that is allowed to cross the phantom divide, i.e. w=-1 multiple times by implementing a Parameterized Post-Friedmann(PPF) prescription for the dark energy perturbations.

[ascl:1507.009]
PPInteractions: Secondary particle spectra from proton-proton interactions

PPInteractions generates the secondary particle energy spectra produced in proton-proton interactions over the entire chosen energy range for any value of the primary proton spectral index by adjusting the low energy part of the spectra (below 0.1TeV) to the high energy end of the spectra (above 0.1TeV). This code is based on the parametrization of Kelner et al (2006), in which the normalization of the low energy part of the spectra is given only for 3 values of the primary proton spectral indices (2, 2.5, 3).

[ascl:2004.008]
PPMAP: Column density mapping with extra dimensions

PPMAP provides column density mapping with extra dimensions (temperature and dust opacity index); it generate image cubes of differential column density as a function of (x,y) sky position and temperature for diffuse dusty structures. The code incorporates parallel processing using OpenMP for some of the more CPU-intensive steps. It is currently configured for the "Raven" cluster at Cardiff University and runs in a mode in which the computations are split between 16 separate nodes, each of which uses 16 cores with OpenMP.

[ascl:1210.002]
pPXF: Penalized Pixel-Fitting stellar kinematics extraction

pPXF extracts the stellar kinematics or stellar population from absorption-line spectra of galaxies using the Penalized Pixel-Fitting method (pPXF) developed by Cappellari & Emsellem (2004, PASP, 116, 138). Additional features implemented in the pPXF routine include:

- Optimal template: Fitted together with the kinematics to minimize template-mismatch errors. Also useful to extract gas kinematics or derive emission-corrected line-strengths indexes. One can use synthetic templates to study the stellar population of galaxies via "Full Spectral Fitting" instead of using traditional line-strengths.
- Regularization of templates weights: To reduce the noise in the recovery of the stellar population parameters and attach a physical meaning to the output weights assigned to the templates in term of the star formation history (SFH) or metallicity distribution of an individual galaxy.
- Iterative sigma clipping: To clean the spectra from residual bad pixels or cosmic rays.
- Additive/multiplicative polynomials: To correct low frequency continuum variations. Also useful for calibration purposes.

The code is available in IDL and in Python versions.

[ascl:1611.004]
PRECESSION: Python toolbox for dynamics of spinning black-hole binaries

PRECESSION is a comprehensive toolbox for exploring the dynamics of precessing black-hole binaries in the post-Newtonian regime. It allows study of the evolution of the black-hole spins along their precession cycles, performs gravitational-wave-driven binary inspirals using both orbit-averaged and precession-averaged integrations, and predicts the properties of the merger remnant through fitting formulas obtained from numerical-relativity simulations. PRECESSION can add the black-hole spin dynamics to larger-scale numerical studies such as gravitational-wave parameter estimation codes, population synthesis models to predict gravitational-wave event rates, galaxy merger trees and cosmological simulations of structure formation, and provides fast and reliable integration methods to propagate statistical samples of black-hole binaries from/to large separations where they form to/from small separations where they become detectable, thus linking gravitational-wave observations of spinning black-hole binaries to their astrophysical formation history. The code is also useful for computing initial parameters for numerical-relativity simulations targeting specific precessing systems.

[ascl:2004.016]
PRECISION: Astronomical infrared observations data reduction

PRECISION reduces astronomical IR imaging data. Written with SPHERE data in mind, it provides a fast and easy reduction of bright sources suitable for science. While it may not extract the absolute maximum amount of science, the objective is to provide a means to get science-ready data with minimal computing time or human interaction.

[ascl:1710.024]
pred_loggs: Predicting individual galaxy G/S probability distributions

Eckert, Kathleen D.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Stark, David V.; Moffett, Amanda J.; Norris, Mark A.; Snyder, Elaine M.; Hoversten, Erik A.

pred_loggs models the entire PGF probability density field, enabling iterative statistical modeling of upper limits and prediction of full G/S probability distributions for individual galaxies.

[ascl:1112.016]
PREDICT: Satellite tracking and orbital prediction

PREDICT is an open-source, multi-user satellite tracking and orbital prediction program written under the Linux operating system. PREDICT provides real-time satellite tracking and orbital prediction information to users and client applications through:

- the system console
- the command line
- a network socket
- the generation of audio speech

[ascl:1910.002]
PreProFit: Pressure Profile Fitter for galaxy clusters in Python

PreProFit fits the pressure profile of galaxy clusters using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The software can analyze data from different sources and offers flexible parametrization for the pressure profile. PreProFit accounts for Abel integral, beam smearing, and transfer function filtering when fitting data and returns χ2, model parameters and uncertainties in addition to marginal and joint probability contours, diagnostic plots, and surface brightness radial profiles. The code can be used for analytic approximations for the beam and transfer functions for feasibility studies.

[ascl:1305.006]
Pressure-Entropy SPH: Pressure-entropy smooth-particle hydrodynamics

Pressure-Entropy SPH, a modified version of GADGET-2, uses the Lagrangian “Pressure-Entropy” formulation of the SPH equations. This removes the spurious “surface tension” force substantially improving the treatment of fluid mixing and contact discontinuities. Pressure-Entropy SPH shows good performance in mixing experiments (e.g. Kelvin-Helmholtz & blob tests), with conservation maintained even in strong shock/blastwave tests, where formulations without manifest conservation produce large errors. This improves the treatment of sub-sonic turbulence and lessens the need for large kernel particle numbers.

[ascl:1107.017]
PRESTO: PulsaR Exploration and Search TOolkit

PRESTO is a large suite of pulsar search and analysis software. It was primarily designed to efficiently search for binary millisecond pulsars from long observations of globular clusters (although it has since been used in several surveys with short integrations and to process a lot of X-ray data as well). To date, PRESTO has discovered well over a hundred and fifty pulsars, including approximately 100 recycled pulsars, about 80 of which are in binaries. It is written primarily in ANSI C, with many of the recent routines in Python.

Written with portability, ease-of-use, and memory efficiency in mind, it can currently handle raw data from the following pulsar machines or formats:

- PSRFITS search-format data (as from GUPPI at the GBT and the Mock Spectrometers at Arecibo)

- SPIGOT at the GBT

- Most Wideband Arecibo Pulsar Processor (WAPP) at Arecibo

- The Parkes and Jodrell Bank 1-bit filterbank formats

- Berkeley-Caltech Pulsar Machine (BCPM) at the GBT (may it RIP...)

- 8-bit filterbank format from SIGPROC (other formats will be added if required)

- A time series composed of single precision (i.e. 4-byte) floating point data

- Photon arrival times (or events) in ASCII or double-precision binary formats

[submitted]
PREVIS: Python Request Engine for Virtual Interferometric Survey

PREVIS is a Python module that provides functions to help determine the observability of astronomical sources from long-baseline interferometers worldwide: VLTI (ESO, Chile) and CHARA (USA). PREVIS uses data from the Virtual Observatory (OV), such as magnitudes, Spectral Energy Distribution (SED), celestial coordinates or Gaia distances. Then, it compares the target brightness to the limiting magnitudes of each instrument to determine whether the target is observable with present performances. PREVIS includes main facilities at the VLTI with PIONIER (H band), GRAVITY (K band) and MATISSE (L, M, N bands), and at CHARA array with VEGA (V band), PAVO (R bands), MIRC (H band), CLIMB (K band) and CLASSIC (H, K bands). PREVIS also uses the V or G magnitudes to check the guiding restriction or the tip/tilt correction limit. For the VLTI: if the star is too faint in G mag, PREVIS will look for the list of stars around the target (57 arcsec) with the appropriate magnitude and give the list of celestial coordinates usable as the guiding star.

[ascl:1903.009]
PRF: Probabilistic Random Forest

PRF (Probabilistic Random Forest) is a machine learning algorithm for noisy datasets. The PRF is a modification of the long-established Random Forest (RF) algorithm, and takes into account uncertainties in the measurements (i.e., features) as well as in the assigned classes (i.e., labels). To do so, the Probabilistic Random Forest (PRF) algorithm treats the features and labels as probability distribution functions, rather than as deterministic quantities.

[ascl:2006.002]
PRIISM: Python module for Radio Interferometry Imaging with Sparse Modeling

PRIISM images radio interferometry data using the sparse modeling technique. In addition to generating an image, PRIISM can choose the best image from a range of processing parameters using cross validation. User can obtain statistically optimal images by providing the visibility data with some configuration parameters. The software is implemented as a Python module.

[ascl:2006.010]
PRISim: Precision Radio Interferometer Simulator

PRISim is a modular radio interferometer array simulator, including the radio sky and instrumental effects, and generates a transit dataset in HD5 format.

[ascl:1907.021]
PRISM: Probabilistic Regression Instrument for Simulating Models

PRISM analyzes scientific models using the Bayes linear approach, the emulation technique, and history matching to construct an approximation ('emulator') of any given model. The software facilitates and enhances existing MCMC methods by restricting plausible regions and exploring parameter space efficiently and can be used as a standalone alternative to MCMC for model analysis, providing insight into the behavior of complex scientific models. PRISM stores results in HDF5-files and can be executed in serial or MPI on any number of processes. It accepts any type of model and comparison data and can reduce relevant parameter space by factors over 100,000 using only a few thousand model evaluations.

[ascl:1601.020]
ProC: Process Coordinator

Hovest, Wolfgang; Knoche, Jörg; Hell, Reinhard; Doerl, Uwe; Riller, Thomas; Matthai, Frank; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Rachen, Jörg; Robbers, Georg; Adorf, Hans-Martin; Reinecke, Martin; Bartelmann, Matthias

ProC (short for Process Coordinator) is a versatile workflow engine that allows the user to build, run and manage workflows with just a few clicks. It automatically documents every processing step, making every modification to data reproducible. ProC provides a graphical user interface for constructing complex data processing workflows out of a given set of computer programs. The user can, for example, specify that only data products which are affected by a change in the input data are updated selectively, avoiding unnecessary computations. The ProC suite is flexible and satisfies basic needs of data processing centers that have to be able to restructure their data processing along with the development of a project.

[submitted]
prodimopy: Python tools for the radiation thermo-chemical code ProDiMo.

Rab, Christian; Arabhavi, Aditya M.; Chaparro Molano, G.; Backs, Frank; Kamp, Inga; Thi, Wing-Fai; Woitke , Peter

prodimopy is an open-source Python package to read, analyze and plot modelling results of the radiation thermo-chemical disk code ProDiMo (PROtoplanetary DIsk MOdel, https://prodimo.iwf.oeaw.ac.at). It also includes tools to run ProDiMo in 1D slap model mode, to run simple ProDimo model grids and to interface ProDiMo with 1D and 2D disk codes (i.e. use input structure from hydrodynamic models).

prodimopy can also be used independently of ProDiMo (no ProDiMo installation is required) and hence is also useful to extract information from already available ProDiMo models (e.g. as input for other codes) or for model comparison.

[ascl:1608.011]
PROFFIT: Analysis of X-ray surface-brightness profiles

PROFFIT analyzes X-ray surface-brightness profiles for data from any X-ray instrument. It can extract surface-brightness profiles in circular or elliptical annuli, using constant or logarithmic bin size, from the image centroid, the surface-brightness peak, or any user-given center, and provides surface-brightness profiles in any circular or elliptical sectors. It offers background map support to extract background profiles, can excise areas using SAO DS9-compatible (ascl:0003.002) region files to exclude point sources, provides fitting with a number of built-in models, including the popular beta model, double beta, cusp beta, power law, and projected broken power law, uses chi-squared or C statistic, and can fit on the surface-brightness or counts data. It has a command-line interface similar to HEASOFT’s XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) package, provides interactive help with a description of all the commands, and results can be saved in FITS, ROOT or TXT format.

[ascl:1705.010]
PROFILER: 1D galaxy light profile decomposition

Written in Python, PROFILER analyzes the radial surface brightness profiles of galaxies. It accurately models a wide range of galaxies and galaxy components, such as elliptical galaxies, the bulges of spiral and lenticular galaxies, nuclear sources, discs, bars, rings, and spiral arms with a variety of parametric functions routinely employed in the field (Sérsic, core-Sérsic, exponential, Gaussian, Moffat and Ferrers). In addition, Profiler can employ the broken exponential model (relevant for disc truncations or antitruncations) and two special cases of the edge-on disc model: namely along the major axis (in the disc plane) and along the minor axis (perpendicular to the disc plane).

[ascl:1612.004]
ProFit: Bayesian galaxy fitting tool

ProFit is a Bayesian galaxy fitting tool that uses the fast C++ image generation library libprofit (ascl:1612.003) and a flexible R interface to a large number of likelihood samplers. It offers a fully featured Bayesian interface to galaxy model fitting (also called profiling), using mostly the same standard inputs as other popular codes (e.g. GALFIT ascl:1104.010), but it is also able to use complex priors and a number of likelihoods.

[ascl:1204.015]
PROFIT: Emission-line PROfile FITting routine

The PROFIT is an IDL routine to do automated fitting of emission-line profiles by Gaussian curves or Gauss-Hermite series optimized for use in Integral Field and Fabry-Perot data cubes. As output PROFIT gives two-dimensional FITS files for the emission-line flux distribution, centroid velocity, velocity dispersion and higher order Gauss-Hermite moments (h3 and h4).

[ascl:1804.006]
ProFound: Source Extraction and Application to Modern Survey Data

ProFound detects sources in noisy images, generates segmentation maps identifying the pixels belonging to each source, and measures statistics like flux, size, and ellipticity. These inputs are key requirements of ProFit (ascl:1612.004), our galaxy profiling package; these two packages used in unison semi-automatically profile large samples of galaxies. The key novel feature introduced in ProFound is that all photometry is executed on dilated segmentation maps that fully contain the identifiable flux, rather than using more traditional circular or ellipse-based photometry. Also, to be less sensitive to pathological segmentation issues, the de-blending is made across saddle points in flux. ProFound offers good initial parameter estimation for ProFit, and also segmentation maps that follow the sometimes complex geometry of resolved sources, whilst capturing nearly all of the flux. A number of bulge-disc decomposition projects are already making use of the ProFound and ProFit pipeline.

[ascl:2204.018]
ProFuse: Galaxies and components modeler

ProFuse produces physical models of galaxies and their components by combining the functionalities of the source extraction code PROFOUND (ascl:1804.006), the Bayesian galaxy fitting tool ProFit (ascl:1612.004), and the spectral generation package ProSpect (ascl:2002.007). ProFuse uses a self-consistent model for the star formation and metallicity history of the bulge and disk separately to generate images. The package then defines the model likelihood and optimizes the physical galaxy reconstruction using target images across a range of wavelengths.

[ascl:1306.004]
PROM4: 1D isothermal and isobaric modeler for solar prominences

PROM4 computes simple models of solar prominences which consist of plane-parallel slabs standing vertically above the solar surface. Each model is defined by 5 parameters: temperature, density, geometrical thickness, microturbulent velocity and height above the solar surface. PROM4 solves the equations of radiative transfer, statistical equilibrium, ionization and pressure equilibria, and computes electron and hydrogen level populations and hydrogen line profiles. Written in Fortran 90 and with two versions available (one with text in English, one with text in French), the code needs 64-bit arithmetic for real numbers.

PROM7 (ascl:1805.023) is a more recent version of this code.

[ascl:1805.023]
PROM7: 1D modeler of solar filaments or prominences

PROM7 is an update of PROM4 (ascl:1306.004) and computes simple models of solar prominences and filaments using Partial Radiative Distribution (PRD). The models consist of plane-parallel slabs standing vertically above the solar surface. Each model is defined by 5 parameters: temperature, density, geometrical thickness, microturbulent velocity and height above the solar surface. It solves the equations of radiative transfer, statistical equilibrium, ionization and pressure equilibria, and computes electron and hydrogen level population and hydrogen line profiles. Moreover, the code treats calcium atom which is reduced to 3 ionization states (Ca I, Ca II, CA III). Ca II ion has 5 levels which are useful for computing 2 resonance lines (H and K) and infrared triplet (to 8500 A).

[ascl:1511.023]
PromptNuFlux: Prompt atmospheric neutrino flux calculator

PromptNuFlux computes the prompt atmospheric neutrino flux E3Φ(GeV2/(cm2ssr)), including the total associated theory uncertainty, for a range of energies between E=103 GeV and E=107.5 GeV. Results are available for five different parametrizations of the input cosmic ray flux: BPL, H3P, H3A, H14a, H14b.

[ascl:2312.020]
ProPane: Image warping and stacking utilities

Robotham, A. S. G.; Tobar, R.; Bellstedt, S.; Casura, S.; Cook, R. H. W.; D'Silva, J. C. J.; Davies, L. J.; Driver, S. P.; Li, J.; Garate-Nuñez, L. P.

The ProPane package comes with key utilities for warping between different WCS systems: propaneWarp (for warping individual frames once). ProPane also contains the various functions for creating large stacks of many warped frames (which is of class ProPane, which is roughly meant to suggest the idea of many panes of glass being stacked together). It uses the wcslib C library (ascl:1108.003) for projections (all legal ones are supported) via the Rwcs package, and uses the threaded Cimg C++ library via the imager library to do image warping. ProPane also contains functions converted from older (deprecated) Rwcs and ProFound (ascl:1804.006) related functions.

[ascl:1405.006]
PROPER: Optical propagation routines

PROPER simulates the propagation of light through an optical system using Fourier transform algorithms (Fresnel, angular spectrum methods). Available in IDL, Python, and Matlab, it includes routines to create complex apertures, aberrated wavefronts, and deformable mirrors. It is especially useful for the simulation of high contrast imaging telescopes (extrasolar planet imagers like TPF).

[ascl:1904.025]
Properimage: Image coaddition and subtraction

Properimage processes astronomical image; it is specially written for coaddition and image subtraction. It performs the statistical proper-coadd of several images using a spatially variant PSF estimation, and also difference image analysis by several strategies developed by others. Most of the code is based on a class called SingleImage, which provides methods and properties for image processing such as PSF determination.

[ascl:1306.005]
PROS: Multi-mission X-ray analysis software system

PROS is a multi-mission x-ray analysis software system designed to run under IRAF. The PROS software includes spatial, spectral, timing, data I/O and conversion routines, plotting applications, and general algorithms for performing arithmetic operations with imaging data.

[ascl:2111.006]
prose: FITS images processing pipeline

Garcia, Lionel J.; Timmermans, Mathilde; Pozuelos, Francisco J.; Ducrot, Elsa; Gillon, Michaël; Delrez, Laetitia; Wells, Robert D.; Jehin, Emmanuël

prose provides pipelines for performing common tasks, such as automated calibration, reduction and photometry, and makes building custom pipelines easy. The prose framework is instrument-agnostic and makes constructing pipelines easy. It offers a wide range of implemented building blocks and also allows users to define their own.

[ascl:2312.002]
PROSPECT: Profile likelihood for frequentist cosmological inference

PROSPECT infers cosmological parameters using profile likelihoods. It constructs an approximate profile likelihood from an MCMC and optimizes it using simulated annealing, a gradient-free stochastic optimization algorithm. It employs an automatic tuning of the step size parameter and binned covariance matrices from the MCMC to achieve efficient optimizations of the profile likelihood.

[ascl:2002.007]
ProSpect: Spectral generation package

ProSpect generates good quality SEDs that can be used to estimate the broad band photometric properties of galaxies that have known star formation and gas metallicity histories. It allows for complex star formation and metallicity histories to be specified, and can be used in a generative or fitting (Bayesian) mode. ProSpect provides a high level interface to the BC03 (low and high resolution) and EMILES libraries, as well as the Dale 2014 dust emission templates. Its source code is available for download, and it is also available as an interactive web tool.

[ascl:1905.025]
Prospector: Stellar population inference from spectra and SEDs

Prospector conducts principled inference of stellar population properties from photometric and/or spectroscopic data. The code combine photometric and spectroscopic data rigorously using a flexible spectroscopic calibration model and infer high-dimensional stellar population properties using parameteric SFHs (with ensemble MCMC sampling). Prospector also constrains the linear combination of stellar population components that are present in a galaxy (e.g. non-parametric SFHs) using spectra and/or photometry, and fits individual stellar spectra using large interpolated grids.

[ascl:2001.006]
Protostellar Evolution: Stellar evolution simulator

Protostellar Evolution simulates the evolution of stellar stellar radius and luminosity from the bound core stage through to the core hydrogen ignition as a zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) star and beyond. Written in Fortran 90, the code is implemented as a module of the FLASH astrophysical fluid dynamics code (ascl:1010.082).

[ascl:2407.006]
provabgs: SED modeling tools for PROVABGS

provabgs infers full posterior distributions of galaxy properties for galaxies in the DESI Bright Galaxy Survey using state-of-the-art Bayesian spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling of DESI spectroscopy and photometry. provabgs includes a state-of-the-art stellar population synthesis (SPS) model based on non-parametric prescription for star formation history, a metallicity history that varies over the age of the galaxy, and a flexible dust prescription. It has a neural network emulator for the SPS model that enables accelerated inference. Full posteriors of the 12 SPS parameters can be derived in ~10 minutes. The emulator is currently designed for galaxies from 0 < z < 0.6. provabgs also includes a Bayesian inference pipeline that is based on zeus (ascl:2008.010).

[ascl:2406.010]
PRyMordial: Precise computations of BBN within and beyond the Standard Model

PRyMordial offers fast and precise evaluation of both the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) light-element abundances and the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom. It can be used within and beyond the Standard Model. The package calculates N_{eff} and helium-4, deuterium, helium-3 and lithium-7 abundances. PRyMordial corrects for QED plasma effects, neutron lifetime, and incomplete neutrino decoupling, and includes an optional module that re-elaborates all the ODE systems of the code in Julia.

[ascl:2205.016]
Pryngles: PlanetaRY spaNGLES

Pryngles produces visualizations of the geometric configuration of a ringed exoplanet (an exoplanet with a ring or exoring for short) and calculates the light-curve signatures produced by these kind of planets. The model behind the package has been developed in an effort to predict the signatures that exorings may produce not only in the light-curve of transiting exoplanets (a problem that has been extensively studied) but also in the light of stars having non-transiting exoplanets.

[ascl:1301.001]
PSFEx: Point Spread Function Extractor

PSFEx (“PSF Extractor”) extracts models of the Point Spread Function (PSF) from FITS images processed with SExtractor and measures the quality of images. The generated PSF models can be used for model-fitting photometry or morphological analyses.

[ascl:2306.056]
PSFMachine: Toolkit for doing PSF photometry

PSFMachine creates models of instrument effective Point Spread Functions (ePSFs), also called Pixel Response Functions (PRFs). These models are then used to fit a scene in a stack of astronomical images. PSFMachine is able to quickly derive photometry from stacks of Kepler and TESS images and separate crowded sources.

[ascl:2210.005]
PSFr: Point Spread Function reconstruction

PSFr empirically reconstructs an oversampled version of the point spread function (PSF) from astronomical imaging observations. The code provides a light-weighted API of a refined version of an algorithm originally implemented in lenstronomy (ascl:1804.012). It provides user support with different artifacts in the data and supports the masking of pixels, or the treatment of saturation levels. PSFr has been used to reconstruct the PSF from multiply imaged lensed quasar images observed by the Hubble Space Telescope in a crowded lensing environment and more recently with James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) imaging data for a wide dynamical flux range.

[ascl:2202.013]
PSLS: PLATO Solar-like Light-curve Simulator

Samadi, R.; Deru, A.; Reese, D.; Marchiori, V.; Grolleau, E.; Green, J. J.; Pertenais, M.; Lebreton, Y.; Deheuvels, S.; Mosser, B.; Belkacem, K.; Börner, A.; Smith, A. M. S.

PSLS simulates solar-like oscillators representative of PLATO targets. It includes planetary transits, stochastically-excited oscillations, granulation and activity background components, as well as instrumental systematic errors and random noises representative for PLATO.

[ascl:1208.005]
PSM: Planck Sky Model

Ashdown, Mark; Aumont, Jonathan; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Banday, Anthony; Basak, Soumen; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Betoule, Marc; Bouchet, François; Castex, Guillaume; Clements, Dave; Da Silva, Antonio; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Delabrouille, Jacques; Dickinson, Clive; Dodu, Fabrice; Dolag, Klaus; Elsner, Franz; Fauvet, Lauranne; Faÿ, Gilles; Giardino, Giovanna; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; le Jeune, Maude; Leach, Samuel; Lesgourgues, Julien; Liguori, Michele; Macias, Juan; Massardi, Marcella; Matarrese, Sabino; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Montier, Ludovic; Mottet, Sylvain; Paladini, Roberta; Partridge, Bruce; Piffaretti, Rocco; Prézeau, Gary; Prunet, Simon; Ricciardi, Sara; Roman, Matthieu; Schaefer, Bjorn; Toffolatti, Luigi

The Planck Sky Model (PSM) is a global representation of the multi-component sky at frequencies ranging from a few GHz to a few THz. It summarizes in a synthetic way as much of our present knowledge as possible of the GHz sky. PSM is a complete and versatile set of programs and data that can be used for the simulation or the prediction of sky emission in the frequency range of typical CMB experiments, and in particular of the Planck sky mission. It was originally developed as part of the activities of Planck component separation Working Group (or "Working Group 2" - WG2), and of the ADAMIS team at APC.

PSM gives users the opportunity to investigate the model in some depth: look at its parameters, visualize its predictions for all individual components in various formats, simulate sky emission compatible with a given parameter set, and observe the modeled sky with a synthetic instrument. In particular, it makes possible the simulation of sky emission maps as could be plausibly observed by Planck or other CMB experiments that can be used as inputs for the development and testing of data processing and analysis techniques.

[ascl:1705.013]
PSOAP: Precision Spectroscopic Orbits A-Parametrically

PSOAP (Precision Spectroscopic Orbits A-Parametrically) uses Gaussian processes to infer component spectra of single-lined and double-lined spectroscopic binaries, while simultaneously exploring the posteriors of the orbital parameters and the spectra themselves. PSOAP accounts for the natural λ-covariances in each spectrum, thus providing a natural "de-noising" of the spectra typically offered by Fourier techniques.

[ascl:1010.011]
PSpectRe: A Pseudo-Spectral Code for (P)reheating

PSpectRe, written in C++, uses Fourier-space pseudo-spectral methods to evolve interacting scalar fields in an expanding universe. The code is optimized for the analysis of parametric resonance in the post-inflationary universe and provides an alternative to finite differencing codes. PSpectRe has both second- (Velocity-Verlet) and fourth-order (Runge-Kutta) time integrators. In some circumstances PSpectRe obtains reliable results while using substantially fewer points than a finite differencing code by computing the post-resonance equation of state. PSpectRe is designed to be easily extended to other problems in early-universe cosmology, including the generation of gravitational waves during phase transitions and pre-inflationary bubble collisions.

[ascl:1710.020]
PSPLINE: Princeton Spline and Hermite cubic interpolation routines

PSPLINE is a collection of Spline and Hermite interpolation tools for 1D, 2D, and 3D datasets on rectilinear grids. Spline routines give full control over boundary conditions, including periodic, 1st or 2nd derivative match, or divided difference-based boundary conditions on either end of each grid dimension. Hermite routines take the function value and derivatives at each grid point as input, giving back a representation of the function between grid points. Routines are provided for creating Hermite datasets, with appropriate boundary conditions applied. The 1D spline and Hermite routines are based on standard methods; the 2D and 3D spline or Hermite interpolation functions are constructed from 1D spline or Hermite interpolation functions in a straightforward manner. Spline and Hermite interpolation functions are often much faster to evaluate than other representations using e.g. Fourier series or otherwise involving transcendental functions.

[ascl:1105.014]
PSRCHIVE: Development Library for the Analysis of Pulsar Astronomical Data

PSRCHIVE is an Open Source C++ development library for the analysis of pulsar astronomical data. It implements an extensive range of algorithms for use in pulsar timing, polarimetric calibration, single-pulse analyses, RFI mitigation, scintillation studies, etc. These tools are utilized by a powerful suite of user-end programs that come with the library.

[ascl:2110.003]
PSRDADA: Distributed Acquisition and Data Analysis for Radio Astronomy

PSRDADA supports the development of distributed data acquisition and analysis systems; it provides a flexible and well-managed ring buffer in shared memory with a variety of applications for piping data from device to ring buffer and from ring buffer to device. PSRDADA allows more than one data set to be queued in the ring buffer at one time, and data may be recorded in selected bursts using data validity flags. A variety of clients have been implemented that can write data to the ring buffer and read data from it. The primary write clients can be controlled via a simple, text-based socket interface, and read client software exists for writing data to an array of disks, sending data to an array of nodes, or processing the data directly from RAM. At the highest level of control and configuration, scripts launch the PSRDADA configuration across all nodes in the cluster, monitor all relevant processes, configure and control through a web-based interface, interface with observatory scheduling tools, and manage the ownership and archival of project data. It has been used in the implementation of baseband recording and processing instrumentation for radio pulsar astronomy.

[ascl:1107.019]
PSRPOP: Pulsar Population Modelling Programs

PSRPOP is a package developed to model the Galactic population and evolution of radio pulsars. It is a collection of modules written in Fortran77 for an analysis of a large sample of pulsars detected by the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey. The main programs are: 1.) populate, which creates a model Galaxy of pulsars distributed according according to various assumptions; 2.) survey, which searches the model galaxies generated using populate using realistic models of pulsar surveys; and 3.) visualize, a Tk/PGPLOT script to plot various aspects of model detected pulsars from survey. A sample screenshot from visualize can be found here.

[ascl:1501.006]
PsrPopPy: Pulsar Population Modelling Programs in Python

PsrPopPy is a Python implementation of the Galactic population and evolution of radio pulsars modelling code PSRPOP (ascl:1107.019).

[ascl:1812.017]
psrqpy: Python module to query the ATNF Pulsar Catalogue

psrqpy directly queries the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) Pulsar Catalogue by downloading and parsing the full catalog database, which is cached and can be reused. The module assists astronomers who want access to the latest pulsar information via a script rather than through the standard web interface.

[ascl:2007.007]
PSRVoid: Statistical suite for folded pulsar data

PSRVoid performs RFI excision, flux calibration and timing of folded pulsar data. RFI excision is administered via both traditional and multi-layered deep learning neural network algorithms. The software offers full neural network control (over training set creation and manipulation and network parameters). PSRVoid also contains useful data miners for the ATNF, a multitude of plotting tools, as well as many useful pulsar processing macros such as space velocity simulators and Tempo2 (ascl:1210.015) wrappers.

[ascl:2210.001]
PSS: Pulsar Survey Scraper

Pulsar Survey Scraper aggregates pulsar discoveries before they are included in the ATNF pulsar catalog and enables searching and filtering based on position and dispersion measure. This facilitates identifying new pulsar discoveries. Pulsar Survey Scraper can be downloaded or run online using the Pulsar Survey Scraper webform.

[ascl:2111.003]
PSwarm: Global optimization solver for bound and linear constrained problems

PSwarm is a global optimization solver for bound and linear constrained problems (for which the derivatives of the objective function are unavailable, inaccurate or expensive). The algorithm combines pattern search and particle swarm. Basically, it applies a directional direct search in the poll step (coordinate search in the pure simple bounds case) and particle swarm in the search step. PSwarm makes no use of derivative information of the objective function. It has been shown to be efficient and robust for smooth and nonsmooth problems, both in serial and in parallel.

[ascl:2110.021]
PT-REX: Point-to-point TRend EXtractor

PT-REX (Point-to-point TRend EXtractor) performs ptp analysis on every kind of extended radio source. The code exploits a set of different fitting methods to allow study of the spatial correlation, and is structured in a series of tasks to handle the individual steps of a ptp analysis independently, from defining a grid to sample the radio emission to accurately analyzing the data using several statistical methods. A major feature of PT-REX is the use of an automatic, randomly-generated sampling routine to combine several SMptp analysis into a Monte Carlo ptp (MCptp) analysis. By repeating several cycles of SMptp analysis with randomly-generated grids, PT-REX produces a distribution of values of k that describe its parameter space, thus allowing a reliably estimate of the trend (and its uncertainties).

[ascl:2211.001]
PTAfast: PTA correlations from stochastic gravitational wave background

PTAfast calculates the overlap reduction function in Pulsar Timing Array produced by the stochastic gravitational wave background for arbitrary polarizations, propagation velocities, and pulsar distances.

[ascl:2101.006]
ptemcee: A parallel-tempered version of emcee

ptemcee, pronounced "tem-cee", is fork of Daniel Foreman-Mackey's emcee (ascl:1303.002) to implement parallel tempering more robustly. As far as possible, it is designed as a drop-in replacement for emcee. It is helpful for characterizing awkward, multi-modal probability distributions.

[ascl:1912.017]
PTMCMCSampler: Parallel tempering MCMC sampler package written in Python

PTMCMCSampler performs MCMC sampling using advanced techniques. The code implements a variety of proposal schemes, including adaptive Metropolis, differential evolution, and parallel tempering, which can be used together in the same run.

[ascl:2303.019]
pulsar_spectra: Pulsar flux density measurements, spectral models fitting, and catalog

pulsar_spectra provides a pulsar flux density catalog and automated spectral fitting software for finding spectral models. The package can also produce publication-quality plots and allows users to add new spectral measurements to the catalog. The spectral fitting software uses robust statistical methods to determine the best-fitting model for individual pulsar spectra.

[ascl:1811.020]
PulsarHunter: Searching for and confirming pulsars

Pulsarhunter searches for and confirms pulsars; it provides a set of time domain optimization tools for processing timeseries data produced by SIGPROC (ascl:1107.016). The software can natively write candidate lists for JReaper (included in the package), removing the need to manually import candidates into JReaper; JReaper also reads the PulsarHunter candidate file format.

[ascl:2312.012]
PulsarX: Pulsar searching

The folding pipeline PulsarX searches for pulsars. The code includes radio frequency interference mitigation, de-dispersion, folding, and parameter optimization, and supports both psrfits and filterbank data formats. The toolset has two implementations of the folding pipelines; one uses a brute-force de-dispersion algorithm, and the other an algorithm that becomes more efficient than the brute-force de-dispersion algorithm as the number of candidates increases. PulsarX is appropriate for large-scale pulsar surveys.

[ascl:1606.013]
Pulse Portraiture: Pulsar timing

Pulse Portraiture is a wideband pulsar timing code written in python. It uses an extension of the FFTFIT algorithm (Taylor 1992) to simultaneously measure a phase (TOA) and dispersion measure (DM). The code includes a Gaussian-component-based portrait modeling routine. The code uses the python interface to the pulsar data analysis package PSRCHIVE (ascl:1105.014) and also requires the non-linear least-squares minimization package lmfit (ascl:1606.014).

[ascl:1807.022]
PUMA: Low-frequency radio catalog cross-matching

PUMA (Positional Update and Matching Algorithm) cross-matches low-frequency radio catalogs using a Bayesian positional probability with spectral matching criteria. The code reliably finds the correct spectral indices of sources and recovers ionospheric offsets. PUMA can be used to facilitate all-sky cross-matches with further constraints applied for other science goals.

[ascl:1110.014]
pureS2HAT: S 2HAT-based Pure E/B Harmonic Transforms

The pS2HAT routines allow efficient, parallel calculation of the so-called 'pure' polarized multipoles. The computed multipole coefficients are equal to the standard pseudo-multipoles calculated for the apodized sky maps of the Stokes parameters Q and U subsequently corrected by so-called counterterms. If the applied apodizations fullfill certain boundary conditions, these multipoles correspond to the pure multipoles. Pure multipoles of one type, i.e., either E or B, are ensured not to contain contributions from the other one, at least to within numerical artifacts. They can be therefore further used in the estimation of the sky power spectra via the pseudo power spectrum technique, which has to however correctly account for the applied apodization on the one hand, and the presence of the counterterms, on the other.

In addition, the package contains the routines permitting calculation of the spin-weighted apodizations, given an input scalar, i.e., spin-0 window. The former are needed to compute the counterterms. It also provides routines for maps and window manipulations. The routines are written in C and based on the S2HAT library, which is used to perform all required spherical harmonic transforms as well as all inter-processor communication. They are therefore parallelized using MPI and follow the distributed-memory computational model. The data distribution patterns, pixelization choices, conventions etc are all as those assumed/allowed by the S2HAT library.

[ascl:2301.027]
Puri-Psi: Radio interferometric imaging

Puri-Psi addresses radio interferometric imaging problems using state-of-the-art optimization algorithms and deep learning. It performs scalable monochromatic, wide-band, and polarized imaging. It also provide joint calibration and imaging, and scalable uncertainty quantification. A scalable framework for wide-field monochromatic intensity imaging is also available, which encompasses a pure optimization algorithm, as well as an AI-based method in the form of a plug-and-play algorithm propelled by Deep Neural Network denoisers.

[ascl:1307.019]
PURIFY: Tools for radio-interferometric imaging

PURIFY is a collection of routines written in C that implements different tools for radio-interferometric imaging including file handling (for both visibilities and fits files), implementation of the measurement operator and set-up of the different optimization problems used for image deconvolution. The code calls the generic Sparse OPTimization (SOPT) (ascl:1307.020) package to solve the imaging optimization problems.

[ascl:1608.010]
pvextractor: Position-Velocity Diagram Extractor

Given a path defined in sky coordinates and a spectral cube, pvextractor extracts a slice of the cube along that path and along the spectral axis to produce a position-velocity or position-frequency slice. The path can be defined programmatically in pixel or world coordinates, and can also be drawn interactively using a simple GUI. Pvextractor is the main function, but also includes a few utilities related to header trimming and parsing.

[ascl:1210.026]
PVS-GRMHD: Conservative GRMHD Primitive Variable Solvers

Conservative numerical schemes for general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) require a method for transforming between "conserved'' variables such as momentum and energy density and "primitive" variables such as rest-mass density, internal energy, and components of the four-velocity. The forward transformation (primitive to conserved) has a closed-form solution, but the inverse transformation (conserved to primitive) requires the solution of a set of five nonlinear equations. This code performs the inversion.

[ascl:1704.001]
pwkit: Astronomical utilities in Python

pwkit is a collection of miscellaneous astronomical utilities in Python, with an emphasis on radio astronomy, reading and writing various data formats, and convenient command-line utilities. Utilities include basic astronomical calculations, data visualization tools such as mapping arbitrary data to color scales and tracing contours, and data input and output utilities such as streaming output from other programs.

[ascl:1806.032]
pwv_kpno: Modeling atmospheric absorption

pwv_kpno provides models for the atmospheric transmission due to precipitable water vapor (PWV) at user specified sites. Atmospheric transmission in the optical and near-infrared is highly dependent on the PWV column density along the line of sight. The pwv_kpno package uses published SuomiNet data in conjunction with MODTRAN models to determine the modeled, time-dependent atmospheric transmission between 3,000 and 12,000 Å. By default, models are provided for Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO). Additional locations can be added by the user for any of the hundreds of SuomiNet locations worldwide.

[ascl:2006.012]
pxf_kin_err: Radial velocity and velocity dispersion uncertainties estimator

pxf_kin_err estimates the radial velocity and velocity dispersion uncertainties based solely on the shape of a template spectrum used in the fitting procedure and signal-to-noise information. This method can be used for exposure time calculators, in the design of observational programs and estimates on expected uncertainties for spectral surveys of galaxies and star clusters, and as an accurate substitute for Monte-Carlo simulations when running them for large samples of thousands of spectra is unfeasible.

[submitted]
Py-PDM: A Python wrapper of the Phase Dispersion Minimization (PDM)

Phase Dispersion Minimization (PDM) is a periodical signal detection method, and it is originally implemented by Stellingwerf with C (https://www.stellingwerf.com/rfs-bin/index.cgi?action=PageView&id=34). With the help of Cython, Py-PDM is much faster than other Python implementations.

[ascl:1808.009]
py-sdm: Support Distribution Machines

py-sdm (Support Distribution Machines) is a Python implementation of nonparametric nearest-neighbor-based estimators for divergences between distributions for machine learning on sets of data rather than individual data points. It treats points of sets of data as samples from some unknown probability distribution and then statistically estimates the distance between those distributions, such as the KL divergence, the closely related Rényi divergence, L2 distance, or other similar distances.

[ascl:1712.003]
Py-SPHViewer: Cosmological simulations using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Py-SPHViewer visualizes and explores N-body + Hydrodynamics simulations. The code interpolates the underlying density field (or any other property) traced by a set of particles, using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) interpolation scheme, thus producing not only beautiful but also useful scientific images. Py-SPHViewer enables the user to explore simulated volumes using different projections. Py-SPHViewer also provides a natural way to visualize (in a self-consistent fashion) gas dynamical simulations, which use the same technique to compute the interactions between particles.

[ascl:1905.002]
Py4CAtS: PYthon for Computational ATmospheric Spectroscopy

Py4CAtS (PYthon scripts for Computational ATmospheric Spectroscopy) implements the individual steps of an infrared or microwave radiative transfer computation in separate scripts (and corresponding functions) to extract lines of relevant molecules in the spectral range of interest, compute line-by-line cross sections for given pressure(s) and temperature(s), combine cross sections to absorption coefficients and optical depths, and integrate along the line-of-sight to transmission and radiance/intensity. The code is a Python re-implementation of the Fortran code GARLIC (Generic Atmospheric Radiation Line-by-line Code) and uses the Numeric/Scientific Python modules for computationally-intensive highly optimized array-processing. Py4CAtS can be used in the console/terminal, inside the (I)Python interpreter, and in Jupyter notebooks.

[ascl:1906.010]
PyA: Python astronomy-related packages

Czesla, Stefan; Schröter, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian P.; Huber, Klaus F.; Pfeifer, Fabian; Andreasen, Daniel T.; Zechmeister, Mathias

The PyA (PyAstronomy) suite of astronomy-related packages includes a convenient fitting package that provides support for minimization and MCMC sampling, a set of astrophysical models (*e.g.*, transit light-curve modeling), and algorithms for timing analysis such as the Lomb-Scargle and the Generalized Lomb-Scargle periodograms.

[ascl:2405.004]
pyADfit: Nested sampling approach to quasi-stellar object (QSO) accretion disc fitting

pyADfit models accretion discs around astrophysical objects. The code provides functions to calculate physical quantities related to accretion disks and perform parameter estimation using observational data. The accretion disc model is the alpha-disc model while the parameter estimation can be performed with Nessai (ascl:2405.002), Raynest (ascl:2405.003), or CPnest (ascl:2205.021).

[ascl:1806.007]
PyAMOR: AMmOnia data Reduction

PyAMOR models spectra of low level ammonia transitions (between (J,K)=(1,1) and (5,5)) and derives parameters such as intrinsic linewidth, optical depth, and rotation temperature. For low S/N or low spectral resolution data, the code uses cross-correlation between a model and a regridded spectrum (e.g. 10 times smaller channel width) to find the velocity, then fixes it and runs the minimization process. For high S/N data, PyAMOR runs with the velocity as a free parameter.

[ascl:1707.003]
pyaneti: Multi-planet radial velocity and transit fitting

Pyaneti is a multi-planet radial velocity and transit fit software. The code uses Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods with a Bayesian approach and a parallelized ensemble sampler algorithm in Fortran which makes the code fast. It creates posteriors, correlations, and ready-to-publish plots automatically, and handles circular and eccentric orbits. It is capable of multi-planet fitting and handles stellar limb darkening, systemic velocities for multiple instruments, and short and long cadence data, and offers additional capabilities.

[ascl:2102.028]
PyAutoFit: Classy probabilistic programming

PyAutoFit supports advanced statistical methods such as massively parallel non-linear search grid-searches, chaining together model-fits and sensitivity mapping. It is a Python-based probabilistic programming language which composes and fits models using a range of Bayesian inference libraries, such as emcee (ascl:1303.002) and dynesty (ascl:1809.013). It performs model composition and customization, outputting results, model-specific visualization and posterior analysis. Built for big-data analysis, results are output as a database which can be loaded after model-fitting is complete.

[ascl:1807.003]
PyAutoLens: Strong lens modeling

PyAutoLens models and analyzes galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. This automated module suite simultaneously models the lens galaxy's light and mass while reconstructing the extended source galaxy on an adaptive pixel-grid. Source-plane discretization is amorphous, adapting its clustering and regularization to the intrinsic properties of the lensed source. The lens's light is fitted using a superposition of Sersic functions, allowing PyAutoLens to cleanly deblend its light from the source. Bayesian model comparison is used to automatically chose the complexity of the light and mass models. PyAutoLens provides accurate light, mass, and source profiles inferred for data sets representative of both existing Hubble imaging and future Euclid wide-field observations.

[ascl:1502.007]
PyBDSF: Python Blob Detection and Source Finder

PyBDSF (Python Blob Detector and Source Finder, formerly PyBDSM) decomposes radio interferometry images into sources and makes their properties available for further use. PyBDSF can decompose an image into a set of Gaussians, shapelets, or wavelets as well as calculate spectral indices and polarization properties of sources and measure the psf variation across an image. PyBDSF uses an interactive environment based on CASA (ascl:1107.013); PyBDSF may also be used in Python scripts.

[ascl:2104.023]
PyBird: Python code for biased tracers in redshift space

PyBird evaluates the multipoles of the power spectrum of biased tracers in redshift space. In general, PyBird can evaluate the power spectrum of matter or biased tracers in real or redshift space. The code uses FFTLog (ascl:1512.017) to evaluate the one-loop power spectrum and the IR resummation. PyBird is designed for a fast evaluation of the power spectra, and can be easily inserted in a data analysis pipeline. It is a standalone tool whose input is the linear matter power spectrum which can be obtained from any Boltzmann code, such as CAMB (ascl:1102.026) or CLASS (ascl:1106.020). The Pybird output can be used in a likelihood code which can be part of the routine of a standard MCMC sampler. The design is modular and concise, such that parts of the code can be easily adapted to other case uses (e.g., power spectrum at two loops or bispectrum). PyBird can evaluate the power spectrum either given one set of EFT parameters, or independently of the EFT parameters. If the former option is faster, the latter is useful for subsampling or partial marginalization over the EFT parameters, or to Taylor expand around a fiducial cosmology for efficient parameter exploration.

[ascl:1204.002]
pyBLoCXS: Bayesian Low-Count X-ray Spectral analysis

Siemiginowska, Aneta; Kashyap, Vinay; Refsdal, Brian; van Dyk, David; Connors, Alanna; Park, Taeyoung

pyBLoCXS is a sophisticated Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) based algorithm designed to carry out Bayesian Low-Count X-ray Spectral (BLoCXS) analysis in the Sherpa environment. The code is a Python extension to Sherpa that explores parameter space at a suspected minimum using a predefined Sherpa model to high-energy X-ray spectral data. pyBLoCXS includes a flexible definition of priors and allows for variations in the calibration information. It can be used to compute posterior predictive p-values for the likelihood ratio test. The pyBLoCXS code has been tested with a number of simple single-component spectral models; it should be used with great care in more complex settings.

[ascl:2306.057]
pybranch: Calculate experimental branching fractions and transition probabilities from atomic spectra

pybranch calculates experimental branching fractions and transition probabilities from measurements of atomic spectra. Though the program is usually used with spectral line lists from intensity-calibrated spectra from Fourier transform spectrometers, it can in principle be used with any calibrated spectra that meet the input requirements. pybranch takes a set of linelists, computes a weighted average branching fraction (Fki) for each line, combines these branching fractions with the level lifetime to obtain the transition probability, and then prints the calibrated intensities and S/N ratios for all the lines observed from a particular upper level in each spectrum. One line can be chosen to use as a reference to put all of the intensities on the same scale. pybranch can use calculated transition probabilities to calculate a residual from lines that have not been observed.

[ascl:2312.025]
pyC^{2}Ray: Python interface to C^{2}Ray with GPU acceleration

Hirling, Patrick; Bianco, Michele; Giri, Sambit K.; Iliev, Ilian T.; Mellema, Garrelt; Kneib, Jean-Paul

pyC^{2}Ray updates C^{2}-Ray (ascl:2312.022), an astrophysical radiative transfer code used to simulate the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). pyC^{2}Ray includes a new raytracing method, ASORA, developed for GPUs, and provides a Python interface for customizable use of the code. The core features of C^{2}-Ray, written in Fortran90, are wrapped using f2py as a Python extension module, while the raytracing library ASORA is implemented in C++ using CUDA. Both are native Python C-extensions and can be directly accessed from any Python script.

[ascl:2107.017]
PyCactus: Post-processing tools for Cactus computational toolkit simulation data

PyCactus contains tools for postprocessing data from numerical simulations performed with the Einstein Toolkit, based on the Cactus computational toolkit. The main package is PostCactus, which provides a high-level Python interface to the various data formats in a simulation folder. Further, the package SimRep allows the automatic creation of html reports for a simulation, and the SimVideo package allows the creation of movies visualizing simulation data.

[ascl:2206.021]
PyCASSO2: Stellar population and emission line fits in integral field spectra

de Amorim, André Luiz; Vale Asari, Natalia; Cid Fernandes, Roberto; García-Benito, Rubén; Werle, Ariel

PyCASSO runs the STARLIGHT code (ascl:1108.006) in integral field spectra (IFS). Cubes from various instruments are supported, including PMAS/PPAK (CALIFA), MaNGA, GMOS and MUSE. Emission lines can be measured using DOBBY, which is included in the package. The package also includes tools for IFS cubes analysis and plotting.

[ascl:1805.030]
PyCBC: Gravitational-wave data analysis toolkit

PyCBC analyzes data from gravitational-wave laser interferometer detectors, finds signals, and studies their parameters. It contains algorithms that can detect coalescing compact binaries and measure the astrophysical parameters of detected sources. PyCBC was used in the first direct detection of gravitational waves by LIGO and is used in the ongoing analysis of LIGO and Virgo data.

[ascl:1805.032]
PyCCF: Python Cross Correlation Function for reverberation mapping studies

PyCCF emulates a Fortran program written by B. Peterson for use with reverberation mapping. The code cross correlates two light curves that are unevenly sampled using linear interpolation and measures the peak and centroid of the cross-correlation function. In addition, it is possible to run Monto Carlo iterations using flux randomization and random subset selection (RSS) to produce cross-correlation centroid distributions to estimate the uncertainties in the cross correlation results.

[ascl:2112.001]
pycelp: Python package for Coronal Emission Line Polarization

pyCELP (aka "pi-KELP") calculates Coronal Emission Line Polarization. It forward synthesizes the polarized emission of ionized atoms formed in the solar corona and calculates the atomic density matrix elements for a single ion under coronal equilibrium conditions and excited by a prescribed radiation field and thermal collisions. pyCELP solves a set of statistical equilibrium equations in the spherical statistical tensor representation for a multi-level atom for the no-coherence case. This approximation is useful in the case of forbidden line emission by visible and infrared lines, such as Fe XIII 1074.7 nm and Si X 3934 nm.

[submitted]
pycf3 - Cosmicflows-3 Distance-Velocity Calculator client for Python

The project is a simple Python client for Cosmicflows-3 Distance-Velocity Calculator at distances less than 400 Mpc (http://edd.ifa.hawaii.edu/CF3calculator/)

Compute expectation distances or velocities based on smoothed velocity field from the Wiener filter model of https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2019MNRAS.488.5438G/abstract.

[ascl:2312.034]
pycheops: Light curve analysis for ESA CHEOPS data

Maxted, P. F. L.; Ehrenreich, D.; Wilson, T. G.; Alibert, Y.; Cameron, A. Collier; Hoyer, S.; Sousa, S. G.; Olofsson, G.; Bekkelien, A.; Deline, A.; Delrez, L.; Bonfanti, A.; Borsato, L.; Alonso, R.; Anglada Escudé, G.; Barrado, D.; Barros, S. C. C.; Baumjohann, W.; Beck, M.; Beck, T.; Benz, W.; Billot, N.; Biondi, F.; Bonfils, X.; Brandeker, A.; Broeg, C.; Bárczy, T.; Cabrera, J.; Charnoz, S.; Corral Van Damme, C.; Csizmadia, Sz; Davies, M. B.; Deleuil, M.; Demangeon, O. D. S.; Demory, B. -O.; Erikson, A.; Florén, H. G.; Fortier, A.; Fossati, L.; Fridlund, M.; Futyan, D.; Gandolfi, D.; Gillon, M.; Guedel, M.; Guterman, P.; Heng, K.; Isaak, K. G.; Kiss, L.; Laskar, J.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Lendl, M.; Lovis, C.; Magrin, D.; Nascimbeni, V.; Ottensamer, R.; Pagano, I.; Pallé, E.; Peter, G.; Piotto, G.; Pollacco, D.; Pozuelos, F. J.; Queloz, D.; Ragazzoni, R.; Rando, N.; Rauer, H.; Reimers, C.; Ribas, I.; Salmon, S.; Santos, N. C.; Scandariato, G.; Simon, A. E.; Smith, A. M. S.; Steller, M.; Swayne, M. I.; Szabó, Gy M.; Ségransan, D.; Thomas, N.; Udry, S.; Van Grootel, V.; Walton, N. A.

pycheops analyzes CHEOPS light curve data. The models in the package can also be applied to other types of data. pycheops includes a "cook book" and examples; in addition, it provides a command-line tool that aids in the preparation of observing requests for CHEOPS observers.

[submitted]
Pyckles

A super lightweight interface in Python to load spectra from the Pickles 1998 (stellar) and Brown 2014 (galactic) spectral catalogues

[ascl:1304.020]
pyCloudy: Tools to manage astronomical Cloudy photoionization code

PyCloudy is a Python library that handles input and output files of the Cloudy photoionization code (Gary Ferland). It can also generate 3D nebula from various runs of the 1D Cloudy code. pyCloudy allows you to:

- define and write input file(s) for Cloudy code. As you can have it in a code, you may generate automatically sets of input files, changing parameters from one to the other.<

- read the Cloudy output files and play with the data: you will be able to plot line emissivity ratio vs. the radius of the nebula, the electron temperature, or any Cloudy output.

- build pseudo-3D models, a la Cloudy_3D, by running a set of models, changing parameters (e.g. inner radius, density) following angular laws, reading the outputs of the set of models and interpolating the results (Te, ne, line emissivities) in a 3D cube.

[ascl:1509.007]
pycola: N-body COLA method code

pycola is a multithreaded Python/Cython N-body code, implementing the Comoving Lagrangian Acceleration (COLA) method in the temporal and spatial domains, which trades accuracy at small-scales to gain computational speed without sacrificing accuracy at large scales. This is especially useful for cheaply generating large ensembles of accurate mock halo catalogs required to study galaxy clustering and weak lensing. The COLA method achieves its speed by calculating the large-scale dynamics exactly using LPT while letting the N-body code solve for the small scales, without requiring it to capture exactly the internal dynamics of halos.

[ascl:2303.007]
PyCom: Interstellar communication

PyCom provides function calls for deriving the optimal communication scheme to maximize the data rate between a remote probe and home-base. It includes models for the loss of photons from diffraction, technological limitations, interstellar extinction and atmospheric transmission, and manages major atmospheric, zodiacal, stellar and instrumental noise sources. It also includes scripts for creating figures appearing in the referenced paper.

[ascl:1311.002]
PyCOOL: Cosmological Object-Oriented Lattice code

PyCOOL is a Python + CUDA program that solves the evolution of interacting scalar fields in an expanding universe. PyCOOL uses modern GPUs to solve this evolution and to make the computation much faster. The code includes numerous post-processing functions that provide useful information about the cosmological model, including various spectra and statistics of the fields.

[ascl:2403.009]
pycorr: Two-point correlation function estimation

pycorr wraps two-point counter engines such as Corrfunc (ascl:1703.003) to estimate the correlation function. It supports theta (angular), s, s-mu, rp-pi binning schemes, analytical two-point counts with periodic boundary conditions, and inverse bitwise weights (in any integer format) and (angular) upweighting. It also provides MPI parallelization and jackknife estimate of the correlation function covariance matrix.

[ascl:2407.003]
pycosie: Python analysis code used on Technicolor Dawn

pycosie is analysis code used for Technicolor Dawn (TD), a Gadget-3 derived cosmological radiative SPH simulation suite. The target analyses are to complement what is done with TD and other analysis software in its suite. pycosie creates power spectrum from generated Lyman-alpha forests spectra, links absorbers to potential host galaxies, grids gas information for each galaxy, and reads specific output files from software such as Rockstar (ascl:1210.008) and SKID (ascl:1102.020).

[ascl:1210.027]
PyCosmic: Detecting cosmics in CALIFA and other fiber-fed integral-field spectroscopy datasets

The detection of cosmic ray hits (cosmics) in fiber-fed integral-field spectroscopy (IFS) data of single exposures is a challenging task because of the complex signal recorded by IFS instruments. Existing detection algorithms are commonly found to be unreliable in the case of IFS data, and the optimal parameter settings are usually unknown a priori for a given dataset. The Calar Alto legacy integral field area (CALIFA) survey generates hundreds of IFS datasets for which a reliable and robust detection algorithm for cosmics is required as an important part of the fully automatic CALIFA data reduction pipeline. PyCosmic combines the edge-detection algorithm of L.A.Cosmic with a point-spread function convolution scheme. PyCosmic is the only algorithm that achieves an acceptable detection performance for CALIFA data. Only for strongly undersampled IFS data does L.A.Cosmic exceed the performance of PyCosmic by a few percent. Thus, PyCosmic appears to be the most versatile cosmics detection algorithm for IFS data.

[ascl:2004.007]
PyCosmo: Multi-purpose cosmology calculation tool

Tarsitano, Federica; Schmitt, Uwe; Refregier, Alexandre; Akeret, Joel; Amara, Adam; Gamper, Lukas; Nicola, Andrina

PyCosmo provides accurate predictions for cosmological observables including background quantities, power spectra and Limber and beyond-Limber angular power spectra. The software is designed to be interactive and user-friendly. It is available for download and is also offered on an interactive platform (PyCosmo Hub), which allows users to perform their own computations using Jupyter Notebooks without installing any software.

[ascl:1810.008]
pycraf: Spectrum-management compatibility

The pycraf Python package provides functions and procedures for spectrum-management compatibility studies, such as calculating the interference levels at a radio telescope produced from a radio broadcasting tower. It includes an implementation of ITU-R Recommendation P.452-16 for calculating path attenuation for the distance between an interferer and the victim service. It supports NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data for height-profile generation, includes a full implementation of ITU-R Rec. P.676-10, which provides two atmospheric models to calculate the attenuation for paths through Earth's atmosphere, and provides various antenna patterns necessary for compatibility studies (e.g., RAS, IMT, fixed-service links). The package can also convert power flux densities, field strengths, transmitted and received powers at certain distances and frequencies into each other.

[ascl:2307.040]
pycrires: Data reduction pipeline for VLT/CRIRES+

pycrires runs the CRIRES+ recipes of EsoRex. The pipeline organizes the raw data, creates SOF and configuration files, runs the calibration and science recipes, and creates plots of the images and extracted spectra. Additionally, it corrects remaining inaccuracies in the wavelength solution and the spectrum curvature. pycrires also provides dedicated routines for the extraction, calibration, and detection of spatially-resolved objects such as directly imaged planets.

[ascl:1509.010]
PyCS : Python Curve Shifting

PyCS is a software toolbox to estimate time delays between multiple images of strongly lensed quasars, from resolved light curves such as obtained by the COSMOGRAIL monitoring program. The pycs package defines a collection of classes and high level functions, that you can script in a flexible way. PyCS makes it easy to compare different point estimators (including your own) without much code integration. The package heavily depends on numpy, scipy, and matplotlib.

[submitted]
pydftools: Distribution function fitting in Python

pydftools is a pure-python port of the dftools R package (ascl:1805.002), which finds the most likely P parameters of a D-dimensional distribution function (DF) generating N objects, where each object is specified by D observables with measurement uncertainties. For instance, if the objects are galaxies, it can fit a MF (P=1), a mass-size distribution (P=2) or the mass-spin-morphology distribution (P=3). Unlike most common fitting approaches, this method accurately accounts for measurement in uncertainties and complex selection functions. Though this package imitates the dftools package quite closely while being as Pythonic as possible, it has not implemented 2D+ nor non-parametric.

[ascl:2106.003]
PyDoppler: Wrapper for Doppler tomography software

PyDoppler is a python-based wrapper for the Spruit Doppler tomography software dopmap (ascl:2106.002). PyDoppler is designed to study time-resolved spectroscopic datasets of accreting compact binaries. This code can produce a trail spectra of a dataset and create Doppler tomography maps. It is intended to be a light-weight code for single emission line datasets.

[ascl:1401.005]
PyDrizzle: Python version of Drizzle

PyDrizzle provides a semi-automated interface for computing the parameters necessary for running Drizzle (ascl:1212.011). PyDrizzle performs the task of determining the parameters necessary for aligning images based on the WCS information in the input image headers, as well as any supplemental alignment information provided in shift files, and combines the images onto the same WCS. Though it does not identify cosmic rays, it has the ability to ignore pixels flagged as bad, such as pixels identified by other programs as affected by cosmic rays.

[ascl:2103.008]
Pyedra: Python implementation for asteroid phase curve fitting

Pyedra performs asteroid phase curve fitting. From a simple table containing the asteroid MPC number, phase angle and reduced magnitude, Pyedra estimates the parameters of the phase function using the least squares method. The user can choose from three different models for the phase curve fit: H-G model, H-G1-G2 model and the Shevchenko model. The output in all cases is a table containing the adjusted parameters and their corresponding errors. This package allows carrying out phase function analysis for a few asteroids as well as to process large volumes of data such as those released by current large surveys.

[ascl:1112.014]
PyEphem: Astronomical Ephemeris for Python

PyEphem provides scientific-grade astronomical computations for the Python programming language. Given a date and location on the Earth’s surface, it can compute the positions of the Sun and Moon, of the planets and their moons, and of any asteroids, comets, or earth satellites whose orbital elements the user can provide. Additional functions are provided to compute the angular separation between two objects in the sky, to determine the constellation in which an object lies, and to find the times at which an object rises, transits, and sets on a particular day.

The numerical routines that lie behind PyEphem are those from the XEphem astronomy application (ascl:1112.013), whose author, Elwood Downey, generously gave permission for us to use them as the basis for PyEphem.

[ascl:1609.025]
PYESSENCE: Generalized Coupled Quintessence Linear Perturbation Python Code

PYESSENCE evolves linearly perturbed coupled quintessence models with multiple (cold dark matter) CDM fluid species and multiple DE (dark energy) scalar fields, and can be used to generate quantities such as the growth factor of large scale structure for any coupled quintessence model with an arbitrary number of fields and fluids and arbitrary couplings.

[ascl:2301.013]
pyExoRaMa: An interactive tool to investigate the radius-mass diagram for exoplanets

pyExoRaMa visualizes and manipulates data related to exoplanets and their host stars in a multi-dimensional parameter space. It enables statistical studies based on the large and constantly increasing number of detected exoplanets, identifies possible interdependence among several physical parameters, and compares observables with theoretical models describing the exoplanet composition and structure.

[ascl:1403.002]
pyExtinction: Atmospheric extinction

The Python script/package pyExtinction computes and plots total atmospheric extinction from decomposition into physical components (Rayleigh attenuation, ozone absorption, aerosol extinction). Its default extinction parameters are adapted to mean Mauna Kea summit conditions.

[ascl:2407.002]
pyFAT: Python Fully Automated TiRiFiC

Python Fully Automated TiRiFiC (pyFAT) wraps around the tilted ring fitting code (TiRiFiC, ascl:1208.008) to fully automate the process of fitting simple tilted ring models to line emission cubes. pyFAT is the successor to the IDL/GDL FAT (ascl:1507.011) code and offers improved handling and fitting as well as several new features. PyFAT fits simple rotationally symmetric discs with asymmetric warps and surface brightness distributions, providing a base model that can can be used in TiRiFiC to explore large scale motions. pyFAT delivers much more control over the fitting procedure, which is made possible by the new modular setup and the use of omegaconf for the input and default settings.

[ascl:2109.009]
pyFFTW: Python wrapper around FFTW

pyFFTW is a pythonic wrapper around FFTW (ascl:1201.015), the speedy FFT library. Both the complex DFT and the real DFT are supported, as well as on arbitrary axes of arbitrary shaped and strided arrays, which makes it almost feature equivalent to standard and real FFT functions of numpy.fft. Additionally, it supports the clongdouble dtype, which numpy.fft does not, and operating FFTW in multithreaded mode.

[ascl:1207.009]
PyFITS: Python FITS Module

Barrett, Paul; Hsu, J. C.; Hanley, Chris; Taylor, James; Droettboom, Michael; Bray, Erik M.; Hack, Warren; Greenfield, Perry; Wyckoff, Eric; Jedrzejewski, Robert; De La Pena, Michele; Hodge, Phil

PyFITS provides an interface to FITS formatted files in the Python scripting language and PyRAF, the Python-based interface to IRAF. It is useful both for interactive data analysis and for writing analysis scripts in Python using FITS files as either input or output. PyFITS is a development project of the Science Software Branch at the Space Telescope Science Institute.

**PyFITS has been deprecated. Please see Astropy**.

[ascl:1103.012]
Pyflation: Second Order Perturbations During Inflation Beyond Slow-roll

Pyflation calculates cosmological perturbations during an inflationary expansion of the universe. The modules in the pyflation Python package can be used to run simulations of different scalar field models of the early universe. The main classes are contained in the cosmomodels module and include simulations of background fields and first order and second order perturbations. The sourceterm package contains modules required for the computation of the term required for the evolution of second order perturbations.

Alongside the Python package, the bin directory contains Python scripts which can run first and second order simulations. A helper script called pyflation-qsubstart.py sets up a full second order run (including background, first order and source calculations) to be used on queueing system which contains the qsub executable (e.g. a Rocks cluster).

[submitted]
PyFOSC: a pipeline toolbox for BFOSC/YFOSC long-slit spectroscopy data reduction

PyFOSC is a pipeline toolbox for long-slit spectroscopy data reduction written in Python. It can be used for FOSC (Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera) data from Xinglong/Lijiang 2-meter telescopes in China. This pipeline privodes a neat way for data pre-processing, including updating missing header fileds for BFOSC data, reducing fits file extension for YFOSC data, etc. And it makes the data reduction procedure efficient by using previously identified lamp spectra as re-identification references during wavelength calibration, and applying multiprocessing in some modules. PyFOSC also enables customization for any other long-slit spectroscopy data.

[ascl:2102.027]
PyFstat: Continuous gravitational-wave data analysis

PyFstat performs F-statistic-based continuous gravitational wave (CW) searches and other CW data analysis tasks. It is built on top of the LALSuite library (ascl:2012.021), making that library's functionality more accessible through a Python interface; it also provides MCMC-based followup of promising candidates from wide-parameter-space searches.

[ascl:2203.005]
pygacs: Toolkit to manipulate Gaia catalog tables

pygacs manipulates Gaia catalog tables hosted at ESA's Gaia Archive Core Systems (GACS). It provides python modules for the access and manipulation of tables in GACS, such as a basic query on a single table or crossmatch between two tables. It employs the TAP command line access tools described in the Help section of the GACS web pages. Both public and authenticated access have been implemented.

[ascl:1811.014]
pygad: Analyzing Gadget Simulations with Python

pygad provides a framework for dealing with Gadget snapshots. The code reads any of the many different Gadget (ascl:0003.001) formats, allows easy masking snapshots to particles of interest, decorates the data blocks with units, allows to add automatically updating derived blocks, and provides several binning and plotting routines, among other tasks, to provide convenient, intuitive handling of the Gadget data without the need to worry about technical details. pygad provides access to single stellar population (SSP) models, has an interface to Rockstar (ascl:1210.008) output files, provides its own friends-of-friends (FoF) finder, calculates spherical overdensities, and has a sub-module to generate mock absorption lines.

[ascl:1411.001]
pyGadgetReader: GADGET snapshot reader for python

pyGadgetReader is a universal GADGET snapshot reader for python that supports type-1, type-2, HDF5, and TIPSY (ascl:1111.015) binary formats. It additionally supports reading binary outputs from FoF_Special, P-StarGroupFinder, Rockstar (ascl:1210.008), and Rockstar-Galaxies.

[ascl:1603.013]
PyGDSM: Python interface to Global Diffuse Sky Models

PyGDSM (formely PyGSM) is a Python interface for the Global Sky Model (GSM, ascl:1011.010). The GSM is a model of diffuse galactic radio emission, constructed from a variety of all-sky surveys spanning the radio band (e.g. Haslam and WMAP). PyGDSM uses the GSM to generate all-sky maps in Healpix format of diffuse Galactic radio emission from 10 MHz to 94 GHz. The PyGDSM module provides visualization utilities, file output in FITS format, and the ability to generate observed skies for a given location and date. PyGDSM requires Healpy (ascl:2008.022), PyEphem (ascl:1112.014), and AstroPy (ascl:1304.002).

[ascl:1402.021]
PyGFit: Python Galaxy Fitter

PyGFit measures PSF-matched photometry from images with disparate pixel scales and PSF sizes; its primary purpose is to extract robust spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from crowded images. It fits blended sources in crowded, low resolution images with models generated from a higher resolution image, thus minimizing the impact of crowding and also yielding consistently measured fluxes in different filters which minimizes systematic uncertainty in the final SEDs.

[ascl:1611.013]
pyGMMis: Mixtures-of-Gaussians density estimation method

pyGMMis is a mixtures-of-Gaussians density estimation method that accounts for arbitrary incompleteness in the process that creates the samples as long as the incompleteness is known over the entire feature space and does not depend on the sample density (missing at random). pyGMMis uses the Expectation-Maximization procedure and generates its best guess of the unobserved samples on the fly. It can also incorporate an uniform "background" distribution as well as independent multivariate normal measurement errors for each of the observed samples, and then recovers an estimate of the error-free distribution from which both observed and unobserved samples are drawn. The code automatically segments the data into localized neighborhoods, and is capable of performing density estimation with millions of samples and thousands of model components on machines with sufficient memory.

[ascl:1907.004]
pyGTC: Parameter covariance plots

pyGTC creates giant triangle confusogram (GTC) plots. Triangle plots display the results of a Monte-Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) sampling or similar analysis. The recovered parameter constraints are displayed on a grid in which the diagonal shows the one-dimensional posteriors (and, optionally, priors) and the lower-left triangle shows the pairwise projections. Such plots are useful for seeing the parameter covariances along with the priors when fitting a model to data.

[ascl:2311.013]
pygwb: Lighweight python stochastic GWB analysis pipeline

Renzini, Arianna I.; Romero-Rodríguez, Alba; Talbot, Colm; Lalleman, Max; Kandhasamy, Shivaraj; Turbang, Kevin; Biscoveanu, Sylvia; Martinovic, Katarina; Meyers, Patrick; Tsukada, Leo; Janssens, Kamiel; Davis, Derek; Matas, Andrew; Charlton, Philip; Liu, Guo-Chin; Dvorkin, Irina; Banagiri, Sharan; Bose, Sukanta; Callister, Thomas; De Lillo, Federico; D'Onofrio, Luca; Garufi, Fabio; Harry, Gregg; Lawrence, Jessica; Mandic, Vuk; Macquet, Adrian; Michaloliakos, Ioannis; Mitra, Sanjit; Pham, Kiet; Poggiani, Rosa; Regimbau, Tania; Romano, Joseph D.; van Remortel, Nick; Zhong, Haowen

pygwb analyzes laser interferometer data and designs a gravitational wave background (GWB) search pipeline. Its modular and flexible codebase is tailored to current ground-based interferometers such as LIGO Hanford, LIGO Livingston, and Virgo, but can be generalized to other configurations. It is based on GWpy (ascl:1912.016) and bilby (ascl:1901.011) for optimal integration with widely-used gravitational wave data analysis tools. pygwb also includes a set of scripts to analyze data and perform large-scale searches on a high-performance computing cluster efficiently.

[ascl:2007.020]
pygwinc: Gravitational Wave Interferometer Noise Calculator

pygwinc processes and plots noise budgets for ground-based gravitational wave detectors. Its primary feature is a collection of mostly analytic noise calculation functions for various sources of noise affecting detectors, including quantum and seismic noise, mirror coating and substrate thermal noise, suspension fiber thermal noise, and residual gas noise. It is also a generalized noise budgeting tool that allows users to create arbitrary noise budgets for any experiment, not just ground-based GW detectors, using measured or analytically calculated data.

[ascl:2307.025]
pyhalomodel: Halo-model implementation for power spectra

pyhalomodel computes halo-model power spectra for any desired tracer combination. The software requires only halo profiles for the tracers to be specified; these could be matter profiles, galaxy profiles, or something else, such as electron-pressure or HI profiles. pyhalomodel makes it easier to perform basic calculations using the halo model by reducing the changes of variables required to integrate halo profiles against halo mass functions, which can be confusing and tedious.

[ascl:2002.011]
PyHammer: Python spectral typing suite

Kesseli, Aurora; West, Andrew; Veyette, Mark; Harrison, Brandon; Feldman, Dan; Morgan, Dylan; Theissen, Chris; Robinson, Connor

PyHammer performs rapid and automatic spectral classification of stars according to the Morgan-Keenan classification system; it is a Python revision of the IDL code The Hammer (ascl:1405.003) and offers additional capabilities. Working in the range of 3,650-10,200 Angstroms, the automatic spectral typing algorithm compares important spectral lines to template spectra and determines the best matching spectral type, ranging from O to L type stars. The code can also determine a star's metallicity ([Fe/H]) and radial velocity shifts. Once the automatic classification algorithm has run, PyHammer provides the user an interface for determining spectral types visually by comparing their spectra to provided templates.

[ascl:2206.010]
pyHIIexplorerV2: Integrated spectra of HII regions extractor

Espinosa-Ponce, C.; Sánchez, S. F.; Morisset, C.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Galbany, L.; García-Benito, R.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; Mast, D.

pyHIIexplorerV2 extracts the integrated spectra of HII regions from integral field spectroscopy (IFS) datacubes. The detection of HII regions performed by pyHIIexplorer is based on two assumptions: 1) HII regions have strong emission lines that are clearly above the continuum emission and the average ionized gas emission across each galaxy, and 2) the typical size of HII regions is about a few hundreds of parsecs, which corresponds to a usual projected size of a few arcsec at the distance of our galaxies. These assumptions will define clumpy structures with a high Ha emission line contrast in comparison to the continuum. pyHIIexplorerV2 is written in Python; it is based on and is a successor to HIIexplorer (ascl:1603.017).

[ascl:1511.005]
pyhrs: Spectroscopic data reduction package for SALT

The pyhrs package reduces data from the High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). HRS is a dual-beam, fiber fed echelle spectrectrograph with four modes of operation: low (R~16000), medium (R~34000), high (R~65000), and high stability (R~65000). pyhrs, written in Python, includes all of the steps necessary to reduce HRS low, medium, and high resolution data; this includes basic CCD reductions, order identification, wavelength calibration, and extraction of the spectra.

[ascl:2109.008]
pyia: Python package for working with Gaia data

pyia provides tools for working with Gaia data. It accesses Gaia data columns as Quantity objects, *i.e.*, with units (*e.g.*, data.parallax will have units ‘milliarcsecond’)
, constructs covariance matrices for Gaia data, and generates random samples from the Gaia error distribution per source. pyia can also create SkyCoord objects from Gaia data and execute simple (small) remote queries via the Gaia science archive and automatically fetch the results.

[ascl:2205.010]
pyICs: Initial Conditions creator for isolated galaxy formation simulations

pyICs creates initial condition (IC) files for N-body simulations of the formation of isolated galaxies. It uses the pynbody analysis package (ascl:1305.002) to create the actual IC files. pyICs generates dark matter halos (DM) in dynamical equilibrium which host a rotating gas sphere. The DM particle velocities are drawn from the equilibrium distribution function and the gas sphere has an angular momentum profile. The DM and the gas share the same 3D radial density profile. The code natively supports the αβγ-models: ρ ~ (r/a)-γ[1+(r/a)α](γ-β)/α. If γ <= 3, the profiles are smoothly truncated outside the virial radius. The radial profile can be arbitrary as long as python functions for the profile itself and its first and second derivative with radius are given.

[ascl:2404.017]
pyilc: Needlet ILC in Python

pyilc implements the needlet internal linear combination (NILC) algorithm for CMB component separation in pure Python; it also implements harmonic-space ILC. The code can also perform Cross-ILC, where the covariance matrices are computed only from independent splits of the maps. In addition, pyilc includes an inpainting code, diffusive_inpaint, that diffusively inpaints a masked region with the mean of the unmasked neighboring pixels.

[ascl:2307.023]
PyIMRPhenomD: Stellar origin black hole binaries population estimator

PyIMRPhenomD estimates the population of stellar origin black hole binaries for LISA observations using a Bayesian parameter estimation algorithm. The code reimplements IMRPhenomD (ascl:2307.019) in a pure Python code, compiled with the Numba just-in-time compiler. The module implements the analytic first and second derivatives necessary to compute t(f) and t'(f) rather than computing them numerically. Using the analytic derivatives increases the code complexity but produces faster and more numerically accurate results; the improvement in numerical accuracy is particularly significant for t'(f).

[ascl:2004.014]
PyKat: Python interface and tools for Finesse

Brown, Daniel D.; Jones, Philip; Rowlinson, Samuel; Freise, Andreas; Leavey, Sean; Green, Anna C.; Toyra, Daniel

The Python wrapper PyKat extends the optical interferometer modeling software Finesse (ascl:2004.013). It provides an efficient GUI for conducting complex numerical simulations and manipulating and viewing simulation setups, and enables the use of Python's extensive scientific software ecosystem.

[ascl:1208.004]
PyKE: Reduction and analysis of Kepler Simple Aperture Photometry data

PyKE is a python-based PyRAF package that can also be run as a stand-alone program within a unix-based shell without compiling against PyRAF. It is a group of tasks developed for the reduction and analysis of Kepler Simple Aperture Photometry (SAP) data of individual targets with individual characteristics. The main purposes of these tasks are to i) re-extract light curves from manually-chosen pixel apertures and ii) cotrend and/or detrend the data in order to reduce or remove systematic noise structure using methods tunable to user and target-specific requirements. PyKE is an open source project and contributions of new tasks or enhanced functionality of existing tasks by the community are welcome.

[ascl:1506.001]
pyKLIP: PSF Subtraction for Exoplanets and Disks

Wang, Jason J.; Ruffio, Jean-Baptise; De Rosa, Robert J.; Aguilar, Jonathan; Wolff, Schuyler G.; Pueyo, Laurent

pyKLIP subtracts out the stellar PSF to search for directly-imaged exoplanets and disks using a Python implementation of the Karhunen-Loève Image Projection (KLIP) algorithm. pyKLIP supports ADI, SDI, and ADI+SDI to model the stellar PSF and offers a large array of PSF subtraction parameters to optimize the reduction. pyKLIP relies on a minimal amount of dependencies (numpy, scipy, and astropy) and parallelizes the KLIP algorithm to speed up the reduction. pyKLIP supports GPI and P1640 data and can interface with other data sources with the addition of new modules. It also can inject simulated planets and disks as well as automatically search for point sources in PSF-subtracted data.

[ascl:1708.016]
pyLCSIM: X-ray lightcurves simulator

pyLCSIM simulates X-ray lightcurves from coherent signals and power spectrum models. Coherent signals can be specified as a sum of one or more sinusoids, each with its frequency, pulsed fraction and phase shift; or as a series of harmonics of a fundamental frequency (each with its pulsed fraction and phase shift). Power spectra can be simulated from a model of the power spectrum density (PSD) using as a template one or more of the built-in library functions. The user can also define his/her custom models. Models are additive.

[ascl:1510.003]
PyLDTk: Python toolkit for calculating stellar limb darkening profiles and model-specific coefficients for arbitrary filters

PyLDTk automates the calculation of custom stellar limb darkening (LD) profiles and model-specific limb darkening coefficients (LDC) using the library of PHOENIX-generated specific intensity spectra by Husser et al. (2013). It facilitates exoplanet transit light curve modeling, especially transmission spectroscopy where the modeling is carried out for custom narrow passbands. PyLDTk construct model-specific priors on the limb darkening coefficients prior to the transit light curve modeling. It can also be directly integrated into the log posterior computation of any pre-existing transit modeling code with minimal modifications to constrain the LD model parameter space directly by the LD profile, allowing for the marginalization over the whole parameter space that can explain the profile without the need to approximate this constraint by a prior distribution. This is useful when using a high-order limb darkening model where the coefficients are often correlated, and the priors estimated from the tabulated values usually fail to include these correlations.

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