[ascl:1601.007]
LIRA: Low-counts Image Reconstruction and Analysis

LIRA (Low-counts Image Reconstruction and Analysis) deconvolves any unknown sky components, provides a fully Poisson 'goodness-of-fit' for any best-fit model, and quantifies uncertainties on the existence and shape of unknown sky. It does this without resorting to χ2 or rebinning, which can lose high-resolution information. It is written in R and requires the FITSio package.

[ascl:2205.017]
LiSA: LIghtweight Source finding Algorithms for analysis of HI spectral data

The LIghtweight Source finding Algorithms (LiSA) library finds HI sources in next generation radio surveys. LiSA can analyze input data cubes of any size with pipelines that automatically decompose data into different domains for parallel distributed analysis. For source finding, the library contains python modules for wavelet denoising of 3D spatial and spectral data, and robust automatic source finding using null-hypothesis testing. The source-finding algorithms all have options to automatically choose parameters, minimizing the need for manual fine tuning. Finally, LiSA also contains neural network architectures for classification and characterization of 3D spectral data.

[ascl:1112.009]
LISACode: A scientific simulator of LISA

LISACode is a simulator of the LISA mission. Its ambition is to achieve a new degree of sophistication allowing to map, as closely as possible, the impact of the different subsystems on the measurements. Its also a useful tool for generating realistic data including several kind of sources (Massive Black Hole binaries, EMRIs, cosmic string cusp, stochastic background, etc) and for preparing their analysis. It’s fully integrated to the Mock LISA Data Challenge. LISACode is not a detailed simulator at the engineering level but rather a tool whose purpose is to bridge the gap between the basic principles of LISA and a future, sophisticated end-to-end simulator.

[ascl:1902.005]
LiveData: Data reduction pipeline

LiveData is a multibeam single-dish data reduction system for bandpass calibration and gridding. It is used for processing Parkes multibeam and Mopra data.

[ascl:1906.011]
Lizard: An extensible Cyclomatic Complexity Analyzer

Lizard is an extensible Cyclomatic Complexity Analyzer for imperative programming languages including C/C++/C#, Python, Java, and Javascript. It counts the nloc (lines of code without comments) and CCN (cyclomatic complexity number), and takes a token count of functions and a parameter count of functions. It also does copy-paste detection (code clone detection/code duplicate detection) and many other forms of static code analysis. Lizard is often used in software-related research and calculates how complex the code looks rather than how complex the code really is; thought it's often very hard to get all the included folders and files right when they are complicated, that accuracy is not needed to determine cyclomatic complexity, which can be useful for measuring the maintainability of a software package.

[ascl:1906.020]
LIZARD: Particle initial conditions for cosmological simulations

LIZARD (Lagrangian Initialization of Zeldovich Amplitudes for Resimulations of Displacements) creates particle initial conditions for cosmological simulations using the Zel'dovich approximation for the matter and velocity power spectrum.

[ascl:1706.005]
LMC: Logarithmantic Monte Carlo

LMC is a Markov Chain Monte Carlo engine in Python that implements adaptive Metropolis-Hastings and slice sampling, as well as the affine-invariant method of Goodman & Weare, in a flexible framework. It can be used for simple problems, but the main use case is problems where expensive likelihood evaluations are provided by less flexible third-party software, which benefit from parallelization across many nodes at the sampling level. The parallel/adaptive methods use communication through MPI, or alternatively by writing/reading files, and mostly follow the approaches pioneered by CosmoMC (ascl:1106.025).

[ascl:1606.014]
Lmfit: Non-Linear Least-Square Minimization and Curve-Fitting for Python

Newville, Matthew; Stensitzki, Till; Allen, Daniel B; Rawlik, Michal; Ingargiola, Antonino; Nelson, Andrew

Lmfit provides a high-level interface to non-linear optimization and curve fitting problems for Python. Lmfit builds on and extends many of the optimization algorithm of scipy.optimize, especially the Levenberg-Marquardt method from optimize.leastsq. Its enhancements to optimization and data fitting problems include using Parameter objects instead of plain floats as variables, the ability to easily change fitting algorithms, and improved estimation of confidence intervals and curve-fitting with the Model class. Lmfit includes many pre-built models for common lineshapes.

[submitted]
loci: Smooth Cubic Multivariate Local Interpolations

loci is a shared library for interpolations in up to 4 dimensions. It is written in C and can be used with C/C++, Python and others. In order to calculate the coefficients of the cubic polynom, only local values are used: The data itself and all combinations of first-order derivatives, i.e. in 2D f_x, f_y and f_xy. This is in contrast to splines, where the coefficients are not calculated using derivatives, but non-local data, which can lead to over-smoothing the result.

[ascl:2004.001]
Locus: Optimized differential photometry

Locus implements the Locus Algorithm, which maximizes the performance of differential photometry systems by optimizing the number and quality of reference stars in the Field of View with the target.

[submitted]
LOFAR H5plot

Calibration solutions for the LOFAR radio telescope are stored in a 5-dimensional (time, frequency, station, polarisation and direction in the sky) HDF5 table. H5plot is a GUI application focussing on interactive visual inspection of these calibration solutions.

[ascl:2104.030]
lofti_gaiaDR2: Orbit fitting with Gaia astrometry

Lofti_gaia fits orbital parameters for one wide stellar binary relative to the other, when both objects are resolved in Gaia DR2. It takes as input only the Gaia DR2 source id of the two components, and their masses. It retrieves the relevant parameters from the Gaia archive, computes observational constraints for them, and fits orbital parameters to those measurements. It assumes the two components are bound in an elliptical orbit.

[ascl:2301.007]
LoLLiPoP: Low-L Likelihood Polarized for Planck

Tristram, Matthieu; Garrido, Xavier; Hamimeche, Samira; Lewis, Antony; Mangilli, A.; Plaszczynski, S.

LoLLiPoP is a Planck low-l polarization likelihood based on cross-power-spectra for which the bias is zero when the noise is uncorrelated between maps. It uses a modified approximation to apply to cross-power spectra and is interfaced with the Cobaya (ascl:1910.019) MCMC sampler. Cross-spectra are computed on the CMB maps from Commander component separation applied on each detset-split Planck frequency maps.

[ascl:2401.014]
LoRD: Locate Reconnection Distribution

LoRD (Locate Reconnection Distribution) identifies the locations and structures of 3D magnetic reconnection within discrete magnetic field data. The toolkit contains three main functions; the first, ARD (Analyze Reconnection Distribution) locates the grids undergoing reconnection without null points and also recognizes the local configurations of reconnection sites. ANP (Analyze Null Points) locates and classifies the 3D null points, and APNP (Analyze Projected Null Points) analyzes the 2D neutral points projected on a plane near a cell. LoRD is written in Matlab and the toolkit contains demo scripts.

[ascl:1608.018]
LORENE: Spectral methods differential equations solver

LORENE (Langage Objet pour la RElativité NumériquE) solves various problems arising in numerical relativity, and more generally in computational astrophysics. It is a set of C++ classes and provides tools to solve partial differential equations by means of multi-domain spectral methods. LORENE classes implement basic structures such as arrays and matrices, but also abstract mathematical objects, such as tensors, and astrophysical objects, such as stars and black holes.

[ascl:2401.006]
LoSoTo: LOFAR solutions tool

de Gasperin, F.; Dijkema, T. J.; Drabent, A.; Mevius, M.; Rafferty, D.; van Weeren, R.; Brüggen, M.; Callingham, J. R.; Emig, K. L.; Heald, G.; Intema, H. T.; Morabito, L. K.; Offringa, A. R.; Oonk, R.; Orrù, E.; Röttgering, H.; Sabater, J.; Shimwell, T.; Shulevski, A.; Williams, W.

LoSoTo (LOFAR Solution Tool) performs a variety of operations on H5parm data, which is based on the HDF5 format; it isolates direction independent systematic effects and can therefore be transferred to the target field. Subsets of data can be selected for each operation using lists of axes values, regular expressions, or intervals. The LoSoTo package stores solutions in arrays organized in a hierarchical fashion; this provides flexibility and preserves performance. The code can, for example, extract Faraday rotation from RR/LL phase solutions or a rotation matrix, clip solutions around the median, and calculate the ionospheric structure function. LoSoTo includes an outlier flagging procedure, normalizes solutions to a given value, and offers an advanced plotting routine, and many other operations.

[ascl:1309.003]
LOSP: Liège Orbital Solution Package

LOSP is a FORTRAN77 numerical package that computes the orbital parameters of spectroscopic binaries. The package deals with SB1 and SB2 systems and is able to adjust either circular or eccentric orbits through a weighted fit.

[ascl:1308.002]
LOSSCONE: Capture rates of stars by a supermassive black hole

LOSSCONE computes the rates of capture of stars by supermassive black holes. It uses a stationary and time-dependent solutions for the Fokker-Planck equation describing the evolution of the distribution function of stars due to two-body relaxation, and works for arbitrary spherical and axisymmetric galactic models that are provided by the user in the form of M(r), the cumulative mass as a function of radius.

[ascl:2207.017]
LOTUS: 1D Non-LTE stellar parameter determination via Equivalent Width method

LOTUS (non-LTE Optimization Tool Utilized for the derivation of atmospheric Stellar parameters) derives stellar parameters via Equivalent Width (EW) method with the assumption of 1D non-local thermodynamic equilibrium. It mainly applies on the spectroscopic data from high resolution spectral survey. It can provide extremely accurate measurement of stellar parameters compared with non-spectroscopic analysis from benchmark stars. LOTUS provides a fast optimizer for obtaining stellar parameters based on Differential Evolution algorithm, well constrained uncertainty of derived stellar parameters from slice-sampling MCMC from PyMC3 (ascl:1610.016), and can interpolate the Curve of Growth from theoretical EW grid under the assumptions of LTE and Non-LTE. It also visualizes excitation and ionization balance when at the optimal combination of stellar parameters.

[ascl:1010.038]
Low Resolution Spectral Templates For AGNs and Galaxies From 0.03 -- 30 microns

Assef, R. J.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brodwin, M.; Cool, R.; Forman, W.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Hickox, R. C.; Jones, C.; Le Floc'h, E.; Moustakas, J.; Murray, S. S.; Stern, D.

We present a set of low resolution empirical SED templates for AGNs and galaxies in the wavelength range from 0.03 to 30 microns based on the multi-wavelength photometric observations of the NOAO Deep-Wide Field Survey Bootes field and the spectroscopic observations of the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. Our training sample is comprised of 14448 galaxies in the redshift range 0<~z<~1 and 5347 likely AGNs in the range 0<~z<~5.58. We use our templates to determine photometric redshifts for galaxies and AGNs. While they are relatively accurate for galaxies, their accuracies for AGNs are a strong function of the luminosity ratio between the AGN and galaxy components. Somewhat surprisingly, the relative luminosities of the AGN and its host are well determined even when the photometric redshift is significantly in error. We also use our templates to study the mid-IR AGN selection criteria developed by Stern et al.(2005) and Lacy et al.(2004). We find that the Stern et al.(2005) criteria suffers from significant incompleteness when there is a strong host galaxy component and at z =~ 4.5, when the broad Halpha emission line is redshifted into the [3.6] band, but that it is little contaminated by low and intermediate redshift galaxies. The Lacy et al.(2004) criterion is not affected by incompleteness at z =~ 4.5 and is somewhat less affected by strong galaxy host components, but is heavily contaminated by low redshift star forming galaxies. Finally, we use our templates to predict the color-color distribution of sources in the upcoming WISE mission and define a color criterion to select AGNs analogous to those developed for IRAC photometry. We estimate that in between 640,000 and 1,700,000 AGNs will be identified by these criteria, but will have serious completeness problems for z >~ 3.4.

[ascl:1501.007]
LP-VIcode: La Plata Variational Indicators Code

LP-VIcode computes variational chaos indicators (CIs) quickly and easily. The following CIs are included:

- Lyapunov Indicators, also known as Lyapunov Characteristic Exponents, Lyapunov Characteristic Numbers or Finite Time Lyapunov Characteristic Numbers (LIs)

- Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits (MEGNO)

- Slope Estimation of the largest Lyapunov Characteristic Exponent (SElLCE)

- Smaller ALignment Index (SALI)

- Generalized ALignment Index (GALI)

- Fast Lyapunov Indicator (FLI)

- Orthogonal Fast Lyapunov Indicator (OFLI)

- Spectral Distance (SD)

- dynamical Spectra of Stretching Numbers (SSNs)

- Relative Lyapunov Indicator (RLI)

[ascl:2103.015]
LPF: Real-time detection of transient sources in radio data streams

LPF (Live Pulse Finder) provides real-time automated analysis of the radio image data stream at multiple frequencies. The fully automated GPU-based machine-learning backed pipeline performs source detection, association, flux measurement and physical parameter inference. At the end of the pipeline, an alert of a significant detection of a transient event can be sent out and the data saved for further investigation.

[ascl:1902.002]
LPNN: Limited Post-Newtonian N-body code for collisionless self-gravitating systems

The Limited Post-Newtonian N-body code (LPNN) simulates post-Newtonian interactions between a massive object and many low-mass objects. The interaction between one massive object and low-mass objects is calculated by post-Newtonian approximation, and the interaction between low-mass objects is calculated by Newtonian gravity. This code is based on the sticky9 code, and can be accelerated with the use of GPU in a CUDA (version 4.2 or earlier) environment.

[ascl:1306.012]
LRG DR7 Likelihood Software

This software computes likelihoods for the Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG) data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). It includes a patch to the existing CAMB software (ascl:1102.026; the February 2009 release) to calculate the theoretical LRG halo power spectrum for various models. The code is written in Fortran 90 and has been tested with the Intel Fortran 90 and GFortran compilers.

[ascl:1602.005]
LRGS: Linear Regression by Gibbs Sampling

LRGS (Linear Regression by Gibbs Sampling) implements a Gibbs sampler to solve the problem of multivariate linear regression with uncertainties in all measured quantities and intrinsic scatter. LRGS extends an algorithm by Kelly (2007) that used Gibbs sampling for performing linear regression in fairly general cases in two ways: generalizing the procedure for multiple response variables, and modeling the prior distribution of covariates using a Dirichlet process.

[ascl:1807.033]
LSC: Supervised classification of time-series variable stars

LSC (LINEAR Supervised Classification) trains a number of classifiers, including random forest and K-nearest neighbor, to classify variable stars and compares the results to determine which classifier is most successful. Written in R, the package includes anomaly detection code for testing the application of the selected classifier to new data, thus enabling the creation of highly reliable data sets of classified variable stars.

[ascl:1209.003]
LSD: Large Survey Database framework

The Large Survey Database (LSD) is a Python framework and DBMS for distributed storage, cross-matching and querying of large survey catalogs (>10^9 rows, >1 TB). The primary driver behind its development is the analysis of Pan-STARRS PS1 data. It is specifically optimized for fast queries and parallel sweeps of positionally and temporally indexed datasets. It transparently scales to more than >10^2 nodes, and can be made to function in "shared nothing" architectures.

[ascl:1612.002]
LSDCat: Line Source Detection and Cataloguing Tool

LSDCat is a conceptually simple but robust and efficient detection package for emission lines in wide-field integral-field spectroscopic datacubes. The detection utilizes a 3D matched-filtering approach for compact single emission line objects. Furthermore, the software measures fluxes and extents of detected lines. LSDCat is implemented in Python, with a focus on fast processing of large data-volumes.

[ascl:1505.012]
LSSGALPY: Visualization of the large-scale environment around galaxies on the 3D space

LSSGALPY provides visualization tools to compare the 3D positions of a sample (or samples) of isolated systems with respect to the locations of the large-scale structures galaxies in their local and/or large scale environments. The interactive tools use different projections in the 3D space (right ascension, declination, and redshift) to study the relation of the galaxies with the LSS. The tools permit visualization of the locations of the galaxies for different values of redshifts and redshift ranges; the relationship of isolated galaxies, isolated pairs, and isolated triplets to the galaxies in the LSS can be visualized for different values of the declinations and declination ranges.

[ascl:2405.013]
LTdwarfIndices: Variable brown dwarf identifier

Oliveros-Gomez, Natalia; Manjavacas, Elena; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Karalidi, Theodora; Vos, Johanna; Faherty, Jacqueline K.

LTdwarfIndices studies spectral indices to determine whether one or more brown dwarfs are photometric variable candidates. For a single brown dwarf, it analyzes a given set of indices and outputs the number of graphs the object appears in in the variable area, whether it is a variable or non-variable candidate, and, optionally, an index-index or histogram plot. Using another code module, LTdwarftIndices can also analyze a set of sample indices for many brown dwarfs.

[ascl:1312.006]
LTL: The Little Template Library

LTL provides dynamic arrays of up to 7-dimensions, subarrays and slicing, support for fixed-size vectors and matrices including basic linear algebra operations, expression templates-based evaluation, and I/O facilities for ascii and FITS format files. Utility classes for command-line processing and configuration-file processing are provided as well.

[ascl:1404.001]
LTS_LINEFIT & LTS_PLANEFIT: LTS fit of lines or planes

LTS_LINEFIT and LTS_PLANEFIT are IDL programs to robustly fit lines and planes to data with intrinsic scatter. The code combines the Least Trimmed Squares (LTS) robust technique, proposed by Rousseeuw (1984) and optimized in Rousseeuw & Driessen (2006), into a least-squares fitting algorithm which allows for intrinsic scatter. This method makes the fit converge to the correct solution even in the presence of a large number of catastrophic outliers, where the much simpler σ-clipping approach can converge to the wrong solution. The code is also available in Python as ltsfit.

[ascl:2403.011]
LtU-ILI: Robust machine learning in astro

Ho, Matthew; Bartlett, Deaglan J.; Chartier, Nicolas; Cuesta-Lazaro, Carolina; Ding, Simon; Lapel, Axel; Lemos, Pablo; Lovell, Christopher C.; Makinen, T. Lucas; Modi, Chirag; Pandya, Viraj; Pandey, Shivam; Perez, Lucia A.; Wandelt, Benjamin; Bryan, Greg L.

LtU-ILI (Learning the Universe Implicit Likelihood Inference) performs machine learning parameter inference. Given labeled training data or a stochastic simulator, the LtU-ILI piepline automatically trains state-of-the-art neural networks to learn the data-parameter relationship and produces robust, well-calibrated posterior inference. The package comes with a wide range of customizable complexity, including posterior-, likelihood-, and ratio-estimation methods for ILI, including sequential learning analogs, and various neural density estimators, including mixture density networks, conditional normalizing flows, and ResNet-like ratio classifiers. It offers fully-customizable, exotic embedding networks, including CNNs and Graph Neural Networks, and a unified interface for multiple ILI backends such as sbi, pydelfi, and lampe. LtU-ILI also handles multiple marginal and multivariate posterior coverage metrics, and offers Jupyter and command-line interfaces and a parallelizable configuration framework for efficient hyperparameter tuning and production runs.

[ascl:1201.016]
LumFunc: Luminosity Function Modeling

LumFunc is a numerical code to model the Luminosity Function based on central galaxy luminosity-halo mass and total galaxy luminosity-halo mass relations. The code can handle rest b_J-band (2dFGRS), r'-band (SDSS), and K-band luminosities, and any redshift with redshift dependences specified by the user. It separates the luminosity function (LF) to conditional luminosity functions, LF as a function of halo mass, and also to galaxy types. By specifying a narrow mass range, the code will return the conditional luminosity functions. The code returns luminosity functions for galaxy types as well (broadly divided to early-type and late-type). The code also models the cluster luminosity function, either mass averaged or for individual clusters.

[ascl:2401.003]
LUNA: Forward model luna simulator

LUNA generates dynamically accurate lightcurves from a planet-moon pair, analytically accounting for shadow overlaps, stellar limb darkening, and planet-moon dynamical motion. The code takes transit timing/duration variations and ingress/egress asymmetries into consideration not only for the planet, but also the moon. LUNA was designed to be analytical and dynamical and to incorporate limb darkening (including non-linear laws) and account for all orbital elements, including eccentricity and longitude of the ascending node. Because the software is precise and analytic, LUNA is a highly potent tool for exomoon detection.

[ascl:1803.012]
LWPC: Long Wavelength Propagation Capability

Long Wavelength Propagation Capability (LWPC), written as a collection of separate programs that perform unique actions, generates geographical maps of signal availability for coverage analysis. The program makes it easy to set up these displays by automating most of the required steps. The user specifies the transmitter location and frequency, the orientation of the transmitting and receiving antennae, and the boundaries of the operating area. The program automatically selects paths along geographic bearing angles to ensure that the operating area is fully covered. The diurnal conditions and other relevant geophysical parameters are then determined along each path. After the mode parameters along each path are determined, the signal strength along each path is computed. The signal strength along the paths is then interpolated onto a grid overlying the operating area. The final grid of signal strength values is used to display the signal-strength in a geographic display. The LWPC uses character strings to control programs and to specify options. The control strings have the same meaning and use among all the programs.

[ascl:2312.005]
LyaCoLoRe: Generate simulated Lyman alpha forest spectra

Farr, James; Font-Ribera, Andreu; du Mas des Bourboux, Hélion; Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Andrea; Sánchez, F. Javier; Pontzen, Andrew; Xochitl González-Morales, Alma; Alonso, David; Brooks, David; Doel, Peter; Etourneau, Thomas; Guy, Julien; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; de la Macorra, Axel; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Rich, James; Slosar, Anže; Tarle, Gregory; Yutong, Duan; Zhang, Kai

LyaCoLoRe uses CoLoRe (ascl:2111.009) simulations to generate simulated Lyman alpha forest spectra. The code takes the output files from CoLoRe as an input, carries out several stages of processing, and produces realistic skewers of transmitted flux fraction as an output. The repository includes tools to tune the parameters within LyaCoLoRe's transformation, and to measure the 1D power spectrum of output skewers quickly.

[ascl:1607.018]
LZIFU: IDL emission line fitting pipeline for integral field spectroscopy data

LZIFU (LaZy-IFU) is an emission line fitting pipeline for integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data. Written in IDL, the pipeline turns IFS data to 2D emission line flux and kinematic maps for further analysis. LZIFU has been applied and tested extensively to various IFS data, including the SAMI Galaxy Survey, the Wide-Field Spectrograph (WiFeS), the CALIFA survey, the S7 survey and the MUSE instrument on the VLT.

[ascl:2212.019]
m2mcluster: Star clusters made-to-measure modeling

m2mcluster performs made-to-measure modeling of star clusters, and can fit target observations of a Galactic globular cluster's 3D density profile and individual kinematic properties, including proper motion velocity dispersion, and line of sight velocity dispersion. The code uses AMUSE (ascl:1107.007) to model the gravitational *N*-body evolution of the system between time steps; GalPy (ascl:1411.008) is also required.

[ascl:1407.005]
MAAT: MATLAB Astronomy and Astrophysics Toolbox

The MATLAB Astronomy and Astrophysics Toolbox (MAAT) is a collection of software tools and modular functions for astronomy and astrophysics written in the MATLAB environment. It includes over 700 MATLAB functions and a few tens of data files and astronomical catalogs. The scripts cover a wide range of subjects including: astronomical image processing, ds9 control, astronomical spectra, optics and diffraction phenomena, catalog retrieval and searches, celestial maps and projections, Solar System ephemerides, planar and spherical geometry, time and coordinates conversion and manipulation, cosmology, gravitational lensing, function fitting, general utilities, plotting utilities, statistics, and time series analysis.

[ascl:1209.006]
macula: Rotational modulations in the photometry of spotted stars

Photometric rotational modulations due to starspots remain the most common and accessible way to study stellar activity. Modelling rotational modulations allows one to invert the observations into several basic parameters, such as the rotation period, spot coverage, stellar inclination and differential rotation rate. The most widely used analytic model for this inversion comes from Budding (1977) and Dorren (1987), who considered circular, grey starspots for a linearly limb darkened star. That model is extended to be more suitable in the analysis of high precision photometry such as that by Kepler. Macula, a Fortran 90 code, provides several improvements, such as non-linear limb darkening of the star and spot, a single-domain analytic function, partial derivatives for all input parameters, temporal partial derivatives, diluted light compensation, instrumental offset normalisations, differential rotation, starspot evolution and predictions of transit depth variations due to unocculted spots. The inclusion of non-linear limb darkening means macula has a maximum photometric error an order-of-magnitude less than that of Dorren (1987) for Sun-like stars observed in the Kepler-bandpass. The code executes three orders-of-magnitude faster than comparable numerical codes making it well-suited for inference problems.

[ascl:1306.010]
MADCOW: Microwave Anisotropy Dataset Computational softWare

MADCOW is a set of parallelized programs written in ANSI C and Fortran 77 that perform a maximum likelihood analysis of visibility data from interferometers observing the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. This software has been used to produce power spectra of the CMB with the Very Small Array (VSA) telescope.

[ascl:2302.019]
MADCUBA: MAdrid Data CUBe Analysis

MADCUBA analyzes astronomical datacubes and multiple spectra from various astronomical facilities, including ALMA, Herschel, VLA, IRAM 30m, APEX, GBT, and others. These telescopes, and in particular ALMA, generate extremely large datacubes (spatial, spectral and polarization). This software combines a user-friendly interface and powerful data analysis system to derive the physical conditions of molecular gas, its chemical complexity and the kinematics from datacubes. Built using the ImageJ (ascl:1206.013) infrastructure, MADCUBA visualizes astronomical datacubes with thousands on spectral channels, and datasets with thousands of spectra; it also identifies molecular species using publicly available molecular catalogs. It can automatically derive the physical parameters of the molecular species: column density, excitation temperature, velocity and linewidths and provides the best non-linear least-squared fit using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, among other tasks.

[ascl:1712.012]
MadDM: Computation of dark matter relic abundance

MadDM computes dark matter relic abundance and dark matter nucleus scattering rates in a generic model. The code is based on the existing MadGraph 5 architecture and as such is easily integrable into any MadGraph collider study. A simple Python interface offers a level of user-friendliness characteristic of MadGraph 5 without sacrificing functionality. MadDM is able to calculate the dark matter relic abundance in models which include a multi-component dark sector, resonance annihilation channels and co-annihilations. The direct detection module of MadDM calculates spin independent / spin dependent dark matter-nucleon cross sections and differential recoil rates as a function of recoil energy, angle and time. The code provides a simplified simulation of detector effects for a wide range of target materials and volumes.

[ascl:2009.009]
MADHAT: Gamma-ray emission analyzer

Boddy, Kimberly K.; Hill, Stephen; Kumar, Jason; Sandick, Pearl; Haghi, Barmak Shams Es; Marfatia, Danny

MADHAT (Model-Agnostic Dark Halo Analysis Tool) analyzes gamma-ray emission from dwarf satellite galaxies and dwarf galaxy candidates due to dark matter annihilation, dark matter decay, or other nonstandard or unknown astrophysics. The tool is data-driven and model-independent, and provides statistical upper bounds on the number of observed photons in excess of the number expected using a stacked analysis of any selected set of dwarf targets. MADHAT also calculates the resulting bounds on the properties of dark matter under any assumptions the user makes regarding dark sector particle physics or astrophysics.

[ascl:2012.010]
MADLens: Differentiable lensing simulator

MADLens produces non-Gaussian cosmic shear maps at arbitrary source redshifts. A MADLens simulation with only 256^3 particles produces convergence maps whose power agree with theoretical lensing power spectra up to scales of L=10000. The code is based on a highly parallelizable particle-mesh algorithm and employs a sub-evolution scheme in the lensing projection and a machine-learning inspired sharpening step to achieve these high accuracies.

[ascl:1110.018]
MADmap: Fast Parallel Maximum Likelihood CMB Map Making Code

MADmap produces maximum-likelihood images of the sky from time-ordered data which include correlated noise, such as those gathered by Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. It works efficiently on platforms ranging from small workstations to the most massively parallel supercomputers. Map-making is a critical step in the analysis of all CMB data sets, and the maximum-likelihood approach is the most accurate and widely applicable algorithm; however, it is a computationally challenging task. This challenge will only increase with the next generation of ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite CMB polarization experiments. The faintness of the B-mode signal that these experiments seek to measure requires them to gather enormous data sets. MADmap has the ability to address problems typically encountered in the analysis of realistic CMB data sets. The massively parallel and distributed implementation is detailed and scaling complexities are given for the resources required. MADmap is capable of analyzing the largest data sets now being collected on computing resources currently available.

[ascl:2206.018]
MADYS: Isochronal parameter determination for young stellar and substellar objects

MADYS (Manifold Age Determination for Young Stars) determines the age and mass of young stellar and substellar objects. The code automatically retrieves and cross-matches photometry from several catalogs, estimates interstellar extinction, and derives age and mass estimates for individual objects through isochronal fitting. MADYS harmonizes the heterogeneity of publicly-available isochrone grids and the user can choose amongst several models, some of which have customizable astrophysical parameters. Particular attention has been dedicated to the categorization of these models, labeled through a four-level taxonomical classification.

[ascl:2205.005]
maelstrom: Forward modeling of pulsating stars in binaries

Hey, Daniel R.; Murphy, Simon J.; Foreman-Mackey, Dan; Bedding, Timothy R.; Pope, Benjamin J.S.; Hogg, David W.

maelstrom models binary orbits through the phase modulation technique. This set of custom PyMC3 models and solvers fit each individual datapoint in the time series by forward modeling the time delay onto the light curve. This approach fully captures variations in a light curve caused by an orbital companion.

[ascl:1010.044]
MAESTRO: An Adaptive Low Mach Number Hydrodynamics Algorithm for Stellar Flows

MAESTRO, a low Mach number stellar hydrodynamics code, simulates long-time, low-speed flows that would be prohibitively expensive to model using traditional compressible codes. MAESTRO is based on an equation set derived using low Mach number asymptotics; this equation set does not explicitly track acoustic waves and thus allows a significant increase in the time step. MAESTRO is suitable for two- and three-dimensional local atmospheric flows as well as three-dimensional full-star flows, and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) has been incorporated into the code. The expansion of the base state for full-star flows using a novel mapping technique between the one-dimensional base state and the Cartesian grid is also available.

NOTE: MAESTRO is no longer being actively developed. Users should switch to MAESTROeX (ascl:1908.019) to take advantage of the latest capabilities.

[ascl:1908.019]
MAESTROeX: Low Mach number stellar hydrodynamics code

MAESTROeX solves the equations of low Mach number hydrodynamics for stratified atmospheres or stars with a general equation of state. It includes reactions and thermal diffusion and can be used on anything from a single core to 100,000s of processor cores with MPI + OpenMP. MAESTROeX maintains the accuracy of its predecessor MAESTRO (ascl:1010.044) while taking advantage of a simplified temporal integration scheme and leveraging the AMReX software framework for block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) applications.

[ascl:2007.015]
MAGI: Initial-condition generator for galactic N-body simulations

MAGI (MAny-component Galaxy Initializer) generates initial conditions for numerical simulations of galaxies that resemble observed galaxies and are dynamically stable for time-scales longer than their characteristic dynamical times, taking into account galaxy bulges, discs, and haloes. MAGI adopts a distribution-function-based method and supports various kinds of density models, including custom-tabulated inputs and the presence of more than one disc, and is fast and easy to use.

[ascl:1709.010]
MagIC: Fluid dynamics in a spherical shell simulator

MagIC simulates fluid dynamics in a spherical shell. It solves for the Navier-Stokes equation including Coriolis force, optionally coupled with an induction equation for Magneto-Hydro Dynamics (MHD), a temperature (or entropy) equation and an equation for chemical composition under both the anelastic and the Boussinesq approximations. MagIC uses either Chebyshev polynomials or finite differences in the radial direction and spherical harmonic decomposition in the azimuthal and latitudinal directions. The time-stepping scheme relies on a semi-implicit Crank-Nicolson for the linear terms of the MHD equations and a Adams-Bashforth scheme for the non-linear terms and the Coriolis force.

[ascl:1604.004]
magicaxis: Pretty scientific plotting with minor-tick and log minor-tick support

The R suite magicaxis makes useful and pretty plots for scientific plotting and includes functions for base plotting, with particular emphasis on pretty axis labelling in a number of circumstances that are often used in scientific plotting. It also includes functions for generating images and contours that reflect the 2D quantile levels of the data designed particularly for output of MCMC posteriors where visualizing the location of the 68% and 95% 2D quantiles for covariant parameters is a necessary part of the post MCMC analysis, can generate low and high error bars, and allows clipping of values, rejection of bad values, and log stretching.

[ascl:1303.009]
MAGIX: Modeling and Analysis Generic Interface for eXternal numerical codes

MAGIX provides an interface between existing codes and an iterating engine that minimizes deviations of the model results from available observational data; it constrains the values of the model parameters and provides corresponding error estimates. Many models (and, in principle, not only astrophysical models) can be plugged into MAGIX to explore their parameter space and find the set of parameter values that best fits observational/experimental data. MAGIX complies with the data structures and reduction tools of Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), but can be used with other astronomical and with non-astronomical data.

[ascl:2003.002]
MAGNETAR: Histogram of relative orientation calculator for MHD observations

MAGNETAR is a set of tools for the study of the magnetic field in simulations of MHD turbulence and polarization observations. It calculates the histogram of relative orientation between density structure in the magnetic field in data cubes from simulations of MHD turbulence and observations of polarization using the method of histogram of relative orientations (HRO).

[ascl:1010.054]
MagnetiCS.c: Cosmic String Loop Evolution and Magnetogenesis

Large-scale coherent magnetic fields are observed in galaxies and clusters, but their ultimate origin remains a mystery. We reconsider the prospects for primordial magnetogenesis by a cosmic string network. We show that the magnetic flux produced by long strings has been overestimated in the past, and give improved estimates. We also compute the fields created by the loop population, and find that it gives the dominant contribution to the total magnetic field strength on present-day galactic scales. We present numerical results obtained by evolving semi-analytic models of string networks (including both one-scale and velocity-dependent one-scale models) in a Lambda-CDM cosmology, including the forces and torques on loops from Hubble redshifting, dynamical friction, and gravitational wave emission. Our predictions include the magnetic field strength as a function of correlation length, as well as the volume covered by magnetic fields. We conclude that string networks could account for magnetic fields on galactic scales, but only if coupled with an efficient dynamo amplification mechanism.

[ascl:2008.011]
Magnetizer: Computing magnetic fields of evolving galaxies

Magnetizer computes time and radial dependent magnetic fields for a sample of galaxies in the output of a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. The magnetic field is obtained by numerically solving the galactic dynamo equations throughout history of each galaxy. Stokes parameters and Faraday rotation measure can also be computed along a random line-of-sight for each galaxy.

[ascl:1502.014]
Magnetron: Fitting bursts from magnetars

Magnetron, written in Python, decomposes magnetar bursts into a superposition of small spike-like features with a simple functional form, where the number of model components is itself part of the inference problem. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling and reversible jumps between models with different numbers of parameters are used to characterize the posterior distributions of the model parameters and the number of components per burst.

[ascl:1106.010]
MAGPHYS: Multi-wavelength Analysis of Galaxy Physical Properties

MAGPHYS is a self-contained, user-friendly model package to interpret observed spectral energy distributions of galaxies in terms of galaxy-wide physical parameters pertaining to the stars and the interstellar medium. MAGPHYS is optimized to derive statistical constraints of fundamental parameters related to star formation activity and dust content (e.g. star formation rate, stellar mass, dust attenuation, dust temperatures) of large samples of galaxies using a wide range of multi-wavelength observations. A Bayesian approach is used to interpret the SEDs all the way from the ultraviolet/optical to the far-infrared.

[ascl:2310.006]
MAGPy-RV: Gaussian Process regression pipeline with MCMC parameter searching

MAGPy-RV (Modelling stellar Activity with Gaussian Processes in Radial Velocity) models data with Gaussian Process regression and affine invariant Monte Carlo Markov Chain parameter searching. Developed to model intrinsic, quasi-periodic variations induced by the host star in radial velocity (RV) surveys for the detection of exoplanets and the accurate measurements of their orbital parameters and masses, it now includes a variety of kernels and models and can be applied to any timeseries analysis. MAGPy-RV includes publication level plotting, efficient posterior extraction, and export-ready LaTeX results tables. It also handles multiple datasets at once and can model offsets and systematics from multiple instruments. MAGPy-RV requires no external dependencies besides basic python libraries and corner (ascl:1702.002).

[ascl:2203.024]
Magrathea-Pathfinder: 3D AMR ray-tracing in simulations

Magrathea-Pathfinder propagates photons within cosmological simulations to construct observables. This high-performance framework uses a 3D Adaptive-Mesh Refinement and is built on top of the MAGRATHEA metalibrary (ascl:2203.023).

[ascl:2203.023]
MAGRATHEA: Multi-processor Adaptive Grid Refinement Analysis for THEoretical Astrophysics

MAGRATHEA (Multi-processor Adaptive Grid Refinement Analysis for THEoretical Astrophysics) is a foundational cosmological library and a relativistic raytracing code. Classical linear algebra libraries come with their own operations and can be difficult to leverage for new data types. Instead of providing basic types, MAGRATHEA provides tools to generate base types such as scalar quantities, points, vectors, or tensors.

[ascl:2201.012]
MAGRATHEA: Planet interior structure code

MAGRATHEA solves planet interiors and considers the case of fully differentiated interiors. The code integrates the hydrostatic equation in order to determine the correct planet radius given the mass in each layer. The code returns the pressure, temperature, density, phase, and radius at steps of enclosed mass. The code support four layers: core, mantle, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Each layer has a phase diagram with equations of state chosen for each phase.

[ascl:2012.025]
Magritte: 3D radiative transfer library

De Ceuster, Frederik; Bolte, Jan; Homan, Ward; Maes, Silke; Malfait, Jolien; Decin, Leen; Yates, Jeremy; Boyle, Peter; Hetherington, James

Magritte performs 3D radiative transfer modeling; though focused on astrophysics and cosmology, the techniques can also be applied more generally. The code uses a deterministic ray-tracer with a formal solver that currently focuses on line radiative transfer. Magritte can either be used as a C++ library or as a Python package.

[ascl:1307.009]
MAH: Minimum Atmospheric Height

MAH calculates the posterior distribution of the "minimum atmospheric height" (MAH) of an exoplanet by inputting the joint posterior distribution of the mass and radius. The code collapses the two dimensions of mass and radius into a one dimensional term that most directly speaks to whether the planet has an atmosphere or not. The joint mass-radius posteriors derived from a fit of some exoplanet data (likely using MCMC) can be used by MAH to evaluate the posterior distribution of R_MAH, from which the significance of a non-zero R_MAH (i.e. an atmosphere is present) is calculated.

[ascl:2106.011]
MakeCloud: Turbulent GMC initial conditions for GIZMO

MakeCloud makes turbulent giant molecular cloud (GMC) initial conditions for GIZMO (ascl:1410.003). It generates turbulent velocity fields on the fly and stores that data in a user-specified path for efficiency. The code is flexible, allowing the user control through various parameters, including the radius of the cloud, number of gas particles, type of initial turbulent velocity (Gaussian or full), and magnetic energy as a fraction of the binding energy, among other options. With an additional file, it can also create glassy initial conditions.

[ascl:2407.001]
MAKEE: MAuna Kea Echelle Extraction

MAKEE (MAuna Kea Echelle Extraction) reduces data from the HIRES and ESI instruments at Keck Observatory. It is optimized for the spectral extraction of single, unresolved point sources and is designed to run non-interactively using a set of default parameters. Taking the raw HIRES FITS files as input, the code determines the position (or trace) of each echelle order, defines the object and background extraction boundaries, optimally extracts a spectrum for each order, and computes wavelength calibrations. MAKEE produces FITS format "spectral images" (each row is a separate echelle order spectrum) and the data values are in arbitrary (relative) flux units. MAKEE will reduce data from all HIRES formats, including the single CCD format, the single CCD with Red and UV cross dispersers, and the current 3 CCD system. It can handle a variety of pixel binnings, including 1x1, 1x2, 1x4 (column x row).

[ascl:1502.021]
MaLTPyNT: Quick look timing analysis for NuSTAR data

MaLTPyNT (Matteo's Libraries and Tools in Python for NuSTAR Timing) provides a quick-look timing analysis of NuSTAR data, properly treating orbital gaps and exploiting the presence of two independent detectors by using the cospectrum as a proxy for the power density spectrum. The output of the analysis is a cospectrum, or a power density spectrum, that can be fitted with XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) or ISIS (ascl:1302.002). The software also calculates time lags. Though written for NuSTAR data, MaLTPyNT can also perform standard spectral analysis on X-ray data from other satellite such as XMM-Newton and RXTE.

[submitted]
MALU IFS visualisation tool

MALU visualizes integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data such as CALIFA, MANGA, SAMI or MUSE data producing fully interactive plots. The tool is not specific to any instrument. It is available in Python and no installation is required.

[ascl:2203.020]
MAMPOSSt: Mass/orbit modeling of spherical systems

MAMPOSSt (Modeling Anisotropy and Mass Profiles of Observed Spherical Systems) is a Bayesian code to perform mass/orbit modeling of spherical systems. It determines marginal parameter distributions and parameter covariances of parametrized radial distributions of dark or total matter, as well as the mass of a possible central black hole, and the radial profiles of density and velocity anisotropy of one or several tracer components, all of which are jointly fit to the discrete data in projected phase space. It is based upon the MAMPOSSt likelihood function for the distribution of individual tracers in projected phase space (projected radius and line-of-sight velocity) and the CosmoMC Markov Chain Monte Carlo code (ascl:1106.025), run in generic mode. MAMPOSSt is not based on the 6D distribution function (which would require triple integrals), but on the assumption that the local 3D velocity distribution is an (anisotropic) Gaussian (requiring only a single integral).

[ascl:2106.010]
Maneage: Managing data lineage

Akhlaghi, Mohammad; Infante-Sainz, Raúl; Roukema, Boudewijn; Khellat, Mohammadreza; Valls-Gabaud, David; Baena-Gallé, Roberto

The Maneage (Managing data lineage; ending pronounced like "lineage") framework produces fully reproducible computational research. It provides full control on building the necessary software environment from a low-level C compiler, the shell and LaTeX, all the way up to the high-level science software in languages such as Python without a third-party package manager. Once the software environment is built, adding analysis steps is as easy as defining "Make" rules to allow parallelized operations, and not repeating operations that do not need to be recreated. Make provides control over data provenance. A Maneage'd project also contains the narrative description of the project in LaTeX, which helps prepare the research for publication. All results from the analysis are passed into the report through LaTeX macros, allowing immediate dynamic updates to the PDF paper when any part of the analysis has changed. All information is stored in plain text and is version-controlled in Git. Maneage itself is actually a Git branch; new projects start by defining a new Git branch over it and customizing it for a new project. Through Git merging of branches, it is possible to import infrastructure updates to projects.

[ascl:2203.017]
MaNGA-DAP: MaNGA Data Analysis Pipeline

Westfall, Kyle B.; Cappellari, Michele; Bershady, Matthew A.; Bundy, Kevin; Belfiore, Francesco; Ji, Xihan; Law, David R.; Schaefer, Adam; Shetty, Shravan; Tremonti, Christy A.; Yan, Renbin; Andrews, Brett H.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Cherinka, Brian; Coccato, Lodovico; Drory, Niv; Maraston, Claudia; Parikh, Taniya; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Thomas, Daniel; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge; Du, Cheng; Goddard, Daniel; Li, Niu; Masters, Karen; Ibarra Medel, Héctor Javier; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; Yang, Meng; Zheng, Zheng; Zhou, Shuang

The MaNGA data analysis pipeline (MaNGA DAP) analyzes the data produced by the MaNGA data-reduction pipeline (ascl:2203.016) to produced physical properties derived from the MaNGA spectroscopy. All survey-provided properties are currently derived from the log-linear binned datacubes (*i.e.*, the LOGCUBE files).

[ascl:2203.016]
MaNGA-DRP: MaNGA Data Reduction Pipeline

Law, David R.; Cherinka, Brian; Yan, Renbin; Andrews, Brett H.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Blanton, Michael R.; Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Chen, Yanmei; Drory, Niv; D'Souza, Richard; Fu, Hai; Jones, Amy; Kauffmann, Guinevere; MacDonald, Nicholas; Masters, Karen L.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Parejko, John K.; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Schlegel, David J.; Thomas, Daniel; Wake, David A.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Westfall, Kyle B.; Zhang, Kai

The MaNGA Data Reduction Pipeline (DRP) processes the raw data to produce flux calibrated, sky subtracted, coadded data cubes from each of the individual exposures for a given galaxy. The DRP consists of two primary parts: the 2d stage that produces flux calibrated fiber spectra from raw individual exposures, and the 3d stage that combines multiple flux calibrated exposures with astrometric information to produce stacked data cubes. These science-grade data cubes are then processed by the MaNGA Data Analysis Pipeline (ascl:2203.017), which measures the shape and location of various spectral features, fits stellar population models, and performs a variety of other analyses necessary to derive astrophysically meaningful quantities from the calibrated data cubes.

[ascl:1202.005]
Mangle: Angular Mask Software

Mangle deals accurately and efficiently with complex angular masks, such as occur typically in galaxy surveys. Mangle performs the following tasks: converts masks between many handy formats (including HEALPix); rapidly finds the polygons containing a given point on the sphere; rapidly decomposes a set of polygons into disjoint parts; expands masks in spherical harmonics; generates random points with weights given by the mask; and implements computations for correlation function analysis. To mangle, a mask is an arbitrary union of arbitrarily weighted angular regions bounded by arbitrary numbers of edges. The restrictions on the mask are only (1) that each edge must be part of some circle on the sphere (but not necessarily a great circle), and (2) that the weight within each subregion of the mask must be constant. Mangle is complementary to and integrated with the HEALPix package (ascl:1107.018); mangle works with vector graphics whereas HEALPix works with pixels.

[ascl:2306.015]
Mangrove: Infer galaxy properties using dark matter merger trees

Jespersen, Christian Kragh; Cranmer, Miles; Melchior, Peter; Ho, Shirley; Somerville, Rachel S.; Gabrielpillai, Austen

Mangrove uses Graph Neural Networks to regress baryonic properties directly from full dark matter merger trees to infer galaxy properties. The package includes code for preprocessing the merger tree, and training the model can be done either as single experiments or as a sweep. Mangrove provides loss functions, learning rate schedulers, models, and a script for doing the training on a GPU.

[ascl:1305.012]
MapCUMBA: Multi-grid map-making algorithm for CMB experiments

The MapCUMBA package applies a multigrid fast iterative Jacobi algorithm for map-making in the context of CMB experiments.

[ascl:1308.003]
MapCurvature: Map Projections

MapCurvature, written in IDL, can create map projections with Goldberg-Gott indicatrices. These indicatrices measure the flexion and skewness of a map, and are useful for determining whether features are faithfully reproduced on a particular projection.

[ascl:1306.008]
MAPPINGS III: Modelling And Prediction in PhotoIonized Nebulae and Gasdynamical Shocks

MAPPINGS III is a general purpose astrophysical plasma modelling code. It is principally intended to predict emission line spectra of medium and low density plasmas subjected to different levels of photoionization and ionization by shockwaves. MAPPINGS III tracks up to 16 atomic species in all stages of ionization, over a useful range of 102 to 108 K. It treats spherical and plane parallel geometries in equilibrium and time-dependent models. MAPPINGS III is useful for computing models of HI and HII regions, planetary nebulae, novae, supernova remnants, Herbig-Haro shocks, active galaxies, the intergalactic medium and the interstellar medium in general. The present version of MAPPINGS III is a large FORTRAN program that runs with a simple TTY interface for historical and portability reasons. A newer version of this software, MAPPINGS V (ascl:1807.005), is available.

[ascl:1807.005]
MAPPINGS V: Astrophysical plasma modeling code

MAPPINGS V is a update of the MAPPINGS code (ascl:1306.008) and provides new cooling function computations for optically thin plasmas based on the greatly expanded atomic data of the CHIANTI 8 database. The number of cooling and recombination lines has been expanded from ~2000 to over 80,000, and temperature-dependent spline-based collisional data have been adopted for the majority of transitions. The expanded atomic data set provides improved modeling of both thermally ionized and photoionized plasmas; the code is now capable of predicting detailed X-ray spectra of nonequilibrium plasmas over the full nonrelativistic temperature range, increasing its utility in cosmological simulations, in modeling cooling flows, and in generating accurate models for the X-ray emission from shocks in supernova remnants.

[ascl:2108.003]
MAPS: Multi-frequency Angular Power Spectrum estimator

MAPS (Multi-frequency Angular Power Spectrum) extracts two-point statistical information from Epoch of Reionization (EoR) signals observed in three dimensions, with two directions on the sky and the wavelength (or frequency) constituting the third dimension. Rather than assume that the signal has the same statistical properties in all three directions, as the spherically averaged power spectrum (SAPS) does, MAPS does not make these assumptions, making it more natural for radio interferometric observations than SAPS.

[ascl:2306.011]
margarine: Posterior sampling and marginal Bayesian statistics

Margarine computes marginal bayesian statistics given a set of samples from an MCMC or nested sampling run. Specifically, the code calculates marginal Kullback-Leibler divergences and Bayesian dimensionalities using Masked Autoregressive Flows and Kernel Density Estimators to learn and sample posterior distributions of signal subspaces in high dimensional data models, and determines the properties of cosmological subspaces, such as their log-probability densities and how well constrained they are, independent of nuisance parameters. Margarine thus allows for direct and specific comparison of the constraining ability of different experimental approaches, which can in turn lead to improvements in experimental design.

[ascl:2003.010]
MARGE: Machine learning Algorithm for Radiative transfer of Generated Exoplanets

MARGE (Machine learning Algorithm for Radiative transfer of Generated Exoplanets) generates exoplanet spectra across a defined parameter space, processes the output, and trains, validates, and tests machine learning models as a fast approximation to radiative transfer. It uses BART (ascl:1608.004) for spectra generation and modifies BART’s Bayesian sampler (MC^{3}, ascl:1610.013) with a random uniform sampler to propose models within a defined parameter space. More generally, MARGE provides a framework for training neural network models to approximate a forward, deterministic process.

[ascl:1011.004]
MARS: The MAGIC Analysis and Reconstruction Software

Moralejo, R. A.; Gaug, M.; Carmona, E.; Colin, P.; Delgado, C.; Lombardi, S.; Mazin, D.; Scalzotto, V.; Sitarek, J.; Tescaro, D.

With the commissioning of the second MAGIC gamma-ray Cherenkov telescope situated close to MAGIC-I, the standard analysis package of the MAGIC collaboration, MARS, has been upgraded in order to perform the stereoscopic reconstruction of the detected atmospheric showers. MARS is a ROOT-based code written in C++, which includes all the necessary algorithms to transform the raw data recorded by the telescopes into information about the physics parameters of the observed targets. An overview of the methods for extracting the basic shower parameters is presented, together with a description of the tools used in the background discrimination and in the estimation of the gamma-ray source spectra.

[ascl:1910.015]
MarsLux: Illumination Mars maps generator

MarsLux generates illumination maps of Mars from Digital Terrain Model (DTM), permitting users to investigate in detail the illumination conditions on Mars based on its topography and the relative position of the Sun. MarsLux consists of two Python codes, SolaPar and MarsLux. SolaPar calculates the matrix with solar parameters for one date or a range between the two. The Marslux code generates the illumination maps using the same DTM and the files generated by SolaPar. The resulting illumination maps show areas that are fully illuminated, areas in total shadow, and areas with partial shade, and can be used for geomorphological studies to examine gullies, thermal weathering, or mass wasting processes as well as for producing energy budget maps for future exploration missions.

[ascl:1911.005]
MARTINI: Mock spatially resolved spectral line observations of simulated galaxies

MARTINI (Mock APERTIF-like Radio Telescope Interferometry of the Neutal ISM) creates synthetic resolved HI line observations (data cubes) of smoothed-particle hydrodynamics simulations of galaxies. The various aspects of the mock-observing process are divided logically into sub-modules handling the data cube, source, beam, noise, spectral model and SPH kernel. MARTINI is object-oriented: each sub-module provides a class (or classes) which can be configured as desired. For most sub-modules, base classes are provided to allow for straightforward customization. Instances of each sub-module class are then given as parameters to the Martini class. A mock observation is then constructed by calling a handful of functions to execute the desired steps in the mock-observing process.

[ascl:2106.005]
Marvin: Data access and visualization for MaNGA

Cherinka, Brian; Andrews, Brett H.; Sánchez-Gallego, José; Brownstein, Joel; Argudo-Fernández, María; Blanton, Michael; Bundy, Kevin; Jones, Amy; Masters, Karen; Law, David R.; Rowlands, Kate; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Westfall, Kyle; Yan, Renbin

Marvin searches, accesses, and visualizes data from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. Written in Python, it provides tools for easy efficient interaction with the MaNGA data via local files, files retrieved from the Science Archive Server, or data directly grabbed from the database. The tools come mainly in the form of convenience functions and classes for interacting with the data. Also available is a web app, Marvin-web, offers an easily accessible interface for searching the MaNGA data and visual exploration of individual MaNGA galaxies or of the entire sample, and a powerful query functionality that uses the API to query the MaNGA databases and return the search results to your python session. Marvin-API is the critical link that allows Marvin-tools and Marvin-web to interact with the databases, which enables users to harness the statistical power of the MaNGA data set.

[ascl:1302.001]
MARX: Model of AXAF Response to X-rays

MARX (Model of AXAF Response to X-rays) is a suite of programs designed to enable the user to simulate the on-orbit performance of the Chandra satellite. MARX provides a detailed ray-trace simulation of how Chandra responds to a variety of astrophysical sources and can generate standard FITS events files and images as output. It contains models for the HRMA mirror system onboard Chandra as well as the HETG and LETG gratings and all focal plane detectors.

[ascl:1711.020]
MARXS: Multi-Architecture Raytrace Xray mission Simulator

MARXS (Multi-Architecture-Raytrace-Xraymission-Simulator) simulates X-ray observatories. Primarily designed to simulate X-ray instruments on astronomical X-ray satellites and sounding rocket payloads, it can also be used to ray-trace experiments in the laboratory. MARXS performs polarization Monte-Carlo ray-trace simulations from a source (astronomical or lab) through a collection of optical elements such as mirrors, baffles, and gratings to a detector.

[ascl:1605.001]
MARZ: Redshifting Program

MARZ analyzes objects and produces high quality spectroscopic redshift measurements. Spectra not matched correctly by the automatic algorithm can be redshifted manually by cycling automatic results, manual template comparison, or marking spectral features. The software has an intuitive interface and powerful automatic matching capabilities on spectra, and can be run interactively or from the command line, and runs as a Web application. MARZ can be run on a local server; it is also available for use on a public server.

[ascl:2101.007]
Mask galaxy: Machine learning pipeline for morphological segmentation of galaxies

Mask galaxy is an automatic machine learning pipeline for detection, segmentation and morphological classification of galaxies. The model is based on the Mask R-CNN Deep Learning architecture. This model of instance segmentation also performs image segmentation at the pixel level, and has shown a Mean Average Precision (mAP) of 0.93 in morphological classification of spiral or elliptical galaxies.

[ascl:2401.015]
maskfill: Fill in masked values in an image

maskfill inward extrapolates edge pixels just outside masked regions, using iterative median filtering and the full information contained in the edge pixels. This provides seamless transitions between masked pixels and good pixels, and allows high fidelity reconstruction of gaps in continuous narrow features. An image and a mask the only required inputs.

[ascl:1101.009]
MasQU: Finite Differences on Masked Irregular Stokes Q,U Grids

MasQU extracts polarization information in the CMB by reducing contamination from so-called "ambiguous modes" on a masked sky, which contain leakage from the larger E-mode signal and utilizing derivative operators on the real-space Stokes Q and U parameters. In particular, the package can perform finite differences on masked, irregular grids and is applied to a semi-regular spherical pixellization, the HEALPix grid. The formalism reduces to the known finite-difference solutions in the case of a regular grid. On a masked sphere, the software represents a considerable reduction in B-mode noise from limited sky coverage.

[ascl:1104.004]
MASSCLEAN: MASSive CLuster Evolution and ANalysis Package

MASSCLEAN is a sophisticated and robust stellar cluster image and photometry simulation package. This package is able to create color-magnitude diagrams and standard FITS images in any of the traditional optical and near-infrared bands based on cluster characteristics input by the user, including but not limited to distance, age, mass, radius and extinction. At the limit of very distant, unresolved clusters, we have checked the integrated colors created in MASSCLEAN against those from other simple stellar population (SSP) models with consistent results. Because the algorithm populates the cluster with a discrete number of tenable stars, it can be used as part of a Monte Carlo Method to derive the probabilistic range of characteristics (integrated colors, for example) consistent with a given cluster mass and age.

[ascl:1401.008]
massconvert: Halo Mass Conversion

massconvert, written in Fortran, provides driver and fitting routines for converting halo mass definitions from one spherical overdensity to another assuming an NFW density profile. In surveys that probe ever lower cluster masses and temperatures, sample variance is generally comparable to or greater than shot noise and thus cannot be neglected in deriving precision cosmological constraints; massconvert offers an accurate fitting formula for the conversion between different definitions of halo mass.

[ascl:2207.035]
massmappy: Mapping dark matter on the celestial sphere

massmappy recovers convergence mass maps on the celestial sphere from weak lensing cosmic shear observations. It relies on SSHT (ascl:2207.034) and HEALPix (ascl:1107.018) to handle sampled data on the sphere. The spherical Kaiser-Squires estimator is implemented.

[ascl:2309.013]
maszcal: Mass calibrations for thermal-SZ clusters

maszcal calibrates the observable-mass relation for galaxy clusters, with a focus on the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal's relation to mass. maszcal explicitly models baryonic matter density profiles, differing from most previous approaches that treat galaxy clusters as purely dark matter. To do this, it uses a generalized Nararro-Frenk-White (GNFW) density to represent the baryons, while using the more typical NFW profile to represent dark matter.

[ascl:1406.010]
MATCH: A program for matching star lists

MATCH matches up items in two different lists, which can have two different systems of coordinates. The program allows the two sets of coordinates to be related by a linear, quadratic, or cubic transformation. MATCH was designed and written to work on lists of stars and other astronomical objects but can be applied to other types of data. In order to match two lists of N points, the main algorithm calls for O(N^6) operations; though not the most efficient choice, it does allow for arbitrary translation, rotation, and scaling.

[ascl:1601.018]
MATPHOT: Stellar photometry and astrometry with discrete point spread functions

A discrete Point Spread Function (PSF) is a sampled version of a continuous two-dimensional PSF. The shape information about the photon scattering pattern of a discrete PSF is typically encoded using a numerical table (matrix) or a FITS image file. MATPHOT shifts discrete PSFs within an observational model using a 21-pixel- wide damped sinc function and position partial derivatives are computed using a five-point numerical differentiation formula. MATPHOT achieves accurate and precise stellar photometry and astrometry of undersampled CCD observations by using supersampled discrete PSFs that are sampled two, three, or more times more finely than the observational data.

[ascl:2309.007]
MATRIX: Multi-phAse Transits Recovery from Injected eXoplanets toolkit

The injection-recovery MATRIX (Multi-phAse Transits Recovery from Injected eXoplanets) Toolkit creates grids of scenarios with a set of periods, radii, and epochs of synthetic transiting exoplanet signals in a provided light curve. Typical injection-recovery executions consist of 2-dimensional scenarios, where only one epoch (random or hardcoded) was used for each period and radius, which may reduce accuracy. MATRIX performs multi-phase analyses needing only a few parameters in a configuration file and running one line of code.

[ascl:2312.030]
matvis: Fast matrix-based visibility simulator

Kittiwisit, Piyanat; Murray, Steven G.; Garsden, Hugh; Bull, Philip; Cain, Christopher; Parsons, Aaron R.; Sipple, Jackson; Abdurashidova, Zara; Adams, Tyrone; Aguirre, James E.; Alexander, Paul; Ali, Zaki S.; Baartman, Rushelle; Balfour, Yanga; Beardsley, Adam P.; Berkhout, Lindsay M.; Bernardi, Gianni; Billings, Tashalee S.; Bowman, Judd D.; Bradley, Richard F.; Burba, Jacob; Carey, Steven; Carilli, Chris L.; Chen, Kai-Feng; Cheng, Carina; Choudhuri, Samir; DeBoer, David R.; de Lera Acedo, Eloy; Dexter, Matt; Dillon, Joshua S.; Dynes, Scott; Eksteen, Nico; Ely, John; Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Fagnoni, Nicolas; Fritz, Randall; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Gale-Sides, Kingsley; Gehlot, Bharat Kumar; Ghosh, Abhik; Glendenning, Brian; Gorce, Adelie; Gorthi, Deepthi; Greig, Bradley; Grobbelaar, Jasper; Halday, Ziyaad; Hazelton, Bryna J.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Hickish, Jack; Huang, Tian; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Josaitis, Alec; Julius, Austin; Kariseb, MacCalvin; Kern, Nicholas S.; Kerrigan, Joshua; Kim, Honggeun; Kohn, Saul A.; Kolopanis, Matthew; Lanman, Adam; La Plante, Paul; Liu, Adrian; Loots, Anita; Ma, Yin-Zhe; MacMahon, David H. E.; Malan, Lourence; Malgas, Cresshim; Malgas, Keith; Marero, Bradley; Martinot, Zachary E.; Mesinger, Andrei; Molewa, Mathakane; Morales, Miguel F.; Mosiane, Tshegofalang; Neben, Abraham R.; Nikolic, Bojan; Devi Nunhokee, Chuneeta; Nuwegeld, Hans; Pascua, Robert; Patra, Nipanjana; Pieterse, Samantha; Qin, Yuxiang; Rath, Eleanor; Razavi-Ghods, Nima; Riley, Daniel; Robnett, James; Rosie, Kathryn; Santos, Mario G.; Sims, Peter; Singh, Saurabh; Storer, Dara; Swarts, Hilton; Tan, Jianrong; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; van Wyngaarden, Pieter; Williams, Peter K. G.; Xu, Zhilei; Zheng, Haoxuan

matvis simulates radio interferometric visibilities at the necessary scale with both CPU and GPU implementations. It is matrix-based and applicable to wide field-of-view instruments such as the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), as it does not make any approximations of the visibility integral (such as the flat-sky approximation). The only approximation made is that the sky is a collection of point sources, which is valid for sky models that intrinsically consist of point-sources, but is an approximation for diffuse sky models. The matvix matrix-based algorithm is fast and scales well to large numbers of antennas. The code supports both CPU and GPU implementations as drop-in replacements for each other and also supports both dense and sparse sky models.

[ascl:2008.018]
maxsmooth: Derivative constrained function fitting

maxsmooth fits derivative constrained functions (DCF) such as Maximally Smooth Functions (MSFs) to data sets. MSFs are functions for which there are no zero crossings in derivatives of order m >= 2 within the domain of interest. They are designed to prevent the loss of signals when fitting out dominant smooth foregrounds or large magnitude signals that mask signals of interest. Here "smooth" means that the foregrounds follow power law structures and do not feature turning points in the band of interest. maxsmooth uses quadratic programming implemented with CVXOPT (ascl:2008.017) to fit data subject to a fixed linear constraint, Ga <= 0, where the product Ga is a matrix of derivatives. The code tests the <= 0 constraint multiplied by a positive or negative sign and can test every available sign combination but by default, it implements a sign navigating algorithm.

[ascl:1205.008]
Mayavi2: 3D Scientific Data Visualization and Plotting

Mayavi provides general-purpose 3D scientific visualizations. It offers easy interactive tools for data visualization that fit with the scientific user's workflow. Mayavi provides several entry points: a full-blown interactive application; a Python library with both a MATLAB-like interface focused on easy scripting and a feature-rich object hierarchy; widgets associated with these objects for assembling in a domain-specific application, and plugins that work with a general purpose application-building framework.

[ascl:2204.009]
MAYONNAISE: ADI data imaging processing pipeline

MAYONNAISE (Morphological Analysis Yielding separated Objects iN Near infrAred usIng Sources Estimation), or MAYO for short, is a pipeline for exoplanet and disk high-contrast imaging from ADI datasets. The pipeline is mostly automated; the package also loads the data and injects synthetic data if needed. MAYONNAISE parameters are written in a json file called parameters_algo.json and placed in a working_directory.

[ascl:2307.060]
MBASC: Multi-Band AGN-SFG Classifier

Karsten, J.; Wang, L.; Margalef-Bentabol, B.; Best, P. N.; Kondapally, R.; La Marca, A.; Morganti, R.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Vaccari, M.; Sabater, J.

MBASC (Multi-Band AGN-SFG Classifier) classifies sources as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) and Star Forming Galaxies (SFGs). The algorithm is based on the light gradient-boosting machine ML technique. MBASC can use a wide range of multi-wavelength data and redshifts to predict a classification for sources.

[ascl:1602.020]
mbb_emcee: Modified Blackbody MCMC

Mbb_emcee fits modified blackbodies to photometry data using an affine invariant MCMC. It has large number of options which, for example, allow computation of the IR luminosity or dustmass as part of the fit. Carrying out a fit produces a HDF5 output file containing the results, which can either be read directly, or read back into a mbb_results object for analysis. Upper and lower limits can be imposed as well as Gaussian priors on the model parameters. These additions are useful for analyzing poorly constrained data. In addition to standard Python packages scipy, numpy, and cython, mbb_emcee requires emcee (ascl:1303.002), Astropy (ascl:1304.002), h5py, and for unit tests, nose.

[ascl:2406.019]
MBE: Magnification bias estimation

Magnification bias estimation estimates magnification bias for a galaxy sample with a complex photometric selection for the example of SDSS BOSS. The code works for CMASS and the LOWZ, z1 and z3 samples. A template for applying the approach to other surveys is included; requirements include a galaxy catalog that provides magnitudes (used for photometric selection) and the exact conditions used for the photometric selection.

[ascl:2010.001]
MBF: MOLSCAT 2020, BOUND, and FIELD for atomic and molecular collisions

MOLSCAT, which supercedes MOLSCAT version 14 (ascl:1206.004), performs non-reactive quantum scattering calculations for atomic and molecular collisions using coupled-channel methods. Simple atom-molecule and molecule-molecule collision types are coded internally and additional ones may be handled with plug-in routines. Plug-in routines may include external magnetic, electric or photon fields (and combinations of them).

The package also includes BOUND, which performs calculations of bound-state energies in weakly bound atomic and molecular systems using coupled-channel methods, and FIELD, a development of BOUND that locates values of external fields at which a bound state exists with a specified energy. Though the three programs have different applications, they use closely related methods, share many subroutines, and are released with a single code base.

[ascl:1705.008]
MBProj2: Multi-Band x-ray surface brightness PROJector 2

MBProj2 obtains thermodynamic profiles of galaxy clusters. It forward-models cluster X-ray surface brightness profiles in multiple bands, optionally assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. The code is a set of Python classes the user can use or extend. When modelling a cluster assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, the user chooses a form for the density profile (e.g. binning or a beta model), the metallicity profile, and the dark matter profile (e.g. NFW). If hydrostatic equilibrium is not assumed, a temperature profile model is used instead of the dark matter profile. The code uses the emcee Markov Chain Monte Carlo code (ascl:1303.002) to sample the model parameters, using these to produce chains of thermodynamic profiles.

[ascl:1703.014]
MC-SPAM: Monte-Carlo Synthetic-Photometry/Atmosphere-Model

MC-SPAM (Monte-Carlo Synthetic-Photometry/Atmosphere-Model) generates limb-darkening coefficients from models that are comparable to transit photometry; it extends the original SPAM algorithm by Howarth (2011) by taking in consideration the uncertainty on the stellar and transit parameters of the system under analysis.

[ascl:1610.013]
MC^{3}: Multi-core Markov-chain Monte Carlo code

Cubillos, Patricio; Harrington, Joseph; Lust, Nate; Foster, AJ; Stemm, Madison; Loredo, Tom; Stevenson, Kevin; Campo, Chris; Hardin, Matt; Hardy, Ryan

MC^{3} (Multi-core Markov-chain Monte Carlo) is a Bayesian statistics tool that can be executed from the shell prompt or interactively through the Python interpreter with single- or multiple-CPU parallel computing. It offers Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) posterior-distribution sampling for several algorithms, Levenberg-Marquardt least-squares optimization, and uniform non-informative, Jeffreys non-informative, or Gaussian-informative priors. MC^{3} can share the same value among multiple parameters and fix the value of parameters to constant values, and offers Gelman-Rubin convergence testing and correlated-noise estimation with time-averaging or wavelet-based likelihood estimation methods.

[ascl:1204.005]
MC3D: Monte-Carlo 3D Radiative Transfer Code

MC3D is a 3D continuum radiative transfer code; it is based on the Monte-Carlo method and solves the radiative transfer problem self-consistently. It is designed for the simulation of dust temperatures in arbitrary geometric configurations and the resulting observables: spectral energy distributions, wavelength-dependent images, and polarization maps. The main objective is the investigation of "dust-dominated" astrophysical systems such as young stellar objects surrounded by an optically thick circumstellar disk and an optically thin(ner) envelope, debris disks around more evolved stars, asymptotic giant branch stars, the dust component of the interstellar medium, and active galactic nuclei.

[ascl:1511.008]
MCAL: M dwarf metallicity and temperature calculator

MCAL calculates high precision metallicities and effective temperatures for M dwarfs; the method behaves properly down to R = 40 000 and S/N = 25, and results were validated against a sample of stars in common with SOPHIE high resolution spectra.

[ascl:2105.008]
MCALF: Velocity information from spectral imaging observations

MCALF (Multi-Component Atmospheric Line Fitting) accurately constrains velocity information from spectral imaging observations using machine learning techniques. It is useful for solar physicists trying to extract line-of-sight (LOS) Doppler velocity information from spectral imaging observations (Stokes I measurements) of the Sun. A toolkit is provided that can be used to define a spectral model optimized for a particular dataset. MCALF is particularly suited for extracting velocity information from spectral imaging observations where the individual spectra can contain multiple spectral components. Such multiple components are typically present when active solar phenomenon occur within an isolated region of the solar disk. Spectra within such a region will often have a large emission component superimposed on top of the underlying absorption spectral profile from the quiescent solar atmosphere.

[ascl:2210.022]
MCCD: Multi-CCD Point Spread Function Modelling

MCCD (Multi-CCD) generates a Point Spread Function (PSF) model based on stars observations in the field of view. After defining the MCCD model parameters and running and validating the training, the model can recover the PSF at any position in the field of view. Written in Python, MCCD also calculates various statistics and can plot a random test star and its model reconstruction.

[ascl:1906.017]
mcfit: Multiplicatively Convolutional Fast Integral Transforms

mcfit computes integral transforms, inverse transforms without analytic inversion, and integral kernels as derivatives. It can also transform input array along any axis, output the matrix form, an is easily extensible for other kernels.

[ascl:2207.023]
MCFOST: Radiative transfer code

Pinte, C.; Ménard, F.; Duchêne, G.; Bastien, P.; Harries, T. J.; Min, M.; Watson, A. M.; Dullemond, C. P.; Woitke, P.; Durán-Rojas, M. C.

MCFOST is a 3D continuum and line radiative transfer code based on an hybrid Monte Carlo and ray-tracing method. It is mainly designed to study the circumstellar environment of young stellar objects, but has been used for a wide range of astrophysical problems. The calculations are done exactly within the limitations of the Monte Carlo noise and machine precision, *i.e.*, no approximation are used in the calculations. The code has been strongly optimized for speed.

MCFOST is primarily designed to study protoplanetary disks. The code can reproduce most of the observations of disks, including SEDs, scattered light images, IR and mm visibilities, and atomic and molecular line maps. As the Monte Carlo method is generic, any complex structure can be handled by MCFOST and its use can be extended to other astrophysical objects. For instance, calculations have succesfully been performed on infalling envelopes and AGB stars. MCFOST also includes a non-LTE line transfer module, and NLTE level population are obtained via iterations between Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations and statistical equilibrium.

[ascl:1107.015]
McLuster: A Tool to Make a Star Cluster

The tool McLuster is an open source code that can be used to either set up initial conditions for N-body computations or, alternatively, to generate artificial star clusters for direct investigation. There are two different versions of the code, one basic version for generating all kinds of unevolved clusters (in the following called mcluster) and one for setting up evolved stellar populations at a given age. The former is completely contained in the C file main.c. The latter (dubbed mcluster_sse) is more complex and requires additional FORTRAN routines, namely the Single-Star Evolution (SSE) routines by Hurley, Pols & Tout (ascl:1303.015) that are provided with the McLuster code.

[ascl:1407.004]
MCMAC: Monte Carlo Merger Analysis Code

Monte Carlo Merger Analysis Code (MCMAC) aids in the study of merging clusters. It takes observed priors on each subcluster's mass, radial velocity, and projected separation, draws randomly from those priors, and uses them in a analytic model to get posterior PDF's for merger dynamic properties of interest (e.g. collision velocity, time since collision).

[ascl:2011.004]
MCMCDiagnostics: Markov Chain Monte Carlo convergence diagnostics

MCMCDiagnostics contains two diagnostics, written in Julia, for Markov Chain Monte Carlo. The first is potential_scale_reduction(chains...), which estimates the potential scale reduction factor, also known as Rhat, for multiple scalar chains . The second, effective_sample_size(chain), calculates the effective sample size for scalar chains. These diagnostics are intended as building blocks for use by other libraries.

[ascl:2001.012]
MCMCI: Markov Chain Monte Carlo + Isochrones method for characterizing exoplanetary systems

MCMCI (Markov chain Monte Carlo + isochrones) characterizes a whole exoplanetary system directly by modeling the star and its planets simultaneously. The code, written in Fortran, uses light curves and basic stellar parameters with a transit analysis algorithm that interacts with stellar evolutionary models, thus using both model-dependent and empirical age indicators to characterize the system.

[ascl:1210.017]
McPHAC: McGill Planar Hydrogen Atmosphere Code

The McGill Planar Hydrogen Atmosphere Code (McPHAC) v1.1 calculates the hydrostatic equilibrium structure and emergent spectrum of an unmagnetized hydrogen atmosphere in the plane-parallel approximation at surface gravities appropriate for neutron stars. McPHAC incorporates several improvements over previous codes for which tabulated model spectra are available: (1) Thomson scattering is treated anisotropically, which is shown to result in a 0.2%-3% correction in the emergent spectral flux across the 0.1-5 keV passband; (2) the McPHAC source code is made available to the community, allowing it to be scrutinized and modified by other researchers wishing to study or extend its capabilities; and (3) the numerical uncertainty resulting from the discrete and iterative solution is studied as a function of photon energy, indicating that McPHAC is capable of producing spectra with numerical uncertainties <0.01%. The accuracy of the spectra may at present be limited to ~1%, but McPHAC enables researchers to study the impact of uncertain inputs and additional physical effects, thereby supporting future efforts to reduce those inaccuracies. Comparison of McPHAC results with spectra from one of the previous model atmosphere codes (NSA) shows agreement to lsim1% near the peaks of the emergent spectra. However, in the Wien tail a significant deficit of flux in the spectra of the previous model is revealed, determined to be due to the previous work not considering large enough optical depths at the highest photon frequencies. The deficit is most significant for spectra with T eff < 105.6 K, though even there it may not be of much practical importance for most observations.

[ascl:2107.025]
MCPM: Modified CPM method

MCPM extracts K2 photometry in dense stellar regions; the code is a modification and extension of the K2-CPM package (ascl:2107.024), which was developed for less-crowded fields. MCPM uses the pixel response function together with accurate astrometric grids, combining signals from a few pixels, and simultaneously fits for an astrophysical model to produce extracted more precise K2 photometry.

[ascl:2005.019]
MCRaT: Monte Carlo Radiation Transfer

MCRaT (Monte Carlo Radiation Transfer) analyzes the radiation signature expected from astrophysical outflows. MCRaT injects photons in a FLASH (ascl:1010.082) simulation and individually propagates and compton scatters the photons through the fluid until the end of the simulation. This process of injection and propagating occurs for a user specified number of times until there are no more photons to be injected. Users can then construct light curves and spectra with the MCRaT calculated results. The hydrodynamic simulations used with this version of MCRaT must be in 2D; however, the photon propagation and scattering is done in 3D by assuming cylindrical symmetry. Additionally, MCRaT uses the full Klein–Nishina cross section including the effects of polarization, which can be fully simulated in the code. MCRaT works with FLASH hydrodynamic simulations and PLUTO (ascl:1010.045) AMR simulations, with both 2D spherical (r, equation) and 2D cartesian ((x,y) and (r,z)).

[ascl:1907.026]
MCRGNet: Morphological Classification of Radio Galaxy Network

MCRGNet (Morphological Classification of Radio Galaxy Network) classifies radio galaxies of different morphologies. It is based on the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), which is trained and applied under a three-step framework: 1.) pretraining the network unsupervisedly with unlabeled samples, 2.) fine-tuning the pretrained network parameters supervisedly with labeled samples, and 3.) classifying a new radio galaxy by the trained network. The code uses a dichotomous tree classifier composed of cascaded CNN based subclassifiers.

[ascl:1201.001]
McScatter: Three-Body Scattering with Stellar Evolution

McScatter illustrates a method of combining stellar dynamics with stellar evolution. The method is intended for elaborate applications, especially the dynamical evolution of rich star clusters. The dynamics is based on binary scattering in a multi-mass field of stars with uniform density and velocity dispersion, using the scattering cross section of Giersz (MNRAS, 2001, 324, 218-30).

[ascl:2006.022]
MCSED: Spectral energy distribution fitting package for galactic systems

MCSED models the optical, near-infrared and infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of galactic systems. Its modularity and options make it flexible and able to address the varying physical properties of galaxies over cosmic time and environment and adjust to changes in understanding of stellar evolution, the details of mass loss, and the products of binary evolution through substitution or addition of new datasets or algorithms. MCSED is built to fit a galaxy’s full SED, from the far-UV to the far-IR. Among other physical processes, it can model continuum emission from stars, continuum and line-emission from ionized gas, attenuation from dust, and mid- and far-IR emission from dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). MCSED performs its calculations by creating a complex stellar population (CSP) out of a linear combination of simple-stellar populations (SSPs) using an efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. It is very quick, and takes advantage of parallel processing.

[ascl:1504.008]
MCSpearman: Monte Carlo error analyses of Spearman's rank test

Spearman’s rank correlation test is commonly used in astronomy to discern whether a set of two variables are correlated or not. Unlike most other quantities quoted in astronomical literature, the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient is generally quoted with no attempt to estimate the errors on its value. This code implements a number of Monte Carlo based methods to estimate the uncertainty on the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient.

[ascl:1302.012]
ME(SSY)**2: Monte Carlo Code for Star Cluster Simulations

ME(SSY)**2 stands for “Monte-carlo Experiments with Spherically SYmmetric Stellar SYstems." This code simulates the long term evolution of spherical clusters of stars; it was devised specifically to treat dense galactic nuclei. It is based on the pioneering Monte Carlo scheme proposed by Hénon in the 70's and includes all relevant physical ingredients (2-body relaxation, stellar mass spectrum, collisions, tidal disruption, ldots). It is basically a Monte Carlo resolution of the Fokker-Planck equation. It can cope with any stellar mass spectrum or velocity distribution. Being a particle-based method, it also allows one to take stellar collisions into account in a very realistic way. This unique code, featuring most important physical processes, allows million particle simulations, spanning a Hubble time, in a few CPU days on standard personal computers and provides a wealth of data only rivalized by N-body simulations. The current version of the software requires the use of routines from the "Numerical Recipes in Fortran 77" (http://www.nrbook.com/a/bookfpdf.php).

[submitted]
Mean Motion Resonances

Site with collection of codes and fundamental references on mean motion resonances.

[ascl:2404.013]
Meanoffset: Photometric image alignment with row and column means

Meanoffset performs astronomical image alignment. The code uses the means of the rows and columns of an original image for alignment and finds the optimal offset corresponding to the maximum similarity by comparing different offsets between images. The similarity is evaluated by the standard deviation of the quotient divided by the means. The code is fast and robust.

[ascl:1205.001]
Mechanic: Numerical MPI framework for dynamical astronomy

The Mechanic package is a numerical framework for dynamical astronomy, designed to help in massive numerical simulations by efficient task management and unified data storage. The code is built on top of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) standards and uses the Task Farm approach to manage numerical tasks. It relies on the core-module approach. The numerical problem implemented in the user-supplied module is separated from the host code (core). The core is designed to handle basic setup, data storage and communication between nodes in a computing pool. It has been tested on large CPU-clusters, as well as desktop computers. The Mechanic may be used in computing dynamical maps, data optimization or numerical integration.

[ascl:1106.006]
MECI: A Method for Eclipsing Component Identification

We describe an automated method for assigning the most probable physical parameters to the components of an eclipsing binary, using only its photometric light curve and combined colors. With traditional methods, one attempts to optimize a multi-parameter model over many iterations, so as to minimize the chi-squared value. We suggest an alternative method, where one selects pairs of coeval stars from a set of theoretical stellar models, and compares their simulated light curves and combined colors with the observations. This approach greatly reduces the parameter space over which one needs to search, and allows one to estimate the components' masses, radii and absolute magnitudes, without spectroscopic data. We have implemented this method in an automated program using published theoretical isochrones and limb-darkening coefficients. Since it is easy to automate, this method lends itself to systematic analyses of datasets consisting of photometric time series of large numbers of stars, such as those produced by OGLE, MACHO, TrES, HAT, and many others surveys.

[ascl:2105.009]
MeerCRAB: Transient classifier using a deep learning model

MeerCRAB (MeerLICHT Classification of Real and Bogus Transients using Deep Learning) filters out false detections of transients from true astrophysical sources in the transient detection pipeline of the MeerLICHT telescope. It uses a deep learning model based on Convolutional Neural Network.

[ascl:1906.018]
MEGAlib: Medium Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy library

The Medium Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy library (MEGAlib) simulates, calibrates, and analyzes data of hard X-ray and gamma-ray detectors, with a specialization on Compton telescopes. The library comprises all necessary data analysis steps for these telescopes, from simulation/measurements via calibration, event reconstruction to image reconstruction.

MEGAlib contains a geometry and detector description tool for the detailed modeling of different detector types and characteristics, and provides an easy to use simulation program based on Geant4 (ascl:1010.079). For different Compton telescope detector types (electron tracking, multiple Compton or time of flight based), specialized Compton event reconstruction algorithms are implemented in different approaches (Chi-square and Bayesian). The high level data analysis tools calculate response matrices, perform image deconvolution (specialized in list-mode-likelihood-based Compton image reconstruction), determine detector resolutions and sensitivities, retrieve spectra, and determine polarization modulations.

[ascl:1203.008]
MegaLUT: Correcting ellipticity measurements of galaxies

MegaLUT is a simple and fast method to correct ellipticity measurements of galaxies from the distortion by the instrumental and atmospheric point spread function (PSF), in view of weak lensing shear measurements. The method performs a classification of galaxies and associated PSFs according to measured shape parameters, and builds a lookup table of ellipticity corrections by supervised learning. This new method has been applied to the GREAT10 image analysis challenge, and demonstrates a refined solution that obtains the highly competitive quality factor of Q = 142, without any power spectrum denoising or training. Of particular interest is the efficiency of the method, with a processing time below 3 ms per galaxy on an ordinary CPU.

[ascl:1711.012]
megaman: Manifold Learning for Millions of Points

megaman is a scalable manifold learning package implemented in python. It has a front-end API designed to be familiar to scikit-learn but harnesses the C++ Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN) and the Sparse Symmetric Positive Definite (SSPD) solver Locally Optimal Block Precodition Gradient (LOBPCG) method to scale manifold learning algorithms to large data sets. It is designed for researchers and as such caches intermediary steps and indices to allow for fast re-computation with new parameters.

[ascl:2109.025]
Menura: Multi-GPU numerical model for space plasma simulation

Menura simulates the interaction between a fully turbulent solar wind and various bodies of the solar system using a novel two-step approach. It is an advanced numerical tool for self-consistent modeling that bridges planetary science and plasma physics. Menura is built around a hybrid Particle-In-Cell solver, treating electrons as a charge-neutralising fluid, and ions as massive particles. It solves iteratively the particles’ dynamics, gathers particle moments at the nodes of a grid, at which the magnetic field is also computed, and then solves the Maxwell equations. This solver uses the popular Current Advance Method (CAM).

[ascl:1410.002]
MEPSA: Multiple Excess Peak Search Algorithm

MEPSA (Multiple Excess Peak Search Algorithm) identifies peaks within a uniformly sampled time series affected by uncorrelated Gaussian noise. MEPSA scans the time series at different timescales by comparing a given peak candidate with a variable number of adjacent bins. While this has originally been conceived for the analysis of gamma-ray burst light (GRB) curves, its usage can be readily extended to other astrophysical transient phenomena whose activity is recorded through different surveys. MEPSA's high flexibility permits the mask of excess patterns it uses to be tailored and optimized without modifying the code.

[ascl:1209.010]
MeqTrees: Software package for implementing Measurement Equations

MeqTrees is a software package for implementing Measurement Equations. This makes it uniquely suited for simulation and calibration of radioastronomical data, especially that involving new radiotelescopes and observational regimes. MeqTrees is implemented as a Python-based front-end called the meqbrowser, and an efficient (C++-based) computational back-end called the meqserver. Numerical models are defined on the front-end via a Python-based Tree Definition Language (TDL), then rapidly executed on the back-end. The use of TDL facilitates an extremely short turn-around time for experimentation with new ideas. This is also helped by unprecedented visualization capabilities for all final and intermediate results. A flexible data model and a number of important optimizations in the back-end ensures that the numerical performance is comparable to that of hand-written code.

MeqTrees includes a highly capable FITS viewer and sky model manager called Tigger, which can also work as a standalone tool.

[submitted]
MERA: Analysis Tool for Astrophysical Simulation Data in the Julia Language

MERA works with large 3D AMR/uniform-grid and N-body particle data sets from astrophysical simulations such as those produced by the hydrodynamic code RAMSES (ascl:1011.007) and is written entirely in the Julia language. The package provides essential functions for efficient and memory lightweight data loading and analysis. The core of MERA is a database framework.

[ascl:1511.020]
Mercury-T: Tidally evolving multi-planet systems code

Mercury-T calculates the evolution of semi-major axis, eccentricity, inclination, rotation period and obliquity of the planets as well as the rotation period evolution of the host body; it is based on the N-body code Mercury (Chambers 1999, ascl:1201.008). It is flexible, allowing computation of the tidal evolution of systems orbiting any non-evolving object (if its mass, radius, dissipation factor and rotation period are known), but also evolving brown dwarfs (BDs) of mass between 0.01 and 0.08 M⊙, an evolving M-dwarf of 0.1 M⊙, an evolving Sun-like star, and an evolving Jupiter.

[ascl:1201.008]
Mercury: A software package for orbital dynamics

Mercury is a new general-purpose software package for carrying out orbital integrations for problems in solar-system dynamics. Suitable applications include studying the long-term stability of the planetary system, investigating the orbital evolution of comets, asteroids or meteoroids, and simulating planetary accretion. Mercury is designed to be versatile and easy to use, accepting initial conditions in either Cartesian coordinates or Keplerian elements in "cometary" or "asteroidal" format, with different epochs of osculation for different objects. Output from an integration consists of osculating elements, written in a machine-independent compressed format, which allows the results of a calculation performed on one platform to be transferred (e.g. via FTP) and decoded on another.

During an integration, Mercury monitors and records details of close encounters, sungrazing events, ejections and collisions between objects. The effects of non-gravitational forces on comets can also be modeled. The package supports integrations using a mixed-variable symplectic routine, the Bulirsch-Stoer method, and a hybrid code for planetary accretion calculations.

[ascl:1305.015]
Merger Trees: Formation history of dark matter haloes

Merger Trees uses a Monte Carlo algorithm to generate merger trees describing the formation history of dark matter haloes; the algorithm is implemented in Fortran. The algorithm is a modification of the algorithm of Cole et al. used in the GALFORM semi-analytic galaxy formation model (ascl:1510.005) based on the Extended Press–Schechter theory. It should be applicable to hierarchical models with a wide range of power spectra and cosmological models. It is tuned to be in accurate agreement with the conditional mass functions found in the analysis of merger trees extracted from the Λ cold dark matter Millennium N-body simulation. The code should be a useful tool for semi-analytic models of galaxy formation and for modelling hierarchical structure formation in general.

[ascl:1010.083]
MESA: Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics

Stellar physics and evolution calculations enable a broad range of research in astrophysics. Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) is a suite of open source libraries for a wide range of applications in computational stellar astrophysics. A newly designed 1-D stellar evolution module, MESA star, combines many of the numerical and physics modules for simulations of a wide range of stellar evolution scenarios ranging from very-low mass to massive stars, including advanced evolutionary phases. MESA star solves the fully coupled structure and composition equations simultaneously. It uses adaptive mesh refinement and sophisticated timestep controls, and supports shared memory parallelism based on OpenMP. Independently usable modules provide equation of state, opacity, nuclear reaction rates, and atmosphere boundary conditions. Each module is constructed as a separate Fortran 95 library with its own public interface. Examples include comparisons to other codes and show evolutionary tracks of very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and gas giant planets; the complete evolution of a 1 Msun star from the pre-main sequence to a cooling white dwarf; the Solar sound speed profile; the evolution of intermediate mass stars through the thermal pulses on the He-shell burning AGB phase; the interior structure of slowly pulsating B Stars and Beta Cepheids; evolutionary tracks of massive stars from the pre-main sequence to the onset of core collapse; stars undergoing Roche lobe overflow; and accretion onto a neutron star.

[ascl:1709.003]
MeshLab: 3D triangular meshes processing and editing

MeshLab processes and edits 3D triangular meshes. It includes tools for editing, cleaning, healing, inspecting, rendering, texturing and converting meshes, and offers features for processing raw data produced by 3D digitization tools and devices and for preparing models for 3D printing.

[ascl:1612.012]
Meso-NH: Non-hydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric model

Meso-NH is the non-hydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric model of the French research community jointly developed by the Laboratoire d'Aérologie (UMR 5560 UPS/CNRS) and by CNRM (UMR 3589 CNRS/Météo-France). Meso-NH incorporates a non-hydrostatic system of equations for dealing with scales ranging from large (synoptic) to small (large eddy) scales while calculating budgets and has a complete set of physical parameterizations for the representation of clouds and precipitation. It is coupled to the surface model SURFEX for representation of surface atmosphere interactions by considering different surface types (vegetation, city, ocean, lake) and allows a multi-scale approach through a grid-nesting technique. Meso-NH is versatile, vectorized, parallelized, and operates in 1D, 2D or 3D; it is coupled with a chemistry module (including gas-phase, aerosol, and aqua-phase components) and a lightning module, and has observation operators that compare model output directly with satellite observations, radar, lidar and GPS.

[ascl:1111.009]
MESS: Multi-purpose Exoplanet Simulation System

Bonavita, M.; Chauvin, G.; Desidera, S.; Gratton, R.; Janson, M.; Beuzit, J. L.; Kasper, M.; Mordasini, C.

MESS is a Monte Carlo simulation IDL code which uses either the results of the statistical analysis of the properties of discovered planets, or the results of the planet formation theories, to build synthetic planet populations fully described in terms of frequency, orbital elements and physical properties. They can then be used to either test the consistency of their properties with the observed population of planets given different detection techniques or to actually predict the expected number of planets for future surveys. It can be used to probe the physical and orbital properties of a putative companion within the circumstellar disk of a given star and to test constrain the orbital distribution properties of a potential planet population around the members of the TW Hydrae association. Finally, using in its predictive mode, the synergy of future space and ground-based telescopes instrumentation has been investigated to identify the mass-period parameter space that will be probed in future surveys for giant and rocky planets. A Python version of this code, Exo-DMC (ascl:2010.008), is available.

[ascl:2207.003]
MeSsI: MErging SystemS Identification

MeSsI performs an automatic classification between merging and relaxed clusters. This method was calibrated using mock catalogues constructed from the millennium simulation, and performs the classification using some machine learning techniques, namely random forest for classification and mixture of gaussians for the substructure identification.

[ascl:1205.010]
Meudon PDR: Atomic & molecular structure of interstellar clouds

The Meudon PDR code computes the atomic and molecular structure of interstellar clouds. It can be used to study the physics and chemistry of diffuse clouds, photodissociation regions (PDRs), dark clouds, or circumstellar regions. The model computes the thermal balance of a stationary plane-parallel slab of gas and dust illuminated by a radiation field and takes into account heating processes such as the photoelectric effect on dust, chemistry, cosmic rays, etc. and cooling resulting from infrared and millimeter emission of the abundant species. Chemistry is solved for any number of species and reactions. Once abundances of atoms and molecules and level excitation of the most important species have been computed at each point, line intensities and column densities can be deduced.

[ascl:2203.021]
MG-MAMPOSSt: Test gravity with the mass profiles of galaxy clusters

MG-MAMPOSSt extends the MAMPOSSt code (ascl:2203.020), which performs Bayesian fits of models of mass and velocity anisotropy profiles to the distribution of tracers in projected phase space, to handle modified gravity models and constrain its parameters. It implements two distinct types of gravity modifications: general chameleon (including $f(\mathcal{R})$ models), and beyond Horndeski gravity (Vainshtein screening). MG-MAMPOSSt efficently explores the parameter space either by computing the likelihood over a multi-dimensional grid of points or by performing a simple Metropolis-Hastings MCMC. The code requires a Fortran90 compiler or higher and makes use of the getdist package (ascl:1910.018) to plot the marginalized distributions in the MCMC mode.

[ascl:2306.048]
MG-PICOLA: Simulating cosmological structure formation

MG-PICOLA is a modified version of L-PICOLA (ascl:1507.004) that extends the COLA approach for simulating cosmological structure formation to theories that exhibit scale-dependent growth. It can compute matter power-spectra (CDM and total), redshift-space multipole power-spectra P0,P2,P4 and do halofinding on the fly.

[ascl:1907.031]
MGB: Interactive spectral classification code

MGB (Marxist Ghost Buster) attacks spectral classification by using an interactive comparison with spectral libraries. It allows the user to move along the two traditional dimensions of spectral classification (spectral subtype and luminosity classification) plus the two additional ones of rotation index and spectral peculiarities. Double-lined spectroscopic binaries can also be fitted using a combination of two standards. The code includes OB2500 v2.0, a standard grid of blue-violet *R* ~ 2500 spectra of O stars from the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey, but other grids can be added to MGB.

[ascl:1106.013]
MGCAMB: Modification of Growth with CAMB

CAMB is a public Fortran 90 code written by Antony Lewis and Anthony Challinor for evaluating cosmological observables. MGCAMB is a modified version of CAMB in which the linearized Einstein equations of General Relativity (GR) are modified. MGCAMB can also be used in CosmoMC to fit different modified-gravity (MG) models to data.

[ascl:2211.007]
mgcnn: Standard and modified gravity (MG) cosmological models classifier

mgcnn is a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture for classifying standard and modified gravity (MG) cosmological models based on the weak-lensing convergence maps they produce. It is implemented in Keras using TensorFlow as the backend. The code offers three options for the noise flag, which correspond to noise standard deviations, and additional options for the number of training iterations and epochs. Confusion matrices and evaluation metrics (loss function and validation accuracy) are saved as numpy arrays in the generated output/ directory after each iteration.

[ascl:2212.003]
MGCosmoPop: Modified gravity and cosmology with binary black holes population models

MGCosmoPop implements a hierarchical Bayesian inference method for constraining the background cosmological history, in particular the Hubble constant, together with modified gravitational-wave propagation and binary black holes population models (mass, redshift and spin distributions) with gravitational-wave data. It includes support for loading and analyzing data from the GWTC-3 catalog as well as for generating injections to evaluate selection effects, and features a module to run in parallel on clusters.

[ascl:1403.017]
MGE_FIT_SECTORS: Multi-Gaussian Expansion fits to galaxy images

MGE_FIT_SECTORS performs Multi-Gaussian Expansion (MGE) fits to galaxy images. The MGE parameterizations are useful in the construction of realistic dynamical models of galaxies, PSF deconvolution of images, the correction and estimation of dust absorption effects, and galaxy photometry. The algorithm is well suited for use with multiple-resolution images (e.g. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based images).

[ascl:1010.081]
MGGPOD: A Monte Carlo Suite for Gamma-Ray Astronomy

We have developed MGGPOD, a user-friendly suite of Monte Carlo codes built around the widely used GEANT (Version 3.21) package. The MGGPOD Monte Carlo suite and documentation are publicly available for download. MGGPOD is an ideal tool for supporting the various stages of gamma-ray astronomy missions, ranging from the design, development, and performance prediction through calibration and response generation to data reduction. In particular, MGGPOD is capable of simulating ab initio the physical processes relevant for the production of instrumental backgrounds. These include the build-up and delayed decay of radioactive isotopes as well as the prompt de-excitation of excited nuclei, both of which give rise to a plethora of instrumental gamma-ray background lines in addition to continuum backgrounds.

[ascl:1402.035]
MGHalofit: Modified Gravity extension of Halofit

MGHalofit is a modified gravity extension of the fitting formula for the matter power spectrum of HALOFIT and its improvement by Takahashi et al. MGHalofit is implemented in MGCAMB, which is based on CAMB. MGHalofit calculates the nonlinear matter power spectrum P(k) for the Hu-Sawicki model. Comparing MGHalofit predictions at various redshifts (z<=1) to the f(R) simulations, the accuracy on P(k) is 6% at k<1 h/Mpc and 12% at 1<k<10 h/Mpc respectively.

[ascl:2402.005]
MGPT: Modified Gravity Perturbation Theory code

MGPT (Modified Gravity Perturbation Theory) computes 2-point statistics for LCDM model, DGP and Hu-Sawicky f(R) gravity. Written in C, the code can be easily modified to include other models. Specifically, it computes the SPT matter power spectrum, SPT Lagrangian-biased tracers power spectrum, and the CLPT matter correlation function. MGPT also computes the CLPT Lagrangian-biased tracers correlation function and a set of Q and R functionsfrom which other statistics, as leading order bispectrum, can be constructed.

[ascl:2301.026]
MGwave: Detect kinematic moving groups in astronomical data

The 2-D wavelet transformation code MGwave detects kinematic moving groups in astronomical data; it can also investigate underdensities which can eventually provide further information about the MW's non-axisymmetric features. The code creates a histogram of the input data, then performs the wavelet transformation at the specified scales, returning the wavelet coefficients across the entire histogram in addition to information about the detected extrema. MGwave can also run Monte Carlo simulations to propagate uncertainties. It runs the wavelet transformation on simulated data (pulled from Gaussian distributions) many times and tracks the percentage of the simulations in which a given extrema is detected. This quantifies whether a detected overdensity or underdensity is robust to variations of the data within the provided errors.

[ascl:2404.023]
mhealpy: Object-oriented healpy wrapper with support for multi-resolution maps

Martinez-Castellanos, I.; Singer, Leo P.; Burns, E.; Tak, D.; Joens, Alyson; Racusin, Judith L.; Perkins, Jeremy S.

mhealpy extends the functionalities of the HEALPix (ascl:1107.018) wrapper healpy (ascl:2008.022) to handle single and multi-resolution maps (a.k.a. multi-order coverage maps or MOC maps). In addition to creating and analyzes MOC maps, it supports arithmetic operations, adaptive grids, resampling of existing multi-resolution maps, and plotting, among other functions, and reads and writes to FITS, which enables sharing spatial information for multiwavelength and multimessenger analyses.

[ascl:1511.007]
MHF: MLAPM Halo Finder

MHF is a Dark Matter halo finder that is based on the refinement grids of MLAPM. The grid structure of MLAPM adaptively refines around high-density regions with an automated refinement algorithm, thus naturally "surrounding" the Dark Matter halos, as they are simply manifestations of over-densities within (and exterior) to the underlying host halo. Using this grid structure, MHF restructures the hierarchy of nested isolated MLAPM grids into a "grid tree". The densest cell in the end of a tree branch marks center of a prospective Dark Matter halo. All gravitationally bound particles about this center are collected to obtain the final halo catalog. MHF automatically finds halos within halos within halos.

[ascl:1205.003]
MIA+EWS: MIDI data reduction tool

MIA+EWS is a package of two data reduction tools for MIDI data which uses power-spectrum analysis or the information contained in the spectrally-dispersed fringe measurements in order to estimate the correlated flux and the visibility as function of wavelength in the N-band. MIA, which stands for MIDI Interactive Analysis, uses a Fast Fourier Transformation to calculate the Fourier amplitudes of the fringe packets to calculate the correlated flux and visibility. EWS stands for Expert Work-Station, which is a collection of IDL tools to apply coherent visibility analysis to reduce MIDI data. The EWS package allows the user to control and examine almost every aspect of MIDI data and its reduction. The usual data products are the correlated fluxes, total fluxes and differential phase.

[ascl:2005.002]
michi2: SED and SLED fitting tool

michi2 fits combinations of arbitrary numbers of libraries/components to a given observational data. Written in C++ and Python, this chi-square fitting tool can fit a galaxy's spectral energy distribution (SED) with stellar, active galactic nuclear, dust and radio SED templates, and fit a galaxy's spectral line energy distribution (SLED) with one or more gas components using radiative transfer LVG model grid libraries.

michi2 first samples the high-dimensional parameter space (N1*N2*N3*..., where N is the number of independent templates in each library, and 1/2/3 is the ID of components) in an optimized way for a few thousand or tens of thousand times to compute the chi-square to the input observational data, then uses Python scripts to analyze the chi-square distribution and derive the best-fit, median, lower and higher 1-sigma values for each parameter in each library/component. This tool is useful for fitting larger number of templates and arbitrary combinations of libraries/components, including some constraining of one library/component onto another.

[ascl:1011.017]
Microccult: Occultation and Microlensing

Occultation and microlensing are different limits of the same phenomena of one body passing in front of another body. We derive a general exact analytic expression which describes both microlensing and occultation in the case of spherical bodies with a source of uniform brightness and a non-relativistic foreground body. We also compute numerically the case of a source with quadratic limb-darkening. In the limit that the gravitational deflection angle is comparable to the angular size of the foreground body, both microlensing and occultation occur as the objects align. Such events may be used to constrain the size ratio of the lens and source stars, the limb-darkening coefficients of the source star, and the surface gravity of the lens star (if the lens and source distances are known). Application of these results to microlensing during transits in binaries and giant-star microlensing are discussed. These results unify the microlensing and occultation limits and should be useful for rapid model fitting of microlensing, eclipse, and "microccultation" events.

[ascl:1303.007]
micrOMEGAs: Calculation of dark matter properties

micrOMEGAs calculates the properties of cold dark matter in a generic model of particle physics. First developed to compute the relic density of dark matter, the code also computes the rates for dark matter direct and indirect detection. The code provides the mass spectrum, cross-sections, relic density and exotic fluxes of gamma rays, positrons and antiprotons. The propagation of charged particles in the Galactic halo is handled with a module that allows to easily modify the propagation parameters. The cross-sections for both spin dependent and spin independent interactions of WIMPS on protons are computed automatically as well as the rates for WIMP scattering on nuclei in a large detector. Annihilation cross-sections of the dark matter candidate at zero velocity, relevant for indirect detection of dark matter, are computed automatically, and the propagation of charged particles in the Galactic halo is also handled.

[ascl:1010.008]
midIR_sensitivity: Mid-infrared astronomy with METIS

Kendrew, Sarah; Jolissaint, Laurent; Brandl, Bernhard; Lenzen, Rainer; Pantin, Eric; Glasse, Alistair; Blommaert, Joris; Venema, Lars; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Molster, Frank

midIR_sensitivity is IDL code that calculates the sensitivity of a ground-based mid-infrared instrument for astronomy. The code was written for the Phase A study of the instrument METIS (http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/metis), the Mid-Infrared E-ELT Imager and Spectrograph, for the 42-m European Extremely Large Telescope. The model uses a detailed set of input parameters for site characteristics and atmospheric profiles, optical design, and thermal background. The code and all input parameters are highly tailored for the particular design parameters of the E-ELT and METIS, however, the program is structured in such a way that the parameters can easily be adjusted for a different system, or alternative input files used.

[ascl:1807.016]
MIDLL: Markwardt IDL Library

The Markwardt IDL Library contains routines for curve fitting and function minimization, including MPFIT (ascl:1208.019), statistical tests, and non-linear optimization (TNMIN); graphics programs including plotting three-dimensional data as a cube and fixed- or variable-width histograms; adaptive numerical integration (Quadpack), Chebyshev approximation and interpolation, and other mathematical tools; many ephemeris and timing routines; and array and set operations, such as computing the fast product of a large array, efficiently inserting or deleting elements in an array, and performing set operations on numbers and strings; and many other useful and varied routines.

[ascl:1810.019]
MIEX: Mie scattering code for large grains

Miex calculates Mie scattering coefficients and efficiency factors for broad grain size distributions and a very wide wavelength range (λ ≈ 10-10-10-2m) of the interacting radiation and incorporates standard solutions of the scattering amplitude functions. The code handles arbitrary size parameters, and single scattering by particle ensembles is calculated by proper averaging of the respective parameters.

[ascl:1511.012]
milkywayproject_triggering: Correlation functions for two catalog datasets

This triggering code calculates the correlation function between two astrophysical data catalogs using the Landy-Szalay approximator generalized for heterogeneous datasets (Landy & Szalay, 1993; Bradshaw et al, 2011) or the auto-correlation function of one dataset. It assumes that one catalog has positional information as well as an object size (effective radius), and the other only positional information.

[ascl:1811.010]
MillCgs: Searching for Compact Groups in the Millennium Simulation

MillCgs clusters galaxies from the semi-analytic models run on top of the Millennium Simulation to identify Compact Groups. MillCgs uses a machine learning clustering algorithm to find the groups and then runs analytics to filter out the groups that do not fit the user specified criteria. The package downloads the data, processes it, and then creates graphs of the data.

[ascl:2108.005]
millennium-tap-query: Python tool to query the Millennium Simulation UWS/TAP client

millennium-tap-query is a simple wrapper for the Python package requests to deal with connections to the Millennium TAP Web Client. With this tool you can perform basic or advanced queries to the Millennium Simulation database and download the data products. millennium-tap-query is similar to the TAP query tool in the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO) VOtables package.

[ascl:0101.001]
MILLISEARCH: A Search for Millilensing in BATSE GRB Data

The millisearch.for code was used to generate a new search for the gravitational lens effects of a significant cosmological density of supermassive compact objects (SCOs) on gamma-ray bursts. No signal attributable to millilensing was found. We inspected the timing data of 774 BATSE-triggered GRBs for evidence of millilensing: repeated peaks similar in light-curve shape and spectra. Our null detection leads us to conclude that, in all candidate universes simulated, Omega_{SCO} < 0.1 is favored for 10^{5} < M_{SCO}/M_{odot} < 10^{9}, while in some universes and mass ranges the density limits are as much as 10 times lower. Therefore, a cosmologically significant population of SCOs near globular cluster mass neither came out of the primordial universe, nor condensed at recombination.

[ascl:1911.023]
miluphcuda: Smooth particle hydrodynamics code

Schaefer, Christoph M.; Riecker, Sven; Wandel, Oliver; Maindl, Thomas I.; Scherrer, Samuel; Werner, Janka; Burger, Christoph; Morlock, Marius

miluphcuda is the CUDA port of the original miluph code; it runs on single Nvidia GPUs with compute capability 5.0 and higher and provides fast and efficient computation. The code can be used for hydrodynamical simulations and collision and impact physics, and features self-gravity via Barnes-Hut trees and porosity models such as P-alpha and epsilon-alpha. It can model solid bodies, including ductile and brittle materials, as well as non-viscous fluids, granular media, and porous continua.

[ascl:2001.001]
Min-CaLM: Mineral compositional analysis on debris disk spectra

Min-CaLM performs automated mineral compositional analysis on debris disk spectra. The user inputs the debris disk spectrum, and using Min-CaLM's built-in mineralogical library, Min-CaLM calculates the relative mineral abundances within the disk. To do this calculation, Min-CaLM converts the debris disk spectrum and the mineralogical library spectra into a system of linear equations, which it then solves using non-negative least square minimization. This code comes with a GitHub tutorial on how to use the Min-CaLM package.

[ascl:2403.007]
MINDS: Hybrid pipeline for the reduction of JWST/MIRI-MRS data

The MINDS hybrid pipeline is based on the JWST pipeline and routines from the VIP package (ascl:1603.003) for the reduction of JWST MIRI-MRS data. The pipeline compensates for some of the known weaknesses of the official JWST pipeline to improve the quality of spectrum extracted from MIRI-MRS data. This is done by leveraging the capabilities of VIP, another large data reduction package used in the field of high-contrast imaging.

The front end of the pipeline is a highly automated Jupyter notebook. Parameters are typically set in one cell at the beginning of the notebook, and the rest of the notebook can be run without any further modification. The Jupyter notebook format provides flexibility, enhanced visibility of intermediate and final results, more straightforward troubleshooting, and the possibility to easily incorporate additional codes by the user to further analyze or exploit their results.

[ascl:1302.006]
Minerva: Cylindrical coordinate extension for Athena

Minerva is a cylindrical coordinate extension of the Athena astrophysical MHD code of Stone, Gardiner, Teuben, and Hawley. The extension follows the approach of Athena's original developers and has been designed to alter the existing Cartesian-coordinates code as minimally and transparently as possible. The numerical equations in cylindrical coordinates are formulated to maintain consistency with constrained transport (CT), a central feature of the Athena algorithm, while making use of previously implemented code modules such as the Riemann solvers. Angular momentum transport, which is critical in astrophysical disk systems dominated by rotation, is treated carefully.

[ascl:2009.012]
minot: Modeling framework for diffuse components in galaxy clusters

Adam, R.; Goksu, H.; Leingärtner-Goth, A.; Ettori, S.; Gnatyk, R.; Hnatyk, B.; Hütten, M.; Pérez-Romero, J.; Sánchez-Conde, M. A.; Sergijenko, O.

minot (Modeling of the ICM (Non-)thermal content and Observables prediction Tools) provides a self-consistent modeling framework for the thermal and non-thermal diffuse components in galaxy clusters and predictions multi-wavelength observables. The framework sets or modifies the cluster object according to set parameters and defines the physical and observational properties, which can include thermal gas and CR physics, tSZ, inverse Compton, and radio synchotron. minot then generates outputs, including model parameters, plots, and relationships between models.

[ascl:2203.008]
MIRaGe: Multi Instrument Ramp Generator

Hilbert, Bryan; Sahlmann, Johannes; Volk, Kevin; Osborne, Shannon; dthatte; Perrin, Marshall; Chambers, Lauren; Slavich, Edward; Taylor, Jo; Tollerud, Erik; Lim, P. L.

MIRaGe creates simulated exposures for NIRCam’s imaging and wide field slitless spectroscopy (WFSS) modes, NIRISS’s imaging, WFSS, and aperture masking interferometery (AMI) modes, and FGS’s imaging mode. It supports sidereal as well as non-sidereal tracking; for example, sources can be made to move across the field of view within an observation.

[submitted]
MiraPy: Python package for Deep Learning in Astronomy

MiraPy is a Python package for problem-solving in astronomy using Deep Learning for astrophysicist, researchers and students. Current applications of MiraPy are X-Ray Binary classification, ATLAS variable star feature classification, OGLE variable star light-curve classification, HTRU1 dataset classification and Astronomical image reconstruction using encoder-decoder network. It also contains modules for loading various datasets, curve-fitting, visualization and other utilities. It is built using Keras for developing ML models to run on CPU and GPU seamlessly.

[ascl:1106.007]
MIRIAD: Multi-channel Image Reconstruction, Image Analysis, and Display

MIRIAD is a radio interferometry data-reduction package, designed for taking raw visibility data through calibration to the image analysis stage. It has been designed to handle any interferometric array, with working examples for BIMA, CARMA, SMA, WSRT, and ATCA. A separate version for ATCA is available, which differs in a few minor ways from the CARMA version.

[ascl:2102.017]
mirkwood: SED modeling using machine learning

mirkwood uses supervised machine learning to model non-linearly mapping galaxy fluxes to their properties. Multiple models are stacked to mitigate poor performance by any individual model in a given region of the parameter space. The code accounts for uncertainties arising both from intrinsic noise in observations and from finite training data and incorrect modeling assumptions, and provides highly accurate physical properties from observations of galaxies as compared to traditional SED fitting.

[ascl:1110.025]
MIS: A Miriad Interferometry Singledish Toolkit

MIS is a pipeline toolkit using the package MIRIAD to combine Interferometric and Single Dish data. This was prompted by our observations made with the Combined Array For Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) interferometer of the star-forming region NGC 1333, a large survey highlighting the new 23-element and singledish observing modes. The project consists of 20 CARMA datasets each containing interferometric as well as simultaneously obtained single dish data, for 3 molecular spectral lines and continuum, in 527 different pointings, covering an area of about 8 by 11 arcminutes. A small group of collaborators then shared this toolkit and their parameters via CVS, and scripts were developed to ensure uniform data reduction across the group. The pipeline was run end-to-end each night that new observations were obtained, producing maps that contained all the data to date. This approach could serve as a model for repeated calibration and mapping of large mixed-mode correlation datasets from ALMA.

[ascl:1010.062]
MissFITS: Basic Maintenance and Packaging Tasks on FITS Files

MissFITS is a program that performs basic maintenance and packaging tasks on FITS files using an optimized FITS library. MissFITS can:

- add, edit, and remove FITS header keywords;

- split and join Multi-Extension-FITS (MEF) files;

- unpile and pile FITS data-cubes; and,

- create, check, and update FITS checksums, using R. Seaman’s protocol.

[ascl:1505.011]
missForest: Nonparametric missing value imputation using random forest

missForest imputes missing values particularly in the case of mixed-type data. It uses a random forest trained on the observed values of a data matrix to predict the missing values. It can be used to impute continuous and/or categorical data including complex interactions and non-linear relations. It yields an out-of-bag (OOB) imputation error estimate without the need of a test set or elaborate cross-validation and can be run in parallel to save computation time. missForest has been used to, among other things, impute variable star colors in an All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) dataset of variable stars with no NOMAD match.

[ascl:1910.016]
MiSTree: Construct and analyze Minimum Spanning Tree graphs

MiSTree quickly constructs minimum spanning tree graphs for various coordinate systems, including Celestial coordinates, by using a k-nearest neighbor graph (k NN, rather than a matrix of pairwise distances) which is then fed to Kruskal's algorithm to create the graph. MiSTree bins the MST statistics into histograms and plots the distributions; enabling the inclusion of high-order statistics information from the cosmic web to provide additional information that improves cosmological parameter constraints. Though MiSTree was designed for use in cosmology, it can be used in any field requiring extracting non-Gaussian information from point distributions.

[ascl:2112.008]
MISTTBORN: MCMC Interface for Synthesis of Transits, Tomography, Binaries, and Others of a Relevant Nature

MISTTBORN can simultaneously fit multiple types of data within an MCMC framework. It handles photometric transit/eclipse, radial velocity, Doppler tomographic, or individual line profile data, for an arbitrary number of datasets in an arbitrary number of photometric bands for an arbitrary number of planets and allows the use of Gaussian process regression to handle correlated noise in photometric or Doppler tomographic data. The code can include dilution due to a nearby unresolved star in the transit fits, and an additional line component due to another star or scattered sun/moonlight in Doppler tomographic or line profile fits. It can also be used for eclipsing binary fits, including a secondary eclipse and radial velocities for both stars. MISTTBORN produces diagnostic plots showing the data and best-fit models and the associated code MISTTBORNPLOTTER produces publication-quality plots and tables.

[ascl:2306.029]
Mixclask: Mixing Cloudy and SKIRT

Mixclask combines Cloudy (ascl:9910.001) and SKIRT (ascl:1109.003) to predict spectra and gas properties in astrophysical contexts, such as galaxies and HII regions. The main output is the mean intensity of a region filled with stars, gas and dust at different positions, assuming axial symmetry. The inputs for Mixclask are the stellar and ISM data for each region and an file for the positions (x,y,z) that will be output.

[ascl:1409.001]
mixT: single-temperature fit for a multi-component thermal plasma

mixT accurately predicts T derived from a single-temperature fit for a multi-component thermal plasma. It can be applied in the deprojection analysis of objects with the temperature and metallicity gradients, for correction of the PSF effects, for consistent comparison of numerical simulations of galaxy clusters and groups with the X-ray observations, and for estimating how emission from undetected components can bias the global X-ray spectral analysis.

[ascl:1206.010]
mkj_libs: Helper routines for plane-fitting & analysis tools

mkj_libs provides a set of helper routines (vector operations, astrometry, statistical analysis of spherical data) for the main plane-fitting and analysis tools.

[ascl:0104.001]
MLAPM: Simulating Structure Formation from Collisionless Matter

MLAPM simulates structure formation from collisionless matter. The code, written in C, is purely grid-based and uses a recursively refined Cartesian grid to solve Poisson's equation for the potential, rather than obtaining the potential from a Green's function. Refinements can have arbitrary shapes and in practice closely follow the complex morphology of the density field that evolves. The timestep shortens by a factor two with each successive refinement. It is argued that an appropriate choice of softening length is of great importance and that the softening should be at all points an appropriate multiple of the local inter-particle separation. Unlike tree and P3M codes, multigrid codes automatically satisfy this requirement.

[ascl:2012.005]
MLC_ELGs: Machine Learning Classifiers for intermediate redshift Emission Line Galaxies

Zhang, Kai; Schlegel, David J.; Andrews, Brett H.; Comparat, Johan; Schäfer, Christoph; Vazquez Mata, Jose Antonio; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Yan, Renbin

MLC_EPGs classifies intermediate redshift (z = 0.3–0.8) emission line galaxies as star-forming galaxies, composite galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGN), or low-ionization nuclear emission regions (LINERs). It uses four supervised machine learning classification algorithms: k-nearest neighbors (KNN), support vector classifier (SVC), random forest (RF), and a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network. For input features, it uses properties that can be measured from optical galaxy spectra out to z < 0.8—[O III]/Hβ, [O II]/Hβ, [O III] line width, and stellar velocity dispersion—and four colors (u−g, g−r, r−i, and i−z) corrected to z = 0.1.

[ascl:2009.010]
MLG: Microlensing with Gaia

MLG simulates Gaia measurements for predicted astrometric microlensing events. It fits the motion of the lens and source simultaneously and reconstructs the 11 parameters of the lensing event. For lenses passing by multiple background sources, it also fits the motion of all background sources and the lens simultaneously. A Monte-Carlo simulation is used to determine the achievable precision of the mass determination.

[ascl:2404.016]
MLTPC: Machine Learning Telescope Pointing Correction

The Machine Learning Telescope Pointing Correction code trains and tests machine learning models for correcting telescope pointing. Using historical APEX data from 2022, including pointing corrections, and other data such as weather conditions, position and rotation of the secondary mirror, pointing offsets observed during pointing scans, and the position of the sun, among other data, the code treats the data in two different ways to test which factors are the most likely to account for pointing errors.

[ascl:1403.003]
MLZ: Machine Learning for photo-Z

The parallel Python framework MLZ (Machine Learning and photo-Z) computes fast and robust photometric redshift PDFs using Machine Learning algorithms. It uses a supervised technique with prediction trees and random forest through TPZ that can be used for a regression or a classification problem, or a unsupervised methods with self organizing maps and random atlas called SOMz. These machine learning implementations can be efficiently combined into a more powerful one resulting in robust and accurate probability distributions for photometric redshifts.

[ascl:2205.024]
MM-LSD: Multi-Mask Least-Squares Deconvolution

Lienhard, F.; Mortier, A.; Buchhave, L.; Collier Cameron, A.; López-Morales, M.; Sozzetti, A.; Watson, C. A.; Cosentino, R.

MM-LSD (Multi-Mask Least-Squares Deconvolution) performs continuum normalization of 2D spectra (echelle order spectra). It also masks and partially corrects telluric lines and extracts RVs from spectra. The code requires RASSINE (ascl:2102.022) and uses spectral line data from VALD3.

[ascl:1412.010]
MMAS: Make Me A Star

Make Me A Star (MMAS) quickly generates stellar collision remnants and can be used in combination with realistic dynamical simulations of star clusters that include stellar collisions. The code approximates the merger process (including shock heating, hydrodynamic mixing, mass ejection, and angular momentum transfer) with simple algorithms based on conservation laws and a basic qualitative understanding of the hydrodynamics. These simple models agree very well with those from SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) calculations of stellar collisions, and the subsequent stellar evolution of these models also matches closely that of the more accurate hydrodynamic models.

[ascl:1905.005]
MMIRS-DRP: MMIRS Data Reduction Pipeline

The MMIRS data reduction pipeline provides complete and flexible data reduction for long-slit and multi-slit spectroscopic observations collected using the MMT and Magellan Infrared Spectrograph (MMIRS). Written in IDL, it offers sky subtraction, correction for telluric absorpition, and is fast enough to permit real-time data reduction for quality control.

[ascl:2307.012]
mnms: Map-based Noise ModelS

Atkins, Zachary; Duivenvoorden, Adriaan J.; Coulton, William R.; Qu, Frank J.; Aiola, Simone; Calabrese, Erminia; Chesmore, Grace E.; Choi, Steve K.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Jo; Hervías-Caimapo, Carlos; Guan, Yilun; La Posta, Adrien; Li, Zack; Louis, Thibaut; Madhavacheril, Mathew S.; Moodley, Kavilan; Naess, Sigurd; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael D.; Page, Lyman; Puddu, Roberto; Salatino, Maria; Sifón, Cristóbal; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Vargas, Cristian; Vavagiakis, Eve M.; Wollack, Edward J.

mnms (Map-based Noise ModelS) creates map-based models of Simons Observatory Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) data. Each model supports drawing map-based simulations from data splits with independent realizations of the noise or equivalent, similar to an independent set of time-domain sims. In addition to the ability to create on-the-fly simulations, mnms also includes ready-made scripts for writing a large batch of products to disk in a dedicated SLURM job.

[ascl:2104.012]
Mo'Astro: MongoDB framework for observational astronomy

Mo’Astro is a MongoDB framework for observational astronomy pipelines. Mo'Astro sets up a MongoDB collection of a survey's image set, keeping FITS metadata readily available, and providing a place in the reduction pipeline to persist metadata. Mo’Astro also provides facilities for batch processing images with the Astromatic tool suite, and for hosting a local 2MASS star catalog with spatial-search built-in.

[ascl:2306.010]
MOBSE: Massive Objects in Binary Stellar Evolution

MOBSE investigates the demography of merging BHBs. A customized version of the binary stellar evolution code BSE (ascl:1303.014), MOBSE includes metallicity-dependent prescriptions for mass-loss of massive hot stars and upgrades for the evolution of single and binary massive stars.

[ascl:1110.010]
MOCASSIN: MOnte CArlo SimulationS of Ionized Nebulae

MOCASSIN is a fully 3D or 2D photoionisation and dust radiative transfer code which employs a Monte Carlo approach to the transfer of radiation through media of arbitrary geometry and density distribution. Written in Fortran, it was originally developed for the modelling of photoionised regions like HII regions and planetary nebulae and has since expanded and been applied to a variety of astrophysical problems, including modelling clumpy dusty supernova envelopes, star forming galaxies, protoplanetary disks and inner shell fluorence emission in the photospheres of stars and disk atmospheres. The code can deal with arbitrary Cartesian grids of variable resolution, it has successfully been used to model complex density fields from SPH calculations and can deal with ionising radiation extending from Lyman edge to the X-ray. The dust and gas microphysics is fully coupled both in the radiation transfer and in the thermal balance.

[ascl:2306.020]
mockFRBhosts: Limiting the visibility and follow-up of FRB host galaxies

mockFRBhosts estimates the fraction of FRB hosts that can be cataloged with redshifts by existing and future optical surveys. The package uses frbpoppy (ascl:1911.009) to generate a population of FRBs for a given radio telescope. For each FRB, a host galaxy is drawn from a data base generated by GALFORM (ascl:1510.005). The galaxies' magnitudes in different photometric surveys are calculated as are the number of bands in which they are detected. mockFRBhosts also calculates the follow-up time in a 10-m optical telescope required to do photometry or spectroscopy and provides a simple interface to Bayesian inference methods via MCMC simulations provided in the FRB package (ascl:2306.018).

[ascl:2106.025]
ModeChord: Primordial scalar and tensor power spectra solver

Mortonson, Michael J.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Easther, Richard; Noreña, Jorge; Wagner, Christian; Verde, Licia; Handley, Will

ModeChord computes the primordial scalar and tensor power spectra for single field inflationary models. The code solves the inflationary mode equations numerically, avoiding the slow roll approximation. It provides an efficient and robust numerical evaluation of the inflationary perturbation spectrum, and allows the free parameters in the inflationary potential to be estimated. ModeChord also allows the estimation of reheating uncertainties once a potential has been specified.

[ascl:1010.009]
ModeCode: Bayesian Parameter Estimation for Inflation

ModeCode is a publicly available code that computes the primordial scalar and tensor power spectra for single field inflationary models. ModeCode solves the inflationary mode equations numerically, avoiding the slow roll approximation. It provides an efficient and robust numerical evaluation of the inflationary perturbation spectrum, and allows the free parameters in the inflationary potential to be estimated within an MCMC computation. ModeCode also allows the estimation of reheating uncertainties once a potential has been specified. It is interfaced with CAMB and CosmoMC to compute cosmic microwave background angular power spectra and perform likelihood analysis and parameter estimation. It can be run as a standalone code as well. Errors in the results from ModeCode contribute negligibly to the error budget for analyses of data from Planck or other next generation experiments.

[ascl:1109.023]
MOKA: A New Tool for Strong Lensing Studies

MOKA simulates the gravitational lensing signal from cluster-sized haloes. This algorithm implements recent results from numerical simulations to create realistic lenses with properties independent of numerical resolution and can be used for studies of the strong lensing cross section in dependence of halo structure.

[ascl:1501.013]
Molecfit: Telluric absorption correction tool

Smette, A.; Kausch, W; Sana, H; Noll, S.; Horst, H.; Kimeswenger, S.; Barden, M; Szyszka, C.; Jones, A. M.; Gallene, A.; Vinther, J.; Ballester, P.; Kerber, F.

Molecfit corrects astronomical observations for atmospheric absorption features based on fitting synthetic transmission spectra to the astronomical data, which saves a significant amount of valuable telescope time and increases the instrumental efficiency. Molecfit can also estimate molecular abundances, especially the water vapor content of the Earth’s atmosphere. The tool can be run from a command-line or more conveniently through a GUI.

[ascl:1212.004]
MOLIERE-5: Forward and inversion model for sub-mm wavelengths

MOLIERE-5 (Microwave Observation LIne Estimation and REtrieval) is a versatile forward and inversion model for the millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths range and includes an inversion model. The MOLIERE-5 forward model includes modules for the calculation of absorption coefficients, radiative transfer, and instrumental characteristics. The radiative transfer model is supplemented by a sensitivity module for estimating the contribution to the spectrum of each catalog line at its center frequency enabling the model to effectively filter for small spectral lines. The instrument model consists of several independent modules, including the calculation of the convolution of spectra and weighting functions with the spectrometer response functions. The instrument module also provides several options for modeling of frequency-switched observations. The MOLIERE-5 inversion model calculates linear Optimal Estimation, a least-squares retrieval method which uses statistical apriori knowledge on the retrieved parameters for the regularization of ill-posed inversion problems and computes diagnostics such as the measurement and smoothing error covariance matrices along with contribution and averaging kernel functions.

[ascl:1907.012]
molly: 1D astronomical spectra analyzer

molly analyzes 1D astronomical spectra. Its prime purpose is for handling large numbers of similar spectra (*e.g.,* time series spectroscopy), but it contains many of the standard operations used for normal spectrum analysis as well. It overlaps with the various similar programs such as dipso (ascl:1405.016) and has strengths (particularly for time series spectra) and weaknesses compared to them.

[ascl:1206.004]
MOLSCAT: MOLecular SCATtering v. 14

MOLSCAT version 14 is a FORTRAN code for quantum mechanical (coupled channel) solution of the nonreactive molecular scattering problem and was developed to obtain collision rates for molecules in the interstellar gas which are needed to understand microwave and infrared astronomical observations. The code is implemented for various types of collision partners. In addition to the essentially exact close coupling method several approximate methods, including the Coupled States and Infinite Order Sudden approximations, are provided. This version of the code has been superseded by MOLSCAT 2020 (ascl:2010.001).

[ascl:1908.002]
Molsoft: Molonglo Telescope Observing Software

Molsoft operates, monitors and schedules observations, both through predetermined schedule files and fully dynamically, at the refurbished Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Radio Telescope (MOST). It was developed as part of the UTMOST upgrade of the facility. The software runs a large-scale pulsar timing program; the autonomous observing system and the dynamic scheduler have increased the observing efficiency by a factor of 2-3 in comparison with static scheduling.

[ascl:2311.006]
MONDPMesh: Particle-mesh code for Milgromian dynamics

MONDPMesh provides a particle-mesh method to calculate the time evolution of an system of point masses under modified gravity, namely the AQUAL formalism. This is done by transforming the Poisson equation for the potential into a system of four linear PDEs, and solving these using fast Fourier transforms. The accelerations on the point masses are calculated from this potential, and the system is propagated using Leapfrog integration. The time complexity of the code is O(N⋅p⋅log(p)) for p pixels and N particles, which is the same as for a Newtonian particle-mesh code.

[ascl:2204.020]
MonoTools: Planets of uncertain periods detector and modeler

MonoTools detects, vets, and models transiting exoplanets, with a specific emphasis on monotransiting planets and those with unknown periods. It includes scripts specifically for searching and assessing a lightcurve for the presence of monotransits. MonoTools can also performing a best-fit transit model, determine whether transits are linked to any detected multi-transiting planet candidate or with each other, and can fit planets in a Bayesian way to account for uncertain periods, lightcurve gaps, and stellar variability, among other things.

[ascl:1010.036]
Montage: An Astronomical Image Mosaicking Toolkit

Jacob, Joseph C.; Katz, Daniel S.; Berriman, G. Bruce; Good, John; Laity, Anastasia C.; Deelman, Ewa; Kesselman, Carl; Singh, Gurmeet; Su, Mei-Hui; Prince, Thomas A.; Williams, Roy

Montage is an open source code toolkit for assembling Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) images into custom mosaics. It runs on all common Linux/Unix platforms, on desktops, clusters and computational grids, and supports all World Coordinate System (WCS) projections and common coordinate systems. Montage preserves spatial and calibration fidelity of input images, processes 40 million pixels in up to 32 minutes on 128 nodes on a Linux cluster, and provides independent engines for analyzing the geometry of images on the sky, re-projecting images, rectifying background emission to a common level, and co-adding images. It offers convenient tools for managing and manipulating large image files.

[ascl:1502.006]
Montblanc: GPU accelerated Radio Interferometer Measurement Equations in support of Bayesian Inference for Radio Observations

Montblanc, written in Python, is a GPU implementation of the Radio interferometer measurement equation (RIME) in support of the Bayesian inference for radio observations (BIRO) technique. The parameter space that BIRO explores results in tens of thousands of computationally expensive RIME evaluations before reduction to a single *X ^{2}* value. The RIME is calculated over four dimensions, time, baseline, channel and source and the values in this 4D space can be independently calculated; therefore, the RIME is particularly amenable to a parallel implementation accelerated by Graphics Programming Units (GPUs). Montblanc is implemented for NVIDIA's CUDA architecture and outperforms MeqTrees (ascl:1209.010) and OSKAR.

[ascl:1307.002]
Monte Python: Monte Carlo code for CLASS in Python

Monte Python is a parameter inference code which combines the flexibility of the python language and the robustness of the cosmological code CLASS (ascl:1106.020) into a simple and easy to manipulate Monte Carlo Markov Chain code.

This version has been archived and replaced by MontePython 3 (ascl:1805.027).

[ascl:1805.027]
MontePython 3: Parameter inference code for cosmology

MontePython 3 provides numerous ways to explore parameter space using Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) sampling, including Metropolis-Hastings, Nested Sampling, Cosmo Hammer, and a Fisher sampling method. This improved version of the Monte Python (ascl:1307.002) parameter inference code for cosmology offers new ingredients that improve the performance of Metropolis-Hastings sampling, speeding up convergence and offering significant time improvement in difficult runs. Additional likelihoods and plotting options are available, as are post-processing algorithms such as Importance Sampling and Adding Derived Parameter.

[ascl:2308.001]
MOOG_SCAT: Scattering version of the MOOG Line Transfer Code

MOOG_SCAT, a redevelopment of the LTE radiative transfer code MOOG (ascl:1202.009), contains modifications that allow for the treatment of isotropic, coherent scattering in stars. MOOG_SCAT employs a modified form of the source function and solves radiative transfer with a short charactersitics approach and an acclerated lambda iteration scheme.

[ascl:1202.009]
MOOG: LTE line analysis and spectrum synthesis

MOOG performs a variety of LTE line analysis and spectrum synthesis tasks. The typical use of MOOG is to assist in the determination of the chemical composition of a star. The basic equations of LTE stellar line analysis are followed. The coding is in various subroutines that are called from a few driver routines; these routines are written in standard FORTRAN. The standard MOOG version has been developed on unix, linux and macintosh computers.

One of the chief assets of MOOG is its ability to do on-line graphics. The plotting commands are given within the FORTRAN code. MOOG uses the graphics package SM, chosen for its ease of implementation in FORTRAN codes. Plotting calls are concentrated in just a few routines, and it should be possible for users of other graphics packages to substitute other appropriate FORTRAN commands.

[ascl:1308.018]
MoogStokes: Zeeman polarized radiative transfer

MOOGStokes is a version of the MOOG one-dimensional local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer code that incorporates a Stokes vector treatment of polarized radiation through a magnetic medium. It consists of three complementary programs that together can synthesize the disk-averaged emergent spectrum of a star with a magnetic field. The MOOGStokes package synthesizes emergent spectra of stars with magnetic fields in a familiar computational framework and produces disk-averaged spectra for all Stokes vectors ( I, Q, U, V ), normalized by the continuum.

[ascl:1111.006]
MOPEX: MOsaicker and Point source EXtractor

MOPEX (MOsaicker and Point source EXtractor) is a package for reducing and analyzing imaging data, as well as MIPS SED data. MOPEX includes the point source extraction package, APEX.

MOPEX is designed to allow the user to:

- perform sophisticated background matching of individual data frames
- mosaic the individual frames downloaded from the Spitzer archive
- perform both temporal and spatial outlier rejection during mosaicking
- apply offline pointing refinement for MIPS data (refinement is already applied to IRAC data)
- perform source detection on the mosaics using APEX
- compute aperture photometry or PRF-fitting photometry for point sources
- perform interpolation, coaddition, and spectrum extraction of MIPS SED images.

[ascl:1303.011]
MOPSIC: Extended Version of MOPSI

MOPSIC was created to analyze bolometer data but can be used for much more versatile tasks. It is an extension of MOPSI; this software had been merged with the command interpreter of GILDAS (ascl:1305.010). For data reduction, MOPSIC uses a special method to calculate the chopped signal. This gives much better results than the straight difference of the signals obtained at both chopper positions. In addition there are also scripts to reduce pointings, skydips, and to calculate the RCPs (Receiver Channel Parameters) from calibration maps. MOPSIC offers a much broader range of applications including advanced planning functions for mapping and onoff observations, post-reduction data analysis and processing and even reduction of non-bolometer data (optical, IR, spectroscopy).

[ascl:1911.014]
MORDI: Massively-Overlapped Ring-Diagram Inversion

MORDI (Massively-Overlapped Ring-Diagram Inversion) performs three-dimensional ring-diagram inversions. The code reads in frequency shift measurements and their associated sensitivity kernels and outputs two-dimensional slices of the subsurface flow field at a constant depth and (optionally) the associated averaging kernels. It relies on both distributed-memory (MPI) and shared-memory (OpenMP) parallelism to scale efficiently up to a few thousand processors, but can also run reasonably well on small machines (1-4 cpus). The actions of the code are modified by command-line parameters, which enable a significant amount of flexibility when setting up an inversion.

[ascl:2405.009]
morphen: Astronomical image analysis and processing functions

morphen performs image analysis, multi-Sersic image fitting decomposition, and radio interferometric self-calibration, thus measuring basic image morphology and photometry. The code provides a state-of-the-art Python-based image fitting implementation based on the Sersic function. Geared, though not exclusively, toward radio astronomy, morphen's tools involve pure python, but also are integrated with CASA (ascl:1107.013) in order to work with common casatasks as well as WSClean (ascl:1408.023).

[ascl:1906.013]
MORPHEUS: A 3D Eulerian Godunov MPI-OpenMP hydrodynamics code with multiple grid geometries

MORPHEUS (Manchester Omni-geometRical Program for Hydrodynamical EUlerian Simulations) is a 3D hydrodynamical code used to simulate astrophysical fluid flows. It has three different grid geometries (cartesian, spherical, and cylindrical) and uses a second-order Godunov method to solve the equations of hydrodynamics. Physical modules also include radiative cooling and gravity, and a hybrid MPI-OpenMP parallelization allows computations to be run on large-scale architectures. MORPHEUS is written in Fortran90 and does not require any libraries (apart from MPI) to run.

[ascl:1906.012]
Morpheus: Library to generate morphological semantic segmentation maps of astronomical images

Morpheus generates pixel level morphological classifications of astronomical sources by leveraging advances in deep learning to perform source detection, source segmentation, and morphological classification pixel-by-pixel via a semantic segmentation algorithm adopted from the field of computer vision. By utilizing morphological information about the flux of real astronomical sources during object detection, Morpheus shows resiliency to false positive identifications of sources.

[ascl:2303.018]
MORPHOFIT: Morphological analysis of galaxies

MORPHOFIT consists of a series of modules for estimating galaxy structural parameters. The package uses SEXTRACTOR (ascl:1010.064) in forced photometry mode to get an initial estimate of the galaxy structural parameters and create a multiband catalog. It also uses GALFIT (ascl:1010.064), running it on galaxy stamps and galaxy regions from the parent image and also on galaxies from the full image using SEXTRACTOR properties as input. MORPHOFIT has been optimized and tested in both low-density and crowded environments, and can recover the input structural parameters of galaxies with good accuracy.

[ascl:2102.020]
MOSAIC: Multipole operator generator for Fast Multipole Method operators

MOSAIC (Multipole Operators in Symbols, Automatically Improved and Condensed) automatically produces, verifies, and optimizes computer code for Fast Multipole Method (FMM) operators. It is based on a symbolic algebra library, and can produce code for any expansion order and be extended to use any basis or kernel function. The code applies algebraic modifications to reduce the number of floating-point operations and can symbolically verify correctness.

[ascl:1908.007]
MosfireDRP: MOSFIRE Data Reduction Pipeline

MosfireDRP reduces data from the MOSFIRE spectrograph of the Keck Observatory; it produces flat-fielded, wavelength calibrated, rectified, and stacked 2D spectrograms for each slit on a given mask in nearly real time. Background subtraction is performed in two states: a simple pairwise subtraction of interleaved stacks, and then fitting a 2D b-spline model to the background residuals.

[ascl:1710.006]
MOSFiT: Modular Open-Source Fitter for Transients

Guillochon, James; Nicholl, Matt; Villar, V. Ashley; Mockler, Brenna; Narayan, Gautham; Mandel, Kaisey S.; Berger, Edo; Williams, Peter K. G.

MOSFiT (Modular Open-Source Fitter for Transients) downloads transient datasets from open online catalogs (e.g., the Open Supernova Catalog), generates Monte Carlo ensembles of semi-analytical light curve fits to those datasets and their associated Bayesian parameter posteriors, and optionally delivers the fitting results back to those same catalogs to make them available to the rest of the community. MOSFiT helps bridge the gap between observations and theory in time-domain astronomy; in addition to making the application of existing models and creation of new models as simple as possible, MOSFiT yields statistically robust predictions for transient characteristics, with a standard output format that includes all the setup information necessary to reproduce a given result.

[ascl:1611.003]
MPDAF: MUSE Python Data Analysis Framework

MPDAF, the MUSE Python Data Analysis Framework, provides tools to work with MUSE-specific data (for example, raw data and pixel tables), and with more general data such as spectra, images, and data cubes. Originally written to work with MUSE data, it can also be used for other data, such as that from the Hubble Space Telescope. MPDAF also provides MUSELET, a SExtractor-based tool to detect emission lines in a data cube, and a format to gather all the information on a source in one FITS file. MPDAF was developed and is maintained by CRAL (Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon).

[ascl:1208.019]
MPFIT: Robust non-linear least squares curve fitting

These IDL routines provide a robust and relatively fast way to perform least-squares curve and surface fitting. The algorithms are translated from MINPACK-1, which is a rugged minimization routine found on Netlib, and distributed with permission. This algorithm is more desirable than CURVEFIT because it is generally more stable and less likely to crash than the brute-force approach taken by CURVEFIT, which is based upon Numerical Recipes.

[ascl:1304.014]
MPgrafic: A parallel MPI version of Grafic-1

MPgrafic is a parallel MPI version of Grafic-1 (ascl:9910.004) which can produce large cosmological initial conditions on a cluster without requiring shared memory. The real Fourier transforms are carried in place using fftw while minimizing the amount of used memory (at the expense of performance) in the spirit of Grafic-1. The writing of the output file is also carried in parallel. In addition to the technical parallelization, it provides three extensions over Grafic-1:

- it can produce power spectra with baryon wiggles (DJ Eisenstein and W. Hu, Ap. J. 496);
- it has the optional ability to load a lower resolution noise map corresponding to the low frequency component which will fix the larger scale modes of the simulation (extra flag 0/1 at the end of the input process) in the spirit of Grafic-2 (ascl:1106.008);
- it can be used in conjunction with constrfield, which generates initial conditions phases from a list of local constraints on density, tidal field density gradient and velocity.

[ascl:1712.002]
MPI_XSTAR: MPI-based parallelization of XSTAR program

MPI_XSTAR parallelizes execution of multiple XSTAR runs using Message Passing Interface (MPI). XSTAR (ascl:9910.008), part of the HEASARC's HEAsoft (ascl:1408.004) package, calculates the physical conditions and emission spectra of ionized gases. MPI_XSTAR invokes XSTINITABLE from HEASoft to generate a job list of XSTAR commands for given physical parameters. The job list is used to make directories in ascending order, where each individual XSTAR is spawned on each processor and outputs are saved. HEASoft's XSTAR2TABLE program is invoked upon the contents of each directory in order to produce table model FITS files for spectroscopy analysis tools.

[ascl:1208.014]
MPI-AMRVAC: MPI-Adaptive Mesh Refinement-Versatile Advection Code

van der Holst, Bar; Keppens, Rony; Meliani, Zakaria; Porth, Oliver; van Marle, Allard Jan; Delmont, Peter; Xia, Chun

MPI-AMRVAC is an MPI-parallelized Adaptive Mesh Refinement code, with some heritage (in the solver part) to the Versatile Advection Code or VAC, initiated by Gábor Tóth at the Astronomical Institute at Utrecht in November 1994, with help from Rony Keppens since 1996. Previous incarnations of the Adaptive Mesh Refinement version of VAC were of restricted use only, and have been used for basic research in AMR strategies, or for well-targeted applications. This MPI version uses a full octree block-based approach, and allows for general orthogonal coordinate systems. MPI-AMRVAC aims to advance any system of (primarily hyperbolic) partial differential equations by a number of different numerical schemes. The emphasis is on (near) conservation laws, with shock-dominated problems as a main research target. The actual equations are stored in separate modules, can be added if needed, and they can be selected by a simple configuration of the VACPP preprocessor. The dimensionality of the problem is also set through VACPP. The numerical schemes are able to handle discontinuities and smooth flows as well.

[ascl:1106.022]
MPI-Defrost: Extension of Defrost to MPI-based Cluster Environment

MPI-Defrost extends Frolov’s Defrost (ascl:1011.012) to an MPI-based cluster environment. This version has been restricted to a single field. Restoring two-field support should be straightforward, but will require some code changes. Some output options may also not be fully supported under MPI.

This code was produced to support our own work, and has been made available for the benefit of anyone interested in either oscillon simulations or an MPI capable version of Defrost, and it is provided on an "as-is" basis. Andrei Frolov is the primary developer of Defrost and we thank him for placing his work under the GPL (GNU Public License), and thus allowing us to distribute this modified version.

[ascl:2007.008]
MPSolve: Multiprecision Polynomial SOLVEr

MPSolve (Multiprecision Polynomial SOLVEr) provides an easy-to-use universal blackbox for solving polynomials and secular equations. Its features include arbitrary precision approximation and guaranteed inclusion radii for the results. It can exploit polynomial structures, taking advantage of sparsity as well as coefficients in a particular domain (*i.e.*, integers or rationals), and can be specialized for specific classes of polynomials.

[ascl:1212.003]
MPWide: Light-weight communication library for distributed computing

MPWide is a light-weight communication library for distributed computing. It is specifically developed to allow message passing over long-distance networks using path-specific optimizations. An early version of MPWide was used in the Gravitational Billion Body Project to allow simulations across multiple supercomputers.

[ascl:1912.020]
MRExo: Non-parametric mass-radius relationship for exoplanets

MRExo performs non-parametric fitting and analysis of the mass-radius (M-R) relationship for exoplanets. Written in Python, it offers tools for fitting the M-R relationship to a given data set and also includes predicting (M->R, and R->M) and plotting functions.

[ascl:1102.005]
MRLENS: Multi-Resolution methods for gravitational LENSing

The MRLENS package offers a new method for the reconstruction of weak lensing mass maps. It uses the multiscale entropy concept, which is based on wavelets, and the False Discovery Rate which allows us to derive robust detection levels in wavelet space. We show that this new restoration approach outperforms several standard techniques currently used for weak shear mass reconstruction. This method can also be used to separate E and B modes in the shear field, and thus test for the presence of residual systematic effects. We concentrate on large blind cosmic shear surveys, and illustrate our results using simulated shear maps derived from N-Body Lambda-CDM simulations with added noise corresponding to both ground-based and space-based observations.

[ascl:1809.015]
MrMoose: Multi-Resolution Multi-Object/Origin Spectral Energy distribution fitting procedure

MrMoose (Multi-Resolution Multi-Object/Origin Spectral Energy) fits user-defined models onto a set of multi-wavelength data using a Bayesian framework. The code can handle blended sources, large variation in resolution, and even upper limits consistently. It also generates a series of outputs allowing for an quick interpretation of the results. The code uses emcee (ascl:1303.002), and saves the emcee sampler object, thus allowing users to transfer the output to a personal graphical interface.

[ascl:1802.015]
mrpy: Renormalized generalized gamma distribution for HMF and galaxy ensemble properties comparisons

mrpy calculates the MRP parameterization of the Halo Mass Function. It calculates basic statistics of the truncated generalized gamma distribution (TGGD) with the TGGD class, including mean, mode, variance, skewness, pdf, and cdf. It generates MRP quantities with the MRP class, such as differential number counts and cumulative number counts, and offers various methods for generating normalizations. It can generate the MRP-based halo mass function as a function of physical parameters via the mrp_b13 function, and fit MRP parameters to data in the form of arbitrary curves and in the form of a sample of variates with the SimFit class. mrpy also calculates analytic hessians and jacobians at any point, and allows the user to alternate parameterizations of the same form via the reparameterize module.

[ascl:1504.016]
MRrelation: Posterior predictive mass distribution

MRrelation calculates the posterior predictive mass distribution for an individual planet. The probabilistic mass-radius relationship (M-R relation) is evaluated within a Bayesian framework, which both quantifies this intrinsic dispersion and the uncertainties on the M-R relation parameters.

[submitted]
MRS: The MOS Reduction Software

The MRS (The MOS Reduction Software) suite reduces the spectra taken with the multi-object spectrograph spectra used as the focal plane instrument of RTT150 telescope in the TÜBİTAK National Observatory.

[ascl:1112.010]
MRS3D: 3D Spherical Wavelet Transform on the Sphere

Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D Spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. We present a new fast Discrete Spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel Transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We tested the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, applied a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and found we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. The new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, called MRS3D, is ideally suited to analysing and denoising future 3D spherical cosmological surveys; it uses a novel discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform. MRS3D is based on two packages, IDL and Healpix and can be used only if these two packages have been installed.

[ascl:2009.024]
MSL: Mining for Substructure Lenses

MSL applies simulation-based inference techniques to the problem of substructure inference in galaxy-galaxy strong lenses. It leverages additional information extracted from the simulator, then trains neural networks to estimate likelihood ratios associated with population-level parameters characterizing dark matter substructure. The package including five high-level scripts which run the simulation and create samples, combing multiple simulation runs into a single file to use for training, then train the neural networks. After training, the estimated likelihood ratio is tested, and calibrated network predictions are made based on histograms of the network output.

[ascl:1709.007]
MSSC: Multi-Source Self-Calibration

Multi-Source Self-Calibration (MSSC) provides direction-dependent calibration to standard phase referencing. The code combines multiple faint sources detected within the primary beam to derive phase corrections. Each source has its CLEAN model divided into the visibilities which results in multiple point sources that are stacked in the uv plane to increase the S/N, thus permitting self-calibration. This process applies only to wide-field VLBI data sets that detect and image multiple sources within one epoch.

[ascl:2102.002]
MST: Minimum Spanning Tree algorithm for identifying large-scale filaments

MST (Minimum Spanning Tree) identifies velocity coherent large-scale filaments through ATLASGAL clumps. It can also isolate filaments embedded in a crowded position–position–velocity (PPV) space. One strength of this method is its repeatability compared to manual approaches.

[ascl:1701.006]
MSWAVEF: Momentum-Space Wavefunctions

MSWAVEF calculates hydrogenic and non-hydrogenic momentum-space electronic wavefunctions. Such wavefunctions are often required to calculate various collision processes, such as excitation and line broadening cross sections. The hydrogenic functions are calculated using the standard analytical expressions. The non-hydrogenic functions are calculated within quantum defect theory according to the method of Hoang Binh and van Regemorter (1997). Required Hankel transforms have been determined analytically for angular momentum quantum numbers ranging from zero to 13 using Mathematica. Calculations for higher angular momentum quantum numbers are possible, but slow (since calculated numerically). The code is written in IDL.

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