[ascl:1609.012]
AIPY: Astronomical Interferometry in PYthon

AIPY collects together tools for radio astronomical interferometry. In addition to pure-python phasing, calibration, imaging, and deconvolution code, this package includes interfaces to MIRIAD (ascl:1106.007) and HEALPix (ascl:1107.018), and math/fitting routines from SciPy.

[ascl:1310.006]
AIPSLite: ParselTongue extension for distributed AIPS processing

AIPSLite is an extension for ParselTongue (ascl:1208.020) that allows machines without an AIPS (ascl:9911.003) distribution to bootstrap themselves with a minimal AIPS environment. This allows deployment of AIPS routines on distributed systems, which is useful when data can be easily be split into smaller chunks and handled independently.

[ascl:9911.003]
AIPS: Astronomical Image Processing System

AIPS ("Classic") is a software package for interactive and batch calibration and editing of astronomical data, typically radio interferometric data. AIPS can be used for the calibration, construction, enhancement, display, and analysis of astronomical images made from data using Fourier synthesis methods. Design and development of the package begin in 1978. AIPS presently consists of over 1,000,000 lines of code and 400,000 lines of documentation, representing over 65 person-years of effort.

[ascl:2306.014]
AIOLOS: Planetary atmosphere accretion and escape simulations

AIOLOS solves differential equations for hydrodynamics, friction, (thermal) radiation transport and (photo)chemistry for simulating accretion onto, and hydrodynamic escape from, planetary atmospheres. The 1-D multispecies, multiphysics hydrodynamics code, written in C++, compiles in a flexible mode that runs problems with any number of input species, and can be sped up by setting the number of species at compile time, and allows the user to provide initial conditions or boundary conditions if desired. AIOLOS provides output and diagnostic files that give snapshots in time of the state of the simulation. Output files are specific to each species, and diagnostic files contain summary as well as detailed information for, for example, the radiation transport, opacities for all species, and optical cell depths per band, in addition to other information.

[ascl:1611.014]
AIMS: Asteroseismic Inference on a Massive Scale

AIMS (Asteroseismic Inference on a Massive Scale) estimates stellar parameters and credible intervals/error bars in a Bayesian manner from a set of seismic frequency data and so-called classic constraints. To achieve reliable parameter estimates and computational efficiency it searches through a grid of pre-computed models using an MCMC algorithm; interpolation within the grid of models is performed by first tessellating the grid using a Delaunay triangulation and then doing a linear barycentric interpolation on matching simplexes. Inputs for the modeling consists of individual frequencies from peak-bagging, which can be complemented with classic spectroscopic constraints.

[ascl:1310.003]
AIDA: Adaptive Image Deconvolution Algorithm

AIDA is an implementation and extension of the MISTRAL myopic deconvolution method developed by Mugnier et al. (2004) (see J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21:1841-1854). The MISTRAL approach has been shown to yield object reconstructions with excellent edge preservation and photometric precision when used to process astronomical images. AIDA improves upon the original MISTRAL implementation. AIDA, written in Python, can deconvolve multiple frame data and three-dimensional image stacks encountered in adaptive optics and light microscopic imaging.

[ascl:2310.011]
AI-Feynman: Symbolic regression algorithm

AI-Feynman fits analytical expressions to data sets via symbolic regression, mapping the target variable to different features supplied in the data array. Using a neural network with constraints in the number of parameters utilized, the code provides the ability to obtain analytical expressions for normalized features that are used to predict a Pareto-optimal target. AI-Feynman is robust in handling noisy data, recursively generating multidimensional symbolic expressions that match data from an unknown functions.

[ascl:1102.009]
AHF: Amiga's Halo Finder

Cosmological simulations are the key tool for investigating the different processes involved in the formation of the universe from small initial density perturbations to galaxies and clusters of galaxies observed today. The identification and analysis of bound objects, halos, is one of the most important steps in drawing useful physical information from simulations. In the advent of larger and larger simulations, a reliable and parallel halo finder, able to cope with the ever-increasing data files, is a must. In this work we present the freely available MPI parallel halo finder AHF. We provide a description of the algorithm and the strategy followed to handle large simulation data. We also describe the parameters a user may choose in order to influence the process of halo finding, as well as pointing out which parameters are crucial to ensure untainted results from the parallel approach. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability of AHF to scale to high-resolution simulations.

[ascl:2307.007]
AGNvar: Model spectral timing properties in active galactic nuclei

AGNvar calculates the expected reverberation signal in any given energy band, for a given spectral energy distribution (SED), assuming variable X-ray emission. The code predicts the shape of the re-processed continuum by modeling the time-averaged SED according to input parameters, which include geometry, mass, and mass accretion rate; generally the input parameters are based off typical XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) models. It evaluates the SED response to an input driving light-curve (assumed to originate in the X-ray corona) and creates a set of time-dependent SEDs. It then takes the results from the set of time-dependent SEDs and extracts the light-curve in a given band pass.

[ascl:2203.019]
agnpy: Modeling jetted Active Galactic Nuclei radiative processes with Python

agnpy focuses on the numerical computation of the photon spectra produced by leptonic radiative processes in jetted Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). It includes classes describing the galaxy components responsible for line and thermal emission and calculates the absorption due to gamma-gamma pair production on soft (IR-UV) photon fields.

[ascl:1607.001]
AGNfitter: SED-fitting code for AGN and galaxies from a MCMC approach

AGNfitter is a fully Bayesian MCMC method to fit the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and galaxies from the sub-mm to the UV; it enables robust disentanglement of the physical processes responsible for the emission of sources. Written in Python, AGNfitter makes use of a large library of theoretical, empirical, and semi-empirical models to characterize both the nuclear and host galaxy emission simultaneously. The model consists of four physical emission components: an accretion disk, a torus of AGN heated dust, stellar populations, and cold dust in star forming regions. AGNfitter determines the posterior distributions of numerous parameters that govern the physics of AGN with a fully Bayesian treatment of errors and parameter degeneracies, allowing one to infer integrated luminosities, dust attenuation parameters, stellar masses, and star formation rates.

[ascl:1804.020]
Agatha: Disentangling period signals from correlated noise in a periodogram framework

Agatha is a framework of periodograms to disentangle periodic signals from correlated noise and to solve the two-dimensional model selection problem: signal dimension and noise model dimension. These periodograms are calculated by applying likelihood maximization and marginalization and combined in a self-consistent way. Agatha can be used to select the optimal noise model and to test the consistency of signals in time and can be applied to time series analyses in other astronomical and scientific disciplines. An interactive web implementation of the software is also available at http://agatha.herts.ac.uk/.

[ascl:1805.008]
AGAMA: Action-based galaxy modeling framework

The AGAMA library is a collection of tools for constructing and analyzing models of galaxies. It computes gravitational potential and forces, performs orbit integration and analysis, and can convert between position/velocity and action/angle coordinates. It offers a framework for finding best-fit parameters of a model from data and self-consistent multi-component galaxy models, and contains useful auxiliary utilities such as various mathematical routines. The core of the library is written in C++, and there are Python and Fortran interfaces. AGAMA may be used as a plugin for the stellar-dynamical software packages galpy (ascl:1411.008), AMUSE (ascl:1107.007), and NEMO (ascl:1010.051).

[ascl:1509.003]
AFR (ASPFitsReader): A pulsar FITS file reader and analysis package

AFR, or ASPFitsReader, reduces, processes, and manipulates pulsar data, including calibration, template profile creation, and interactive excision of radio frequency interference from pulsar profile data. It also creates times-of-arrival compatible with Tempo (ascl:1509.002) and Tempo2 (ascl:1210.015) timing software.

[ascl:2405.017]
AFINO: Automated Flare Inference of Oscillations

AFINO (Automated Flare Inference of Oscillations) finds oscillations in time series data using a Fourier-based model comparison approach. The code analyzes the date and generates a results file in either JSON or Pickle format, which contains numerous properties of the data and analysis, and a summary plot.

[ascl:1812.004]
aesop: ARC Echelle Spectroscopic Observation Pipeline

aesop (ARC Echelle Spectroscopic Observation Pipeline) analyzes echelle spectra for observations made by the Astrophysics Research Consortium (ARC) Echelle Spectrograph on the ARC 3.5 m Telescope at Apache Point Observatory. It is a high resolution spectroscopy software toolkit that picks up where the traditional IRAF reduction scripts leave off, and offers blaze function normalization by polynomial fits to observations of early-type stars, a robust least-squares normalization method, and radial velocity measurements (or offset removals) via cross-correlation with model spectra, including barycentric radial velocity calculations. It also concatenates multiple echelle orders into a simple 1D spectrum and provides approximate flux calibration.

[ascl:1212.009]
Aegean: Compact source finding in radio images

Aegean, written in python, finds compact sources within radio images by seeking out islands of pixels above a given threshold and then using the curvature of the image to determine how many Gaussian components should be used to describe the island. The Gaussian fitting is initiated with parameters determined from the curvature and intensity maps, and makes use of mpfit to perform a constrained fit. Aegean has been optimized for compact radio sources in images that have no diffuse background emission, but by pre-processing the images with a spatial filter, or by convolving an optical image with an appropriately small PSF, Aegean is able to produce excellent results in a range of applications.

[ascl:1203.001]
AE: ACIS Extract

ACIS Extract (AE), written in the IDL language, provides innovative and automated solutions to the varied challenges found in the analysis of X-ray data taken by the ACIS instrument on NASA's Chandra observatory. AE addresses complications found in many Chandra projects: large numbers of point sources (hundreds to several thousand), faint point sources, misaligned multiple observations of an astronomical field, point source crowding, and scientifically relevant diffuse emission. AE can perform virtually all the data processing and analysis tasks that lie between Level 2 ACIS data and publishable LaTeX tables of point-like and diffuse source properties and spectral models.

[ascl:1109.002]
ADIPLS: Aarhus Adiabatic Oscillation Package (ADIPACK)

The goal of the development of the Aarhus Adiabatic Oscillation Package was to have a simple and efficient tool for the computation of adiabatic oscillation frequencies and eigenfunctions for general stellar models, emphasizing also the accuracy of the results. The Fortran code offers considerable flexibility in the choice of integration method as well as ability to determine all frequencies of a given model, in a given range of degree and frequency. Development of the Aarhus adiabatic pulsation code started around 1978. Although the main features have been stable for more than a decade, development of the code is continuing, concerning numerical properties and output. The code has been provided as a generally available package and has seen substantial use at a number of installations. Further development of the package, including bringing the documentation closer to being up to date, is planned as part of the HELAS Coordination Action.

[ascl:2307.039]
adiabatic-tides: Tidal stripping of dark matter (sub)haloes

adiabatic-tides evaluates the tidal stripping of dark matter (sub)haloes in the adiabatic limit. It exactly reproduces the remnant of an NFW halo that is exposed to a slowly increasing isotropic tidal field and approximately reproduces the remnant for an anisotropic tidal field. adiabatic-tides also predicts the asymptotic mass loss limit for orbiting subhaloes and differently concentrated host-haloes with and without baryonic components, and can be used to improve predictions of dark matter annihilation.

[ascl:2204.015]
ADBSat: Aerodynamic Database for Satellites

Sinpetru, Luciana A.; Crisp, Nicholas H.; Roberts, Peter C. E.; Sulliotti-Linner, Valeria; Hanessian, Virginia; Herdrich, Georg H.; Romano, Francesco; Garcia-Almiñana, Daniel; Rodríguez-Donaire, Sílvia; Seminari, Simon; Mostaza-Prieto, David; Livadiotti, Sabrina

ADBSat computes aerodynamic coefficient databases for satellite geometries in free-molecular flow (FMF) conditions. Written in MATLAB, ADBSat imports body geometry from .stl or .obj mesh files, calculates aerodynamic force and moment coefficient for different gas-surface interaction models, and calculates solar radiation pressure force and moment coefficient. It also takes multiple surface and material characteristics into consideration. ADBSat is a panel-method tool that is able to calculate aerodynamic or solar force and moment coefficient sets for satellite geometries by applying analytical (closed-form) expressions for the interactions to discrete flat-plate mesh elements. The panel method of ADBSat assumes FMF conditions. The code analyzes basic shadowing to identify panels that are shielded from the flow by other parts of the body and will therefore not experience any surface interactions. However, this method is dependent on the refinement of the input mesh and can be sensitive to the orientation and arrangement of the mesh elements with respect to the oncoming flow direction.

[ascl:1010.024]
ADAPTSMOOTH: A Code for the Adaptive Smoothing of Astronomical Images

ADAPTSMOOTH serves to smooth astronomical images in an adaptive fashion in order to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). The adaptive smoothing scheme allows taking full advantage of the spatially resolved photometric information contained in an image in that at any location the minimal smoothing is applied to reach the requested S/N. Support is given to match more images on the same smoothing length, such that proper estimates of local colors can be done, with a big potential impact on multi-wavelength studies of extended sources (galaxies, nebulae). Different modes to estimate local S/N are provided. In addition to classical arithmetic-mean averaging mode, the code can operate in median averaging mode, resulting in a significant enhancement of the final image quality and very accurate flux conservation.

[ascl:1609.024]
AdaptiveBin: Adaptive Binning

AdaptiveBin takes one or more images and adaptively bins them. If one image is supplied, then the pixels are binned by fractional error on the intensity. If two or more images are supplied, then the pixels are fractional binned by error on the combined color.

[ascl:1305.004]
AdaptaHOP: Subclump finder

AdaptaHOP is a structure and substructure detector. It reads an input particle distribution file and can compute the mean square distance between each particle and its nearest neighbors or the SPH density associated to each particle + the list of its nearest neighbors. It can also read an input particle distribution and a neighbors file (output from a previous run) and output the tree of the structures in structures.

[ascl:2011.001]
AdaMet: Adaptive Metropolis for Bayesian analysis

AdaMet (Adaptive Metropolis) performs efficient Bayesian analysis. The user-friendly Python package is an implementation of the Adaptive Metropolis algorithm. In many real-world applications, it is more efficient and robust than emcee (ascl:1303.002), which warm-up phase scales linearly with the number of walkers. For this reason, and because of its didactic value, the AdaMet code is provided as an alternative.

[ascl:1502.004]
ADAM: All-Data Asteroid Modeling

ADAM (All-Data Asteroid Modeling) models asteroid shape reconstruction from observations. Developed in MATLAB with core routines in C, its features include general nonconvex and non-starlike parametric 3D shape supports and reconstruction of asteroid shape from any combination of lightcurves, adaptive optics images, HST/FGS data, disk-resolved thermal images, interferometry, and range-Doppler radar images. ADAM does not require boundary contour extraction for reconstruction and can be run in parallel.

[ascl:1908.003]
ActSNClass: Active learning for supernova photometric classification

ActSNClass uses a parametric feature extraction method, Random Forest classifier and two learning strategies (uncertainty sampling and random sampling) to performs active learning for supernova photometric classification.

[ascl:2011.024]
ACStools: Python tools for Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys data

Lim, Pey Lian; Davis, Matt; Hack, Warren; Grogin, Norman; Ogaz, Sara; Ubeda, Leonardo; Cara, Mihai; Borncamp, David; Miles, Nathan

The ACStools package contains Python tools to work with data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The package has several calibration utilities and a zeropoints calculator, can detect satellite trails, and offers destriping, polarization, and photometric tools.

[ascl:1302.003]
ACS: ALMA Common Software

ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

[ascl:2003.003]
acorns: Agglomerative Clustering for ORganising Nested Structures

acorns generates a hierarchical system of clusters within discrete data by using an n-dimensional unsupervised machine-learning algorithm that clusters spectroscopic position-position-velocity data. The algorithm is based on a technique known as hierarchical agglomerative clustering. Although acorns was designed with the analysis of discrete spectroscopic position-position-velocity (PPV) data in mind (rather than uniformly spaced data cubes), clustering can be performed in n-dimensions and the algorithm can be readily applied to other data sets in addition to PPV measurements.

[ascl:1303.026]
ACORNS-ADI: Algorithms for Calibration, Optimized Registration and Nulling the Star in Angular Differential Imaging

ACORNS-ADI, written in python, is a parallelized software package which reduces high-contrast imaging data. Originally written for imaging data from Subaru/HiCIAO, it requires minimal modification to reduce data from other instruments. It is efficient, open-source, and includes several optional features which may improve performance.

[ascl:2212.016]
AbundanceMatching: Subhalo abundance matching with scatter

The AbundanceMatching Python module creates (interpolates and extrapolates) abundance functions and also provides fiducial deconvolution and abundance matching.

[ascl:1401.007]
abundance: High Redshift Cluster Abundance

abundance, written in Fortran, provides driver and fitting routines to compute the predicted number of clusters in a ΛCDM cosmology that agrees with CMB, SN, BAO, and H0 measurements (up to 2010) at some specified parameter confidence and the mass that would rule out that cosmology at some specified sample confidence. It also computes the expected number of such clusters in the light cone and the Eddington bias factor that must be applied to observed masses.

[ascl:1507.007]
abo-cross: Hydrogen broadening cross-section calculator

Line broadening cross sections for the broadening of spectral lines by collisions with neutral hydrogen atoms have been tabulated by Anstee & O’Mara (1995), Barklem & O’Mara (1997) and Barklem, O’Mara & Ross (1998) for s–p, p–s, p–d, d–p, d–f and f–d transitions. abo-cross, written in Fortran, interpolates in these tabulations to make these data more accessible to the end user. This code can be incorporated into existing spectrum synthesis programs or used it in a stand-alone mode to compute line broadening cross sections for specific transitions.

[ascl:1504.014]
abcpmc: Approximate Bayesian Computation for Population Monte-Carlo code

abcpmc is a Python Approximate Bayesian Computing (ABC) Population Monte Carlo (PMC) implementation based on Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) with Particle Filtering techniques. It is extendable with k-nearest neighbour (KNN) or optimal local covariance matrix (OLCM) pertubation kernels and has built-in support for massively parallelized sampling on a cluster using MPI.

[ascl:2405.016]
ABBHI: Autoregressive binary black hole inference

autoregressive-bbh-inference, written in Python, models the distributions of binary black hole masses, spins, and redshifts to identify physical features appearing in these distributions without the need for strongly-parametrized population models. This allows not only agnostic study of the “known unknowns” of the black hole population but also reveals the “unknown unknowns," the unexpected and impactful features that may otherwise be missed by the standard building-block method.

[ascl:2305.013]
aartfaac2ms: Aartfaac datasets converter

aartfaac2ms converts raw Aartfaac correlator files to the casacore (ascl:1912.002) measurement set format. It phase rotates the data to a common phase center, and (optionally) flags, averages, and compresses the data. The code includes a tool, afedit, to splice a raw Aartfaac set based on LST.

[ascl:2302.023]
AART: Adaptive Analytical Ray Tracing

AART (Adaptive Analytical Ray Tracing) exploits the integrability properties of the Kerr spacetime to compute high-resolution black hole images and their visibility amplitude on long interferometric baselines. It implements a non-uniform adaptive grid on the image plane suitable to study black hole photon rings (narrow ring-shaped features, predicted by general relativity but not yet observed). The code implements all the relevant equations required to compute the appearance of equatorial sources on the (far) observer's screen.

[ascl:2406.023]
AARD: Automatic detection of solar active regions

This python code automatically detects solar active regions (AR). Based on morphological operation and region growing, it uses synoptic magnetograms from SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI and calculates the parameters that characterize each AR, including the latitude and longitude of the flux-weighted centroid of two polarities and the whole AR, the area, and the flux of each polarity, and the initial and final dipole moments.

[ascl:1110.009]
AAOGlimpse: Three-dimensional Data Viewer

AAOGlimpse is an experimental display program that uses OpenGL to display FITS data (and even JPEG images) as 3D surfaces that can be rotated and viewed from different angles, all in real-time. It is WCS-compliant and designed to handle three-dimensional data. Each plane in a data cube is surfaced in the same way, and the program allows the user to travel through a cube by 'peeling off' successive planes, or to look into a cube by suppressing the display of data below a given cutoff value. It can blink images and can superimpose images and contour maps from different sources using their world coordinate data. A limited socket interface allows communication with other programs.

[ascl:2406.013]
AAD: ALeRCE Anomaly Detector

Perez-Carrasco, Manuel; Cabrera-Vives, Guillermo; Hernandez-García, Lorena; Förster, F.; Sanchez-Saez, Paula; Muñoz Arancibia, Alejandra M.; Arredondo, Javier; Astorga, Nicolás; Bauer, Franz E.; Bayo, Amelia; Catelan, M.; Dastidar, Raya; Estévez, P. A.; Lira, Paulina; Pignata, Giuliano

The ALeRCE anomaly detector cross-validates six anomaly detection algorithms for three classes (transient, periodic, and stochastic) of anomalous sources within the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) data stream using the ALeRCE light curve features. A machine and deep learning-based framework is used for anomaly detection. For each class, a distinct anomaly detection model is constructed using only information about the known objects (*i.e.*, inliers) for training. An anomaly score is computed using the probabilities to determine whether the light curve corresponds to a transient, stochastic, or periodic nature.

[ascl:1910.003]
a3cosmos-gas-evolution: Galaxy cold molecular gas evolution functions

a3cosmos-gas-evolution calculates galaxies' cold molecular gas properties using gas scaling functions derived from the A3COSMOS project. By known galaxies' redshifts or cosmic age, stellar masses, and star formation enhancement to galaxies' star-forming main sequence (Delta MS), the gas scaling functions predict their stellar mass ratio (gas fraction) and gas depletion time.

[ascl:1704.010]
A-Track: Detecting Moving Objects in FITS images

A-Track is a fast, open-source, cross-platform pipeline for detecting moving objects (asteroids and comets) in sequential telescope images in FITS format. The moving objects are detected using a modified line detection algorithm.

[ascl:2209.001]
A-SLOTH: Semi-analytical model to connect first stars and galaxies to observables

A-SLOTH (Ancient Stars and Local Observables by Tracing Halos) connects the formation of the first stars and galaxies to observables. The model is based on dark matter merger trees, on which A-SLOTH applies analytical recipes for baryonic physics to model the formation of both metal-free and metal-poor stars and the transition between them. The software samples individual stars and includes radiative, chemical, and mechanical feedback. A-SLOTH has versatile applications with moderate computational requirements. It can be used to constrain the properties of the first stars and high-z galaxies based on local observables, predicts properties of the oldest and most metal-poor stars in the Milky Way, can serve as a subgrid model for larger cosmological simulations, and predicts next-generation observables of the early Universe, such as supernova rates or gravitational wave events.

[ascl:1312.011]
A_phot: Photon Asymmetry

Photon asymmetry is a novel robust substructure statistic for X-ray cluster observations with only a few thousand counts; it exhibits better stability than power ratios and centroid shifts and has a smaller statistical uncertainty than competing substructure parameters, allowing for low levels of substructure to be measured with confidence. A_phot computes the photon asymmetry (A_phot) parameter for morphological classification of clusters and allows quantifying substructure in samples of distant clusters covering a wide range of observational signal-to-noise ratios. The python scripts are completely automatic and can be used to rapidly classify galaxy cluster morphology for large numbers of clusters without human intervention.

[submitted]
A pseudo GUI with pyplot

Working with a GUI, or adding interaction in plotting, will help a lot in data analysis. However, the common GUI of Python is OS-dependent, while manually adding interactive codes is too complex. A pseudo-GUI tool is introduced in this work. It will help to add buttons/checkers in the graph and assign callback functions to them. The remaining problem is that the documents in this package are in Chinese and will be in English in the next version. This program is published to the PyPI, and can be installed by 'pip install pltgui'.

[submitted]
A Neural Network for the Identification of Dangerous Planetesimals (Including scripts for data generation)

Two neural networks were designed to identify hazardous planetesimals that were trained on object trajectories calculated in a cloud computing environment. The first neural network was fully-connected and was trained on the orbital elements (OEs) of real/simulated planetesimals, while the second was a 1-dimensional convolutional neural network that was trained on the position Cartesian coordinates of real/simulated planetesimals. Ultimately, the network trained on OEs had a better performance by identifying one-third of known potentially hazardous objects including the 3 asteroids with the highest chance of impact with Earth (2009 FD, 1999 RQ36, 1950 DA) as established by NASA's Monte Carlo based Sentry system.

[ascl:1104.014]
A Correction to the Standard Galactic Reddening Map: Passive Galaxies as Standard Crayons

We present corrections to the Schlegel, Finkbeiner, Davis (SFD98) reddening maps over the Sloan Digital Sky Survey northern Galactic cap area. To find these corrections, we employ what we dub the "standard crayon" method, in which we use passively evolving galaxies as color standards by which to measure deviations from the reddening map. We select these passively evolving galaxies spectroscopically, using limits on the H alpha and O II equivalent widths to remove all star-forming galaxies from the SDSS main galaxy catalog. We find that by correcting for known reddening, redshift, color-magnitude relation, and variation of color with environmental density, we can reduce the scatter in color to below 3% in the bulk of the 151,637 galaxies we select. Using these galaxies we construct maps of the deviation from the SFD98 reddening map at 4.5 degree resolution, with 1-sigma error of ~ 1.5 millimagnitudes E(B-V). We find that the SFD98 maps are largely accurate with most of the map having deviations below 3 millimagnitudes E(B-V), though some regions do deviate from SFD98 by as much as 50%. The maximum deviation found is 45 millimagnitudes in E(B-V), and spatial structure of the deviation is strongly correlated with the observed dust temperature, such that SFD98 underpredicts reddening in regions of low dust temperature. The maps of these deviations, as well as their errors, are made available to the scientific community as supplemental correction to SFD98 at the URL below.

[ascl:1708.020]
4DAO: DAOSPEC interface

4DAO launches DAOSPEC (ascl:1011.002) for a large sample of spectra. Written in Fortran, the software allows one to easily manage the input and output files of DAOSPEC, optimize the main DAOSPEC parameters, and mask specific spectral regions. It also provides suitable graphical tools to evaluate the quality of the solution and provides final, normalized, zero radial velocity spectra.

[ascl:2101.001]
3LPT-init: Initial conditions with third-order Lagrangian perturbation for cosmological N-body simulations

In cosmological N-body simulations, higher-order Lagrangian perturbation on the initial condition affects the formation of nonlinear structure. Using this code, the initial condition generated by Zel'dovich approximation (Lagrangian linear perturbation) for Gadget-2 code to initial condition with second- or third-order Lagrangian perturbation (2LPT, 3LPT).

[ascl:1804.018]
3DView: Space physics data visualizer

Génot, V.; Beigbeder, L.; Popescu, D.; Dufourg, N.; Gangloff, M.; Bouchemit, M.; Caussarieu, S.; Toniutti, J.-P.; Durand, J.; Modolo, R.; André, N.; Cecconi, B.; Jacquey, C.; Pitout, F.; Rouillard, A.; Pinto, R.; Erard, S.; Jourdane, N.; Leclercq, L.; Hess, S.; Khodachenko, M.; Al-Ubaidi, T.; Scherf, M.; Budnik, E.

3DView creates visualizations of space physics data in their original 3D context. Time series, vectors, dynamic spectra, celestial body maps, magnetic field or flow lines, and 2D cuts in simulation cubes are among the variety of data representation enabled by 3DView. It offers direct connections to several large databases and uses VO standards; it also allows the user to upload data. 3DView's versatility covers a wide range of space physics contexts.

[ascl:1111.011]
3DEX: Fast Fourier-Bessel Decomposition of Spherical 3D Surveys

High precision cosmology requires analysis of large scale surveys in 3D spherical coordinates, i.e. Fourier-Bessel decomposition. Current methods are insufficient for future data-sets from wide-field cosmology surveys. 3DEX (3D EXpansions) is a public code for fast Fourier-Bessel decomposition of 3D all-sky surveys which takes advantage of HEALPix for the calculation of tangential modes. For surveys with millions of galaxies, computation time is reduced by a factor 4-12 depending on the desired scales and accuracy. The formulation is also suitable for pre-calculations and external storage of the spherical harmonics, which allows for further speed improvements. The 3DEX code can accommodate data with masked regions of missing data. It can be applied not only to cosmological data, but also to 3D data in spherical coordinates in other scientific fields.

[ascl:1805.005]
3DCORE: Forward modeling of solar storm magnetic flux ropes for space weather prediction

Möstl, C.; Amerstorfer, T.; Palmerio, E.; Isavnin, A.; Farrugia, C. J.; Lowder, C.; Winslow, R. M.; Donnerer, J. M.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Boakes, P. D.

3DCORE forward models solar storm magnetic flux ropes called 3-Dimensional Coronal Rope Ejection (3DCORE). The code is able to produce synthetic in situ observations of the magnetic cores of solar coronal mass ejections sweeping over planets and spacecraft. Near Earth, these data are taken currently by the Wind, ACE and DSCOVR spacecraft. Other suitable spacecraft making these kind of observations carrying magnetometers in the solar wind were MESSENGER, Venus Express, MAVEN, and even Helios.

[ascl:1803.010]
3D-PDR: Three-dimensional photodissociation region code

3D-PDR is a three-dimensional photodissociation region code written in Fortran. It uses the Sundials package (written in C) to solve the set of ordinary differential equations and it is the successor of the one-dimensional PDR code UCL_PDR (ascl:1303.004). Using the HEALpix ray-tracing scheme (ascl:1107.018), 3D-PDR solves a three-dimensional escape probability routine and evaluates the attenuation of the far-ultraviolet radiation in the PDR and the propagation of FIR/submm emission lines out of the PDR. The code is parallelized (OpenMP) and can be applied to 1D and 3D problems.

[ascl:1507.001]
3D-Barolo: 3D fitting tool for the kinematics of galaxies

3D-Barolo (3D-Based Analysis of Rotating Object via Line Observations) or BBarolo is a tool for fitting 3D tilted-ring models to emission-line datacubes. BBarolo works with 3D FITS files, i.e. image arrays with two spatial and one spectral dimensions. BBarolo recovers the true rotation curve and estimates the intrinsic velocity dispersion even in barely resolved galaxies (about 2 resolution elements) if the signal to noise of the data is larger than 2-3. It has source-detection and first-estimate modules, making it suitable for analyzing large 3D datasets automatically, and is a useful tool for deriving reliable kinematics for both local and high-redshift galaxies.

[submitted]
3D texturized model of MARS (MOLA) regions

The Matlab Tool generates a 3D model (WRL, texturized in height false color map) of a defined region of the Mars surface. It defines the region of interest of the Mars surface (by Lat Long), a resolution of the MOLA DTMs to be considered (with a minimum px onground of 468 m), a scale factor to be multiplied to the height of the surface to improve features visibility for bumping or shadowing effect.

[ascl:1303.016]
2MASS Kit: 2MASS Catalog Server Kit

2MASS Kit is an open source software for use in easily constructing a high performance search server for important astronomical catalogs. It is tuned for optimal coordinate search performance (Radial Search, Box Search, Rectangular Search) of huge catalogs, thus increasing the speed by more than an order of magnitude when compared to simple indexing on a single table. Optimal conditions enable more than 3,000 searches per second for radial search of 2MASS PSC. The kit is best characterized by its flexible tuning. Each table index is registered in one of six table spaces (each resides in a separate directory), thus allowing only the essential parts to be easily moved onto fast devices. Given the terrific evolution that has taken place with recent SSDs in performance, a very cost-effective way of constructing high-performance servers is moving part of or all table indices to a fast SSD.

[ascl:1201.005]
2LPTIC: 2nd-order Lagrangian Perturbation Theory Initial Conditions

Setting initial conditions in numerical simulations using the standard procedure based on the Zel'dovich approximation (ZA) generates incorrect second and higher-order growth and therefore excites long-lived transients in the evolution of the statistical properties of density and velocity fields. Using more accurate initial conditions based on second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) reduces transients significantly; initial conditions based on 2LPT are thus much more appropriate for numerical simulations devoted to precision cosmology. The 2LPTIC code provides initial conditions for running cosmological simulations based on second-order Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (2LPT), rather than first-order (Zel'dovich approximation).

[ascl:1808.007]
2DSF: Vectorized Structure Function Algorithm

The vectorized physical domain structure function (SF) algorithm calculates the velocity anisotropy within two-dimensional molecular line emission observations. The vectorized approach is significantly faster than brute force iterative algorithms and is very efficient for even relatively large images. Furthermore, unlike frequency domain algorithms which require the input data to be fully integrable, this algorithm, implemented in Python, has no such requirements, making it a robust tool for observations with irregularities such as asymmetric boundaries and missing data.

[ascl:2211.013]
2DFFTUtils: 2DFFT Utilities implementation

The Python module 2DFFTUtils implements tasks associated with measuring spiral galaxy pitch angle with 2DFFT (ascl:1608.015). Since most of the 2DFFT utilities are implemented in one place, it makes preparing images for 2DFFT and dealing with 2DFFT data interactively or in scripts event easier.

[ascl:1608.015]
2DFFT: Measuring Galactic Spiral Arm Pitch Angle

Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel C.; Shields, Douglas W.; Kennefick, Julia; Kennefick, Daniel; Seigar, Marc S.; Lacy, Claud H. S.; Puerari, Ivânio

2DFFT utilizes two-dimensional fast Fourier transformations of images of spiral galaxies to isolate and measure the pitch angles of their spiral arms; this provides a quantitative way to measure this morphological feature and allows comparison of spiral galaxy pitch angle to other galactic parameters and test spiral arm genesis theories. 2DFFT requires fourn.c from *Numerical Recipes in C* (Press et al. 1989).

P2DFFT (ascl:1806.011) is a parallelized version of 2DFFT.

[ascl:1505.015]
2dfdr: Data reduction software

2dfdr is an automatic data reduction pipeline dedicated to reducing multi-fibre spectroscopy data, with current implementations for AAOmega (fed by the 2dF, KOALA-IFU, SAMI Multi-IFU or older SPIRAL front-ends), HERMES, 2dF (spectrograph), 6dF, and FMOS. A graphical user interface is provided to control data reduction and allow inspection of the reduced spectra.

[ascl:2005.012]
2DBAT: 2D Bayesian Automated Tilted-ring fitter

2DBAT implements Bayesian fits of 2D tilted-ring models to derive rotation curves of galaxies. It performs 2D tilted-ring analysis based on a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, thus quantifying the kinematic geometry of galaxy discs, and deriving high-quality rotation curves that can be used for mass modeling of baryons and dark matter halos.

[ascl:2006.004]
2D-FFTLog: Generalized FFTLog algorithm for non-Gaussian covariance matrices

2D-FFTLog takes the FFTLog algorithm for 1D Hankel transforms and generalizes it for 2D Hankel transforms. The algorithm is useful for efficiently computing non-Gaussian covariance matrices of cosmological 2-point statistics in configuration space from Fourier space covariances. Fast bin-averaging method is also developed for both the logarithmic binning and general binning choices. C and Python versions of the code are available.

[ascl:2402.010]
2cosmos: Monte Python modification for two independent instances of CLASS

2cosmos is a modification of Monte Python (ascl:1307.002) and allows the user to write likelihood modules that can request two independent instances of CLASS (ascl:1106.020) and separate dictionaries and structures for all cosmological and nuisance parameters. The intention is to be able to evaluate two independent cosmological calculations and their respective parameters within the same likelihood. This is useful for evaluating a likelihood using correlated datasets (e.g. mutually exclusive subsets of the same dataset for which one wants to take into account all correlations between the subsets).

[ascl:2307.008]
21cmvFAST: Adding dark matter-baryon relative velocities to 21cmFAST

21cmvFAST demonstrates that including dark matter (DM)-baryon relative velocities produces velocity-induced acoustic oscillations (VAOs) in the 21-cm power spectrum. Based on 21cmFAST (ascl:1102.023) and 21CMMC (ascl:1608.017), 21cmvFAST accounts for molecular-cooling haloes, which are expected to drive star formation during cosmic dawn, as both relative velocities and Lyman-Werner feedback suppress halo formation. This yields accurate 21-cm predictions all the way to reionization (z>~10).

[ascl:1609.013]
21cmSense: Calculating the sensitivity of 21cm experiments to the EoR power spectrum

21cmSense calculates the expected sensitivities of 21cm experiments to the Epoch of Reionization power spectrum. Written in Python, it requires NumPy, SciPy, and AIPY (ascl:1609.012).

[ascl:1608.017]
21CMMC: Parallelized Monte Carlo Markov Chain analysis tool for the epoch of reionization (EoR)

21CMMC is an efficient Python sampler of the semi-numerical reionization simulation code 21cmFAST (ascl:1102.023). It can recover constraints on astrophysical parameters from current or future 21 cm EoR experiments, accommodating a variety of EoR models, as well as priors on individual model parameters and the reionization history. By studying the resulting impact on the EoR astrophysical constraints, 21CMMC can be used to optimize foreground cleaning algorithms; interferometer designs; observing strategies; alternate statistics characterizing the 21cm signal; and synergies with other observational programs.

[ascl:1102.023]
21cmFAST: A Fast, Semi-Numerical Simulation of the High-Redshift 21-cm Signal

21cmFAST is a powerful semi-numeric modeling tool designed to efficiently simulate the cosmological 21-cm signal. The code generates 3D realizations of evolved density, ionization, peculiar velocity, and spin temperature fields, which it then combines to compute the 21-cm brightness temperature. Although the physical processes are treated with approximate methods, the results were compared to a state-of-the-art large-scale hydrodynamic simulation, and the findings indicate good agreement on scales pertinent to the upcoming observations (>~ 1 Mpc). The power spectra from 21cmFAST agree with those generated from the numerical simulation to within 10s of percent, down to the Nyquist frequency. Results were shown from a 1 Gpc simulation which tracks the cosmic 21-cm signal down from z=250, highlighting the various interesting epochs. Depending on the desired resolution, 21cmFAST can compute a redshift realization on a single processor in just a few minutes. The code is fast, efficient, customizable and publicly available, making it a useful tool for 21-cm parameter studies.

[ascl:2312.013]
21cmEMU: 21cmFAST summaries emulator

Breitman, Daniela; Mesinger, Andrei; Murray, Steven; Prelogović, David; Qin, Yuxiang; Trotta, Roberto

21cmEMU emulates 21cmFAST (ascl:1102.023) summary statistics, among them the 21-cm power spectrum, 21-cm global brightness temperature, IGM spin temperature, and neutral fraction. It also emulates the Thomson scattering optical depth and UV luminosity functions. With 21cmFAST installed, parameters can be supplied direction to 21cmEMU, and 21cmEMU can be used for, for example, analytic calculations of *tau _{e}* and UV luminosity functions. The code is included as an alternative simulator in 21cmMC (ascl:1608.017).

[ascl:2103.001]
21cmDeepLearning: Matter density map extractor

21cmDeepLearning extracts the underlying matter density map from a 21 cm intensity field by making use of a convolutional neural network (CNN) with the U-Net architecture; the software is implemented in Pytorch. The astrophysical parameters of the simulations can be predicted with a secondary CNN. The simulations of matter density and 21 cm maps are performed with the code 21cmFAST (ascl:1102.023).

[ascl:1604.006]
2-DUST: Dust radiative transfer code

2-DUST is a general-purpose dust radiative transfer code for an axisymmetric system that reveals the global energetics of dust grains in the shell and the 2-D projected morphologies of the shell that are strongly dependent on the mixed effects of the axisymmetric dust distribution and inclination angle. It can be used to model a variety of axisymmetric astronomical dust systems.

[ascl:2306.019]
*realfast*: Real-time interferometric data analysis for the VLA

Law, C. J.; Bower, G. C.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Butler, B. J.; Demorest, P.; Halle, A.; Khudikyan, S.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Pokorny, M.; Robnett, J.; Rupen, M. P.

The transient search pipeline *realfast* integrates with the real-time environment at the Very Large Array (VLA) to look for fast radio bursts, pulsars, and other rare astrophysical transients. The software monitors multicast messages, catches visibility data, and defines a fast transient search pipeline with rfpipe (ascl:1710.002). It indexes candidate transients and other metadata for the search interface, and writes and archives new visibility files for candidate transients. *realfast* provides support for GPU algorithms, manages distributed futures, and performs blind injection and management of mock transients, among other tasks, and rapidly distributes data products and transient alerts to the public.

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